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NASC 1001 - Environmental Science
Land tenure system in Rimoi is customary. Land principally belongs to each of the sub-clans of the
communities within the area. Clan land is sub-divided into extended families by the clan elders, and
family land further sub-divided into parcels to nuclear families. Land in the highlands from the
escarpment to the upper part of the valley has long been sub-divided into extended families since
the 1980s. While communal land that lies in the lower parts of the valley started being sub-divided
into families in1988, after more people started migrating from the highlands and the escarpments to
settle in the Valley. Traditionally, land is owned by males who also only inherit land and other
property. Land sub-division has resulted in individual family members having very small pieces of
land. This has led to families determining age at which individuals may inherit land. Those that are
not likely to inherit land are expected to buy land elsewhere. Even under the customary land tenure
system, individual rights to ownership of plots have been well recognized. Purchase and rental
contracts of plots within Rimoi eco-system location are common. While individual rights to land
and boundaries have been well recognized, land could be used as open grazing areas for the whole
clan members, it is only marked with posts or stones.
Overlapping of the land tenure was not a big problem when there was low population and fewer
households were engaged in intensive agriculture. But as population increased, sub-divided land
became smaller and smaller. Educational needs necessitated sale of livestock and cultivation of cash
crops. Fencing started in 1978 and became more obvious after the 1990s leading to reduced
communal grazing. Owners of fenced lands demand high compensation for damage caused by
livestock straying from neighbour’s lands and these has posed problems to wildlife movement. This
has discouraged households from keeping large herds of indigenous livestock, and shift to intensive
livestock management with exotic animals. The customary land tenure system in Rimoi eco-system
has not inhibited individualization /privatization of land. However, livelihood changes have led to
fencing of open areas, which may lead to conflicts between intensive farming, extensive grazing
and wildlife movement
The study focused on the relationship between effects of land use/tenure (human activities) which
acted as independent variables and wildlife dispersal areas and movement corridors which was
dependent variable between 1985-2010.
 No land sub-division
 No fencing
 No selling
 Existence of Forest
 Grazing field
 Co-existence with wildlife
 Dispersal areas available
 Movement corridors available
 Breeding/mating continuity
Land use before
Land use practices &
Land use practice
after 1980’s
Planning intervenons
 Land sub-division
 Land fencing
 Inheritance
 Increase in human settlement
 Increase in human activities
 No dispersal area
 Diminishing grazing land
 Increase in human/wildlife conflicts
 Blockage of corridors
 Breeding /mating interfered
Source: Adapted with modification from Kantamaturapoj, 2005
Figure 1.2: Conceptual framework of Land use and its’ effects on wildlife
dispersal areas and migratory corridors
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