1 / 6100%
Taylor Heger
Dr. Vasquez
CJ-120 Module 5-2 Assignment
The culture I have chosen to delve into is that of Native Americans. I would have to conclude
that Indigenous Americans have little faith in the justice system, and a negative point of view
towards law enforcement officers. The reasoning behind this stems from an ongoing detrimental
relationship among tribal jurisdictions and outside law enforcement agencies, resulting in the
underreporting of crimes by the Native American community.
“Advocates have long complained about the lack of comprehensive state and federal data on
missing and murdered Native Americans, which is often linked to incidents of sexual violence
and human trafficking.” (Ortiz, 2020)
“Researchers said they examined 105 cases of missing and murdered Indigenous women and
girls from the region and found that 62% of cases were never included in any official missing
persons database; 74% of cases have no public documentation related to manner of death,
whether charges were filed or a suspect or person of interest was found; and 56% of cases don’t
mention or make public the victim’s tribal affiliation.” (Ortiz, 2020)
An example of a misunderstanding between Native Americans and police officers is within the
tragic end of Jonathan Tubby. Tubby was pulled over in 2018 for a traffic stop. Once officers
learned Mr. Tubby had a warrant, he was arrested and taