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Running§ Head:§ SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ 1
Relationship§ between§ Spirituality§ and§ Job§ Satisfaction§ in§ the§ Workplace
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 2
Abstract§
In§ contemporary§ times,§ the§ topic§ relating§ to§ job§ satisfaction§ and§ spirituality§
has§ gained§ considerable§ attention.§ The§ topic§ has§ gained§ value§ and§ gratitude§ among§
professionals§ and§ academicians§ alike§ (Hassan§ et§ al.,§ 2016),§ the§ areas§ are§ being§
researched§ to§ understand§ how§ spirituality§ impacts§ the§ job§ satisfaction§ of§
professionals.§ The§ study§ has§ been§ conducted§ to§ find§ the§ association§ between§ the§
variables§ § spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction.§ The§ in-depth§ analysis§ of§ the§ primary§
data§ has§ shed§ light§ on§ the§ fact§ that§ spirituality§ is§ a§ key§ predictor§ of§ job§
satisfaction.§ In§ the§ hectic§ times,§ managers§ must§ support§ the§ spiritual§ growth§ of§
their§ subordinates§ so§ that§ their§ satisfaction§ in§ the§ workplace§ can§ improve.§ pp§
Introduction§
Spirituality§ refers§ to§ the§ identification§ of§ feelings§ or§ the§ belief§ that§ there§
exists§ something§ greater§ than§ oneself.§ A§ person§ who§ is§ spiritual§ understands§ that§
his§ or§ her§ life§ has§ a§ meaning§ beyond§ his§ mundane§ existence.§ Spiritual§ individuals§
are§ considered§ to§ be§ the§ ones§ who§ are§ able§ to§ explore§ specific§ universal§ themes§
such§ as§ compassion,§ love,§ wisdom,§ etc§ at§ a§ deeper§ level§ (Spencer,§ 2012).§ The§
concept§ of§ job§ satisfaction§ has§ attained§ considerable§ attention§ these§ days.§ It§ can§ be§
defined§ as§ the§ level§ of§ contentment§ that§ employees§ feel§ toward§ their§ work.§ It§
goes§ beyond§ the§ normal§ duties§ that§ employees§ need§ to§ perform§ in§ their§ workplace§
(Van§ &§ Klerk,§ 2014).§ pp§ A§ number§ of§ researchers§ such§ as§ Walt§ and§ Klerk§ (2014),§
and§ Hassan§ and§ Nadeem§ (2016),§ have§ conducted§ studies§ to§ explore§ the§ relationship§
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 3
between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction(Hassan§ et§ al.,§ 2016).§ Klerk§ has§ argued§ that§
there§ exists§ a§ positive§ association§ between§ workplace§ spirituality§ and§ satisfaction.§
Spirituality§ plays§ a§ major§ role§ in§ the§ workplace§ since§ it§ expands§ the§ perspective§
of§ the§ staff§ members§ and§ assists§ them§ in§ surviving§ in§ the§ highly§ dynamic§ and§
competitive§ work§ environment.§ Hassan§ has§ stated§ that§ spirituality§ enables§ staff§
members§ to§ establish§ a§ sense§ of§ connection§ in§ the§ work§ setting,§ which§ fosters§
feelings§ of§ cooperation§ and§ harmony.§ The§ spirituality§ of§ staff§ positively§ impacts§
the§ organizational§ culture§ and§ behaviour§ of§ the§ staff§ (Hassan§ et§ al.,§ 2016).§ pp§ pp§
Aim§ and§ objectives§
The§ primary§ aim§ of§ the§ study§ is§ to§ explore§ the§ relationship§ between§
spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction§ in§ the§ workplace.§ By§ finding§ the§ interlink§ between§
these§ variables,§ it§ will§ be§ possible§ to§ understand§ whether§ the§ job§ satisfaction§ of§
professionals§ can§ be§ strengthened§ or§ not§ through§ spirituality.§ The§ following§
objectives§ have§ been§ designed§ in§ the§ study§ context§ so§ that§ the§ aim§ can§ be§
attained:§
To§ explore§ the§ concept§ of§ spirituality§ and§ its§ relevance§ in§ the§ workplace§
To§ find§ the§ relationship§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction§ in§ the§
workplace§
Literature§
Job§ satisfaction§ of§ individuals§ is§ influenced§ by§ a§ host§ of§ factors.§ The§
research§ in§ work§ psychology§ area§ has§ revealed§ that§ spirituality§ plays§ an§
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 4
