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Ia geta mosta ofa mya newsa froma thea morninga TVa news.a Ia tenda toa analyzea whata Ia heara anda viewa
bya comparinga whata onea stationa saysa toa another.a Additionally,a Ia willa havea conversationsa witha
friendsa anda familya abouta whata wea alla learneda toa seea howa wea eacha interpreteda it.Asa aa citizen,a
Ia geta involveda ina thea governmentala processa mosta directlya bya castinga mya votea everya election.a
Priora toa elections,a Ia applya criticala thinkinga duringa thea processa ofa learninga abouta thea
candidates.a Ia finda ita imperativea toa learna asa mucha asa Ia cana abouta theira viewpoints,a analyzea theira
tracka records,a anda comparea theira ideasa toa mya owna waysa ofa thinkinga priora toa castinga mya
vote.Populara appeala isa aa fallacya Ia oftena seea ina advertisinga thata Ia tenda toa spota rathera quicklya
anda dismiss.a Commercialsa fora carsa area particularlya guiltya ofa thisa ina thata theya makea ita seema asa
thougha everyonea isa givinga thea gifta ofa aa cara fora Christmasa ora youra lifea willa bea morea likea
peoplea youa admirea ifa youa geta aa newa car.a Ia plana toa bea aa morea mindfula consumera bya trulya
listeninga toa whata isa beinga pitcheda toa mea beforea makinga purchasinga decisions,a asa wella asa
doinga comparisona shopping.Mya favoritea parta ofa thisa classa wasa learninga thea differenta
communicationa styles,a findinga mya own,a anda findinga thosea ofa familya members.a Ia thinka thisa
willa helpa usa witha oura internala communications.a Thea mosta difficulta parta fora mea wasa thea
segmenta ona arguments,a becausea Ia tenda toa bea heavilya influenceda bya mya owna personala biases.a Ia
typicallya geta mya informationa froma majora newsa outletsa sucha asa MSNBC.a Ia prefera sourcesa thata
usea factuala evidencea toa leada theira reporting.a Ia feela bya watchinga newsa channels,a readinga
articlesa anda doinga overalla researcha toa becomea informeda ona governmenta proceedingsa isa thea
besta waya toa bea involved.a However,a nota alla sourcesa area reliablea so,a Ia usea mya criticala thinkinga
toa cyphera through,a toa thea besta ofa mya ability,a anda determinea whata isa actuallya true.a Ia trya toa finda
sourcesa thata willa keepa personala biasa outa anda showa botha sidesa ofa thea argument.a Thisa reasoninga
hasa leada mea toa outletsa sucha asa MSNBC;a thea programa includesa showsa thata area leada froma botha
politicala parties,a anda willa quicklya correcta themselvesa ifa therea isa evera aa misleadinga report.a
Whena consuminga politicala newsa Ia avoida propaganda,a whicha area typicallya fallaciesa ina mya
opinion.a Fora example,a therea hasa beena candidatesa whoa usea propagandaa sucha as,a alla immigrantsa
area criminals,a whicha isa aa blatanta liea buta unfortunatelya somea viewa thisa asa truea duea toa
stereotypes.a Ia loveda beinga ablea toa usea thea lessonsa ina thisa classa toa selfa evaluate.a Ia havea learneda
newa skillsa toa sharpena mya criticala thinking.a
Businessa Profession
Businessa professionalsa needa toa solvea problems,a analyzea dataa anda information,a drawa
conclusions,a anda makea decisions,a alla ofa whicha area elementsa ina criticala thinking.a Usinga criticala
thinkinga skillsa toa tapa intoa one’sa creativitya toa solvea problemsa isa paramounta fora successfula
managementa anda entrepreneurs.
Educationa Profession
Educatorsa area responsiblea fora teachinga thea necessarya skillsa toa bea successfula ina life,a anda
criticala thinkinga skillsa area ata thea topa ofa thea list.a Educatorsa alsoa needa toa thinka througha thea besta
waysa toa teacha thea curriculuma soa thata theira studentsa area morea successfula ina theira learninga
processes.
