Running head: Victimology 1
Victimology is a branch of criminology that studies scientifically victim’s behavior and
characteristics, the connection with the offender and the effects the crime has on. It has a focus
on whether the perpetrators were acquaintances or complete strangers, family members, friends
or intimates and the reason the particular was targeted (Doerner, 2017).
There are various types of victimology that entail: Penal Victimology. This type views
the victims legally and uses criminal law to define victimization. It focuses on the part of victim
in criminal justice and the interaction of the victim and the offender. It queries on how the victim
share responsibility in the crime since it takes two for a crime to occur. It is however highly
General Victimology: It is much broader than the penal criminology and looks into five
categories of victimization: self, criminal, social-environmental, natural disaster and
technological. It does not restrict the study just to crime victims. It opens up victimology studies
to participants beyond the criminal justice.
Theoretical Victimology: It is an extension of the penal victimology. It endeavors to give
an explanation on the influence of the victim on crime via data collection, analysis and
developing theories. There are several theoretical models to try to give an explanation on the risk
variation, parallels of the behavior of victim and the reason behind repeat victimization. They
focus on the victim’s interactions and demographics and the interactions with the offender
Critical criminology: Focus on comprehending the wider social environment in which the
crime occurs. It studies how for instance some groups for instance, lower class, women and
racial minorities are at a higher risk of victimization. Focus on the most vulnerable in the
community and how it puts them at a higher risk of victimization.
On this module I was able to get a broader perspective on crime other than just a focus on
criminals. A crime is therefore a combination of various aspects including the victim and the
environment in which the crime takes place.
Clevenger, S., Navarro, J. N., Marcum, C. D., & Higgins, G. E. (2018).!Understanding victimology: an
active-learning approach. Routledge.
Doerner, W. G. (2017).!Victimology. Routledge.