instrumental§ role§ in§ influencing§ how§ satisfied§ professionals§ are§ in§ their§ workplace§
(Bella§ et§ al.,§ 2021).§ According§ to§ Forsythe§ (2016),§ there§ exists§ a§ positive§
association§ between§ the§ spirituality§ of§ individuals§ and§ their§ job§ satisfaction§
(Forsythe,§ 2016)§ .§ Vohra§ has§ identified§ specific§ spirituality§ components§ such§ as§ the§
meaning§ as§ well§ as§ purpose§ in§ work,§ recognition§ of§ inner§ self§ and§ interconnected§
which§ play§ a§ key§ role§ in§ moulding§ the§ job§ satisfaction§ of§ professionals§ (Belwalkar§
et§ al.,§ 2018).§ By§ working§ on§ spirituality,§ deviant§ behavior§ can§ be§ prevented§
among§ staff§ members§ of§ organizations.§ Thus,§ it§ can§ positively§ impact§ the§ work§
climate§ and§ contribute§ to§ better§ job§ satisfaction§ at§ an§ integrated§ level§ (Ahmad§ &§
Omar,§ 2014).§
Research§ Methodology§
For§ conducting§ the§ research§ study§ to§ capture§ the§ relationship§ between§
spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction§ in§ the§ workplace,§ the§ quantitative§ research§ design§
has§ been§ adopted.§ Quantitative§ research§ design§ is§ extremely§ popular§ in§ the§ research§
context§ since§ it§ enables§ researchers§ to§ collect§ quantifiable§ data§ to§ address§ research§
questions.
Primary§ data§ has§ been§ gathered§ from§ respondents§ on§ the§ research§ topic.§ As§
the§ topic§ is§ of§ high§ relevance§ in§ the§ contemporary§ work§ setting,§ first-hand§ or§
primary§ data§ has§ been§ identified§ as§ the§ main§ data§ type.§ The§ questionnaire§ has§
been§ used§ as§ the§ main§ research§ tool§ to§ collect§ primary§ data.§ Random§ sampling§
method§ has§ been§ identified§ so§ that§ the§ possibility§ of§ bias§ or§ prejudice§ can§ be§
avoided.§ High§ emphasis§ has§ been§ laid§ on§ ethical§ dimensions§ such§ as§ informed§
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 5
consent,§ confidentiality§ and§ privacy§ of§ the§ respondents,§ integrity,§ transparency§ and§
objectivity§ (Bos,§ 2020).§
The§ chief§ variables§ that§ have§ been§ identified§ while§ conducting§ the§ study§ are§
spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction.§ Spirituality§ has§ been§ identified§ as§ the§ independent§
variable,§ whereas§ job§ satisfaction§ has§ been§ identified§ as§ the§ dependent§ variable§ in§
the§ study.§ The§ association§ between§ these§ variables§ has§ been§ determined§ by§ using§
regression§ analysis.§ In§ the§ research§ context,§ it§ is§ vital§ for§ researchers§ to§ capture§
the§ correlation§ between§ dependent§ and§ independent§ variables§ so§ that§ better§ insight§
can§ be§ gained§ to§ understand§ whether§ there§ exists§ a§ cause-and-effect§ relationship§ or§
not§ (Thanoon§ et§ al.,§ 2015).§
Results§ of§ the§ study
Descriptive§ statistics§ have§ been§ used§ in§ the§ study§ to§ ascertain§ the§
association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction.
Frequencies§ pp§
For§ the§ gender§ or§ sex§ variable,§ the§ frequency§ statistics§ have§ been§ used§
because§ it§ is§ a§ categorical§ variable.§ Since§ the§ categories§ are§ not§ in§ order,§ the§
descriptive§ statistics§ would§ not§ have§ served§ any§ purpose.§
Table§ 1
§ § § § § § § § § § § § p§ pp§ pp§
Statistics
Sex
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 6
N
Valid§ Data
Missing§
20
0
§ pp§
The§ table§ highlights§ that§ a§ total§ of§ 20§ participants§ had§ participated§ in§ the§
study,§ and§ there§ is§ no§ missing§ information.§ Out§ of§ the§ 20§ participants§ ,10§
belonged§ to§ the§ male§ category§ and§ 10§ belong§ to§ female§ categories§ .§ Thus§ the§
male§ %§ was§ 50§ %§ and§ the§ female§ %§ was§ also§ 50§ %.§
Descriptive§ Analysis
On§ the§ basis§ of§ the§ descriptive§ analysis,§ it§ has§ been§ identified§ that§ the§ age§
of§ the§ youngest§ participant§ was§ 18§ years,§ whereas§ the§ age§ of§ the§ oldest§
participant§ was§ 56§ years.