Humanitiesa Profession
Whethera youa area seekinga youra degreea ina English,a Humana Services,a Sociala Science,a ora
anothera humanities-baseda profession,a youa area goinga toa needa toa applya criticala thinkinga skillsa
toa bea successful.a Toa helpa others,a youa needa toa bea ablea toa thinka througha thea possiblea optionsa
anda decidea upona thea besta coursea ofa action.
Informationa Technologya (Computer)a Profession
Thea ITa industrya changesa rapidly,a anda thosea workinga ina thata fielda needa toa bea ablea toa keepa up.a
Ita isa nota enougha toa learna howa somethinga isa donea todaya a youa needa toa bea ablea toa thinka
criticallya abouta wherea thea industrya isa heading.
Medicala Profession
Asa witha science-baseda professions,a thea medicala communitya usesa thea Scientifica Methoda toa
determinea thea besta treatmentsa fora patients’a ailments.a Thea Scientifica Methoda isa aa structureda
waya toa applya criticala thinkinga skills.a Scientistsa doa nota comea upa witha aa theorya anda thena trya toa
fita thea factsa intoa thata theory.a Instead,a theya followa wherea thea factsa leada thema anda forma theoriesa
thata explaina thea fact.
Psychologya ora Counselinga Profession
Toa helpa peoplea witha theira personala and/ora professionala problems,a onea needsa toa bea ablea toa
thinka througha thea possiblea optionsa anda decidea upona thea besta coursea ofa action.
Science-baseda Profession
Thea Scientifica Methoda isa aa structureda waya toa applya criticala thinkinga skills.a Scientistsa doa nota
comea upa witha aa theorya anda thena trya toa fita thea factsa intoa thata theory.a Instead,a theya followa
wherea thea factsa leada thema anda forma theoriesa thata explaina thea fact.a Fora thea mosta parta Ia geta mya
newsa froma mostlya locala newsa stationsa ina mya areaa thata covera topicsa thata coulda possiblya effecta
mea thea most.a Ia analyzea whata Ia heara froma locala anda nationala newsa outletsa verya carefullya toa
ensurea thata Ia ama nota beinga misleada toa believea aa certaina agendaa ora narrative.a Ia usuallya researcha
multiplea sourcesa ofa newsa fora thea samea storya toa makea surea Ia geta alla thea details.a Asa aa citizen,a
thea besta waya toa geta involveda ina youra governmenta locala ora nationala isa toa vote.a Votinga isa nota
onlya youra civica dutya buta votinga allowsa thea citizena toa exercisea theira righta toa keepa politiciansa
accountable.a Whena votinga ina ana electiona youa usinga criticala thinkinga becausea youa havea toa
makea aa decisiona ona policiesa anda thea persona ina thata office.Rhetorica isa useda especiallya duringa
ana electiona seasona bya thea candidatesa runninga fora office.a Ana examplea ofa thea rhetorica isa aa
campaigna commercial.a Youa willa frequentlya heara advertisementsa thata favora aa candidatea overa
thea othera candidatea thata isa runninga againsta thea othera person.a Ia havea enjoyeda thea entirea classa
epicallya learninga abouta fallacies,a criticala thinkinga anda arguments.a Ia havea enjoyeda thisa classa
anda woulda highlya recommenda ita toa peoplea startinga ata thea Universitya ofa Phoenix.a Ia geta mosta ofa
mya infoa froma Facebooka becausea everyonea talksa abouta everything.a Thea waya Ia analyzea ita anda
justifya ifa thingsa beinga saida area reala isa bya lookinga ita upa ona googlea toa seea what'sa truea ora false.a Ia
likea toa visita multiplea sitesa toa makea surea mya informationa isa accurate.Ona aa personala levela Ia doa
nota geta intoa thea governmentala process.a Onea reasona isa becausea Ia ama ina thea militarya anda ita doesa
nota looka professionala ifa Ia geta intoa it.a Anda Ia doa nota geta intoa ita becausea Ia reallya doa nota knowa aa
wholea lota abouta it.a Mya newsa comesa froma thea radioa anda interneta sitesa likea MSN.a Asa aa criticala
thinker,a Ia doa analyzea whata aa heara anda read,a knowinga thata aa lota ofa informationa provideda isa biasa
