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Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a category of hyperglycemic metabolic disorders due to insulin secretion,
insulin action or two defects (Huether & McCance, 2017). According to The American Diabetes
Association (ADA), there are four DM categories, including: Type I, Type II, other specific types, and
gestational diabetes (Huether & McCance, 2017). DM is a heterogeneous, hyperglycemia-defined
condition (Hammer & McPhee, 2014).
Type I DM usually affects people under 30 years of age. It is the most prevalent chronic pediatric disease
and affects 0.17% of US children and is growing (Huether & McCance, 2017). Autoimmune killings of
pancreatic β cells with a resulting severe insulin deficiency is typically characterized by type I DM
(Hammer & McPhee, 2014).
Type II DM affects 9.3% of adults in the US and varies in many different ways from Type I DM (Huether &
McCance, 2017). It is often linked to obesity, which raises the tolerance to insulin (Hammer & McPhee
2014). Resistance to insulin is described as an insulin-sensitive tissue's suboptimal response to insulin,
particularly liver, muscle and adipose (Huether & McCance, 2017). Several pathways contribute to
insulin resistance and are implicated in abnormalities in the signaling pathway of insulin (Huether &
McCance, 2017).
Diabetes Insipidus
A person with DI cannot concentrate urine and thus conserve water due to lack of vasopressin action
(Hammer & McPhee, 2014). Lack of ADH activity causes large amounts of diluted urine to be lost and the
plasma osmolacies to increase (Huether & McCance, 2017). Dehydration develops quickly, and when the
urine loses water and hyperosmolality occurs, with serum hypernatremia (Huether and McCance 2017)
and continuous fluid replacement. Two forms of DI exist: neurogenic and nephrogenic. DI care is
dependent on the degree of ADH deficiency and the age, cardiovascular and endocrine status and
lifestyle of the patient (Huether & McCance 2017).
DI is an exceedingly common type-II DM-type disorder in the adult (Palumbo, Nicolaci, La Manna, Branek
& Pissano 2018). DI is a rare neuro-hypophysical condition. DI affects the development of hypothalamus
and ADH, while DM affects the production of pancreas and insulin. DI is a polydipsic polyuric syndrome,
which should be distinguished from type II DM (Palumbo et al. 2018). The signs of both are the biggest
link between DI and DM. The manifestation of both processes is polyuria and thirst, for example. The
mechanisms of these diseases are also related in that they affect the secretion and function of essential
body processes. The treatment of diabetes dioxide and diabetes diabetes varies considerably because
insulin is not used for the treatment of diabetic diarrhea.
Patient Factors
The diagnosis and treatment of these two diabetes was influenced by age and genetics. Type I DM is the
most commonly diagnosed chronic illness in pediatrics, although findings are uncommon over the first 9
months of life and peaks at the age of 12 years (Huether & McCance, 2017). The genetic component of
Type I DM also involves 10 percent to 13 percent of newly diagnosed Type I DM with a first degree
relative to Type I DM (Huether and McCance, 2017). While Type II DM is frequently seen in adults, Type
II DM is more prevalent in children, in particular in obese kids (Huether & McCance, 2017).
Nephrogenic DI is typically inherited or can be hereditary and there have been reported various genetic
causes of nephrogenic DI (Huether & McCance 2017). A mutation in the aquaporin-2 gene that codes is
one of the four waterways used in renal tubules is one of the best defined (Huether & McCance, 2017).
Such mutations and renal tubular damage may lead to irreversible DI (Huether & McCance, 2017).
Hammer, G. G. , & McPhee, S. (2014). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine.
(7th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
Palumbo, C., Nicolaci, N., La Manna, A.A, Branek, N. & Pissano, M.N. (2018). Association between central
diabetes insipidus and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Medicina (Buenos Aires), Vol 78, Iss 2, Pp 127-130
(2018), (2), 127. Retrieved from
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