Hypothesis§ testing§ pp§
Statistics§ analysis§ was§ used§ in§ the§ study§ for§ testing§ the§ significance§ of§ the§
association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction.§ According§ to§ the§ reviewed§
literature,§ it§ has§ been§ projected§ that§ there§ exists§ a§ significant§ positive§ association§
between§ the§ two§ variables.§ The§ simple§ regression§ method§ has§ been§ used§ to§
capture§ the§ association§ between§ spirituality§ (independent§ variable)§ and§ job§
satisfaction§ (dependent§ variable)§ which§ are§ both§ quantitative§ variables.§
Table§ 3
Descriptive§ Statistics
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 7
Mean
Std.§ Deviation
N
Job§ satisfactory
68.50
16.195
20
Spirituality
90.70
26.232
20
The§ table§ gives§ an§ insight§ into§ the§ descriptive§ summary§ of§ the§ independent§
and§ dependent§ variables.§ The§ Mean§ Job§ Satisfaction§ is§ 68.50,§ and§ the§ standard§
deviation§ is§ 16.19.§ The§ mean§ spirituality§ among§ the§ respondents§ is§ 90.70§ the§
standard§ deviation§ is§ 26.23.§
Table§ 4
Model
R
R§ Square
Adjusted§ R§
Square
Std.§ The§ error§
in§ the§ Estimate
1
.642a
.412
.379
12.758
The§ table§ captures§ the§ regression§ model’s§ goodness§ of§ fit.§ The§ model’s§
coefficient§ of§ R2§ is§ 0.412,§ which§ implies§ that§ there§ is§ 41.2§ %§ variation§ on§ terms§
of§ job§ satisfaction.§ The§ coefficient§ correlation§ indicates§ a§ moderate§ positive§
association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction.§ When§ spirituality§ increases§ by§
one§ unit,§ the§ job§ satisfaction§ increases§ by§ 0.642§ units.§
Table§ 5
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 8
ANOVA
Model
Sum§ of§
Squares
df
Mean§
Square
F
Sig.
1
Regression
2053.109
1
2053.109
12.613
.002b
Residual
2929.891
18
162.772
Total
4983.000
19
Table§ 5§ captures§ ANOVA§ relating§ to§ the§ regression§ model.§ According§ to§
the§ ANOVA§ results,§ spirituality§ is§ a§ vital§ predictor§ of§ job§ satisfaction§ at§ the§ 0.05§
significance§ level.§ This§ evidence§ is§ enough§ to§ reject§ the§ null§ hypothesis.§ So,§ it§
can§ be§ concluded§ that§ the§ spiritual§ level§ is§ vital§ to§ ascertain§ workers’§ job§
satisfaction.§
Table§ 6
Coefficients
Model
Unstandardized§
Coefficients
Standardized
§ Coefficients
t
Sig.