baseda ona thea viewpointsa ofa thea commentatora ora author.a Asa aa citizen,a Ia havea writtena ea mailsa toa
mya senatora anda representativea ofa mya districta toa geta mya opiniona heard.a Mya criticala thinkinga
skillsa havea helpeda mea geta mya pointa across,a beinga well-informeda anda rationala ina mya writinga
makesa ita easiera fora thema toa understand.Thea mosta commona fallacya seea isa thea inappropriatea
appeala toa authoritya ina advertisements.a Thea advertisersa usea aa pro-athletea ora celebritya whoa isa
populara ata thea timea toa geta youa toa purchasea theira product.a Asa aa criticala thinker,a Ia woulda nota
buya aa Lincolna car,a justa becausea Mathewa McConaugheya isa thea spokespersona fora thea brand.a Ia
woulda researcha ifa thea branda isa reliablea anda affordablea toa makea aa sounda decision.Mya favoritea
activitya wasa learninga abouta fallacies,a beinga ablea toa identifya thea fallacya Ia hearda ora seena wasa
educational.a Thea mosta challenginga activitya wasa findinga thea correcta articlea ina weeka four’sa
homeworka assignment.a Youa musta clarifya youra searcha toa geta thea correcta articles,a thata area mosta
helpful.a Ia geta mosta ofa mya newsa ona thea internet.a Ia nevera likea toa goa toa aa specifica source,a theya
tenda toa tella thea sidea ofa thea storya theya want.a Ina mya opiniona mosta area verya biased.a Fora examplea
I'lla goa toa CNNa anda Foxa newsa fora updatesa ona politics.a I'lla looka upa thea samea subject,a I'lla thena
analyzea thea differencesa anda goa toa thea commenta sectionsa toa seea howa peoplea area reactinga anda
feelinga abouta thea matter.a Bya doinga thata ita allowsa mea toa forma mya opiniona whilea alsoa hearinga
differenta viewa points.Asa aa citizena youa cana takea differenta stepsa toa geta involveda ina thea
governmentala process.a Youa cana contacta governmenta officials.a Youa cana alsoa participatea ina thea
votinga elections.a Thisa yeara ita wasa madea easiera asa wea werea givena differenta optionsa toa casta oura
votes.a Whena involveda ina thesea activitiesa it'sa importanta toa analyze,a sticka toa thea factsa anda
removea thea emotiona parta ofa it,a anda reallya lookinga ata thea macroa level.a Asa wella asa thea desireda
besta outcomea fora alla partiesa involved.Ina everya successfula businessa it'sa importanta toa usea thea arta
ofa rhetorica ina ordera toa appeala toa theira targeteda audiencea anda convincea thema toa makea thea
purchase.a Thea mosta commona onea Ia seea isa beautya products.a Theya willa usea celebritiesa toa
advertisea theira productsa anda convincea thea consumera thata theya asa wella cana looka likea them.a It'sa
importanta toa applya criticala thinkinga anda reada whata ingredientsa area ina thea products,a reada
reviewsa anda makea aa decisiona toa buya baseda ona that.a Mya favouritea classa activitya wasa reallya thea
interactiona ona oura postsa anda seeinga howa everyonea processeda thea samea informationa wea werea
given.a Ia alsoa enjoyeda thea quicka videosa asa theya werea informativea anda straighta toa thea point.a
Mosta challenginga Ia woulda saya fora mea wasa thea firsta weeka justa gettinga intoa thea flowa ofa thea
classroom.a I'ma nota biga ona sociala mediaa soa Ia don'ta geta mucha ofa mya newsa froma there,a buta manya
ofa mya friendsa *are*a biga ona sociala mediaa wherea newsa travelsa likea wildfire.a Mosta ofa thea timea
thea waya thata Ia learna abouta currenta eventsa isa onea ofa mya friendsa mentionsa it,a Ia googlea it,a anda Ia
reada thea firsta fewa articles.
Fora starters,a Ia vote.a Votinga isa aa massivea exercisea ina criticala thinkinga -a anya anda alla partiesa youa
coulda bea votinga fora area tryinga toa persuadea youa toa votea fora them.a Ifa youa don'ta thinka criticallya
anda ignore/avoida thea persuasionsa ofa thea candidates,a youa maya enda upa supportinga someonea thata
doesn'ta yielda thea besta outcome.