B
Std.§ Error
Beta
1
(Constant)
32.558
10.515
3.096
.006
Spirituality
.396
.112
.642
3.552
.002
a.§ Dependent§ Variable:§ Job§ satisfactory
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 9
The§ table§ presents§ the§ coefficient§ of§ the§ model.§ It§ can§ be§ observed§ that§
the§ job§ satisfaction§ score§ for§ completely§ non-spiritual§ workers§ was§ M§ =§ 32.56,§ SE§
=§ 10.52.§ The§ job§ satisfaction§ rose§ by§ 0.396§ for§ the§ rise§ in§ spirituality§ by§ a§
single§ unit.§ The§ table§ even§ captures§ the§ importance§ of§ spirituality§ for§ predicting§
workers’§ job§ satisfaction.§
Discussion
In§ the§ study,§ a§ sample§ of§ 10§ males§ and§ 10§ females§ have§ been§ selected§ to§
capture§ the§ association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§ satisfaction§ in§ the§ workplace.§
The§ regression§ analysis§ has§ been§ used§ for§ investigating§ the§ relationship§ between§
the§ variables.§ The§ results§ of§ regression§ analysis§ indicate§ that§ spirituality§ can§
influence§ and§ help§ in§ predicting§ job§ satisfaction§ considerably.§ It§ accounted§ for§ 41.2§
%§ of§ job§ satisfaction-related§ variation.§ pp§ pp§
The§ findings§ of§ the§ study§ are§ aligned§ with§ Dennis§ et§ al.§ (2003)§ since§ his§
work§ has§ also§ revealed§ that§ there§ exists§ a§ significant§ positive§ correlation§ between§
religious§ aspects§ and§ job§ satisfaction.§ His§ study§ included§ participants§ from§ around§
38§ nations.§ It§ noted§ that§ religious§ employees§ consider§ their§ work,§ a§ form§ of§
service§ to§ others§ which§ increases§ their§ level§ of§ satisfaction.§ The§ current§ study’s§
results§ also§ get§ support§ from§ Horvath§ (2015),§ who§ has§ found§ that§ bank§ CEOs§
who§ are§ religious§ have§ higher§ work§ satisfaction§ than§ non-religious§ bank§ CEOs.§
There§ exists§ a§ positive§ association§ between§ job§ satisfaction§ and§ spirituality§ due§ to§
the§ high§ level§ of§ trust§ that§ exists§ in§ spiritual§ leaders.§ It§ improves§ their§ job§
performance§ and§ satisfaction§ level.§ Koenig§ and§ Bussing§ have§ also§ shared§ similar§
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 10
findings.§ According§ to§ their§ study,§ spiritual§ staff§ members§ have§ better§ physical§
health,§ including§ BMI§ as§ compared§ to§ non-spiritual§ staff.§ The§ study§ also§ found§
that§ the§ association§ was§ mediated§ by§ job§ satisfaction.§
The§ study§ has§ revealed§ a§ significant§ association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ job§
satisfaction.§ But§ the§ results§ are§ restricted§ by§ the§ scales§ that§ have§ been§ used§ for§
measuring§ the§ variables.§ No§ tests§ were§ conducted§ to§ establish§ the§ association§
between§ validity§ and§ reliability§ dimensions.§ Hence§ there§ is§ a§ possibility§ that§ the§
scales§ may§ not§ measure§ the§ intended§ elements§ of§ job§ satisfaction§ and§ spirituality.
The§ study§ has§ implications§ for§ business§ owners§ and§ managers.§ The§ results§
show§ that§ job§ satisfaction§ can§ be§ improved§ by§ adopting§ spiritual§ practice.§ As§ job§
satisfaction§ can§ improve§ job§ efficiency,§ managers§ must§ encourage§ spirituality§ among§
their§ staff§ to§ boost§ job§ satisfaction.§ Similar§ studies§ can§ be§ conducted§ to§ examine§
the§ association§ between§ spirituality§ and§ the§ psychological§ health§ of§ individuals.§ The§
research§ can§ add§ value§ as§ there§ are§ a§ high§ number§ of§ people§ with§ mental§ health§
issues.§
Conclusion§ and§ recommendation§
The§ research§ study§ centres§ around§ the§ concept§ of§ spirituality§ and§ job§
satisfaction§ in§ the§ workplace.§ On§ the§ basis§ of§ the§ study,§ it§ has§ been§ identified§
that§ spirituality§ is§ a§ key§ predictor§ of§ job§ satisfaction§ among§ workers.§ The§
employees§ who§ are§ spiritual§ are§ able§ to§ derive§ a§ higher§ level§ of§ satisfaction§ from§
their§ work§ as§ compared§ to§ professionals§ who§ are§ not§ spiritual§ in§ nature.§ The§
insight§ that§ has§ been§ captured§ from§ the§ study§ is§ of§ high§ relevance§ in§ the§
SPIRITUALITY§ AND§ JOB§ STATISFACTION§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§
§ pp§ pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ pp§ pp§ p § pp§ pp§ pp§ § pp§ 11
practical§ work§ setting§ since§ managers§ can§ promote§ the§ spirituality§ of§ their§ staff§
and§ subordinates§ to§ improve§ their§ satisfaction§ level.
The§ main§ recommendation§ that§ has§ been§ made§ based§ on§ the§ findings§ of§
the§ study§ is§ that§ employers§ and§ managers§ need§ to§ conduct§ workshops§ that§ centre§
around§ the§ spiritual§ growth§ of§ their§ staff.§ It§ can§ help§ to§ cultivate§ positive§ values§
in§ the§ staff§ and§ strengthen§ the§ organizational§ climate.§
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satisfaction.§ International§ Review§ of§ Psychiatry, § 26(3), § 379-389.
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