I'vea seena thea Ada Hominema fallacya useda countlessa timesa ina advertising.a Peoplea thinka insultsa
area funny,a soa usinga ana insulta againsta youra competitora asa aa reasona toa buya youra producta makesa
peoplea laugha anda likea youra product.
I'da saya mya favoritea wasa thea breakdowna ofa typesa ofa argumentsa anda thea visuala outlinesa ofa them.a
Ita madea aa lota ofa sense,a wasa engaging,a anda madea mea comea outa ofa ita feelinga likea Ia hada reallya
learneda something.a Thea mosta challenginga concepta fora mea wasa thea concepta ofa empathya beinga
aa corea componenta ofa criticala thinking.a Ia understanda ita now,a buta ita stilla doesn'ta makea aa lota ofa
rationala sensea toa me.a Ia geta mya newsa froma severala sources.a Ia watcha networka newsa froma oura
Portlanda affiliatesa anda thena thea Nationala newsa froma eithera ABCa ora CBS.a Ia alsoa watcha thea
Publica Broadcastinga Newsa Houra toa geta aa broadera looka ata thea news.a Somethinga witha aa littlea
morea deptha ina theira coverage.a Ia thinka thata sincea Ia starteda takinga thisa class,a mya minda hasa
starteda toa questiona everythinga Ia hear.a Ia questiona whethera thea factsa area valida anda ifa theya area
layinga somea fallacy.a Mosta ofa whata Ia heara latelya isa aa relevanta story,a buta witha whata isa goinga ona
ina oura Nation'sa Capitala thesea lasta fewa days,a thea lista ofa fallacy’sa cominga outa ofa President’sa
moutha causesa mea greata concern.a
Thea biggesta thinga thata Ia cana doa isa toa vote.a Thata isa thea biggesta thinga thata anybodya cana do.a Ia
alsoa spenta 8a yearsa workinga ina Radio.a Ia wasa aa Newscastera ata onea ofa oura locala radioa stations.a Ia
reporteda ona locala areaa news,a Citya Councila meetings,a anda alla ofa thea workingsa ofa citya anda
countya governments.a Onea ofa thea rewardsa ofa workinga therea wasa Ia workeda fora aa sittinga
Congressmana anda hada alla thea statea anda Nationala Senatorsa anda Congressmena comea througha
anda Ia woulda geta toa interviewa them.a Ita wasa aa greata honora toa havea meta eacha ofa thema duringa mya
timea asa aa newscaster.a Backa then,a mya criticala thinkinga skillsa werea alla righta buta nota asa gooda asa
theya area now.a Therea werea aa fewa ofa thea peoplea thata Ia intervieweda thata whata Ia woulda calla
“Quotinga thea Partya line”a anda dida nota expressa howa theya felta abouta ana issue,a buta theya werea alla
wella informeda anda werea aa credita toa thea officea thata theya served.a
Ia willa focusa mya attentiona ona thea commercialsa thata usea Rhetoricala Devices.a Thesea
commercialsa usea differenta usea ofa languagea thata isa harda toa understanda ifa youa area nota careful.a
Languagea sucha asa euphemisms.a Sarcasma toa geta theira pointa acrossa toa thea consumer.a Thesea
typesa ofa adsa area fora makinga aa quicka bucka onlya anda doa nota carea howa theya geta theira pointa
across.a Whata wea musta doa asa consumersa area toa whata outa fora thesea typesa ofa adsa anda soa senda
thema toa thea curb.a Realizea thema fora whata theya area anda toa ignorea them.a
Ia woulda havea toa saya thata learninga abouta alla ofa thea diversea waysa thata thea Massa Mediaa usesa toa
tricka alla ofa usa toa buya whata wea doa nota need.a Ia havea alwaysa hada aa gooda heada ona mya shoulders.a
Anda Ia wasa taughta toa thinka fora myself,a buta sincea Ia havea takena thisa class,a Ia certainlya havea aa lota
morea toa thinka about.a Thea mosta challenginga thinga isa that.a “whata Ia knowa isa nota nearlya enougha
ofa whata Ia shoulda know.”a Ifa thata makesa sense.a Therea isa soa mucha thata Ia nowa musta learna justa toa
geta caughta up.a Thisa isa somethinga thata Ia willa keepa learninga froma nowa on.a Regardinga mya newsa
anda information,a Ia seeka ana unbiaseda newsa sourcea thata presentsa thea storya factually,a withouta
anya spina towarda politicala stancea ora benefita froma thea broadcastinga company.a Whena obtaininga
informationa froma anya source,a Ia applya thea mnemonica devicea CCRCSa asa aa criteriaa checklist.a Ia
analyzea thea clarity,a credibilitya (onea ofa thea mosta significanta componenta toa newsa anda
information,a Ia believe),a conciseness,a relevance,a completeness,a anda soundness.a
Wea livea ina aa vociferousa world,a wherea therea isa ana infinitea amounta ofa informationa assessable.a
Therea isa aa largea amounta ofa misinformationa beinga publisheda anda feeda toa oura society.a
Accordinga toa Bossa (2016),a informationa cana bea distorteda bya cognitivea anda sociala errorsa sucha
asa confirmationa bias,a probabilitya error,a anda thea "onea ofa us/onea ofa them"a error.a Now,a morea
than---a ever,a ita isa essentiala fora usa toa bea criticala thinkersa anda applya oura criticala thinkinga skillsa
toa ensurea wea receivea accuratea anda creditablea informationa toa bea well-informeda individualsa anda
nota justa opinionated.a Asa citizensa anda communitya membersa ofa aa greata society,a wea cana geta
involveda ina thea governmentala processa bya volunteeringa ina locala politicala campaigns,a votinga
anda elections,a lobbyinga legislators,a joininga advocacya groups,a servinga ona juries,a anda engaginga
ina civila disobediencea toa protesta unjusta laws.a Althougha mucha ofa advertising,a commercials,a
etc.,a cana bea informative,a theya area fallacya ora rhetoric.a Manya adsa relya ona fallaciesa anda
psychologicala persuasiona rathera thana crediblea informationa anda rationala argumentation.a Fora
example,a Scarea tacticsa area useda toa createa anxietya ora playa ona oura fears,a insecurities,a ora sensea
ofa shame.a Wea area tolda thata wea area nota good-lookinga ora thina enough,a havea bada breath,a bodya
odor,a ora dandruff,a havea ana unattractivea personalitya ora thea wronga clothes,a ora area poora parents.a
Thea ada thena promisesa aa solutiona toa thea problemwhicha ina somea cases,a wea didn'ta realizea wea
hada ina thea firsta place.a Althougha somea adsa thata usea scarea tacticsa promotea productsa thata maya
delivera ona theira promises,a othersa goa ona toa commita thea fallacya ofa questionablea causea bya
creatinga aa falsea expectationa thata somethinga wonderful,a sucha asa becominga morea beautiful,a
thinner,a morea popular,a ora happier,a willa resulta ifa wea usea thea product.Oura societya isa beinga studya
anda targeteda fora financiala gain.a Advertisersa exploita oura vulnerabilities;a wea buya impulsively,a
anda theya capitalizea ona it.a Becausea manya marketersa doa nota havea ana ethicala ora morala
obligation,a theya doa nota considera thea broadera sociala anda environmentala implicationsa ofa theira
producta hasa ona oura society.a Anda thisa isa whya ita is---a cruciala toa bea aa criticala thinker,a soa wea cana
bea aware,a a analyze,a anda informeda ofa howa productsa willa affecta us,a gooda ora bad.a Ia doa nota havea
onea favoritea activitya ora concepta froma thisa class.a Ia believea alla thea activitiesa anda conceptsa werea
significanta anda beneficiala toa mya learninga anda growtha asa aa collegea student.a Thougha Ia
considereda myselfa aa "good"a criticala thinkera beforea thisa class,a Ia feela thisa coursea challengeda mea
toa becomea ana excellenta criticala thinkera anda provideda mea witha excellenta informationa anda
resources.a Learninga thea mnemonica devicea CCRCSa wasa thea besta tipa Ia gained.a Thea CCRCSa
enablesa mea toa havea aa structureda outlinea fora analyzinga anda processinga dataa anda developinga
anda forminga opinionsa anda decisions.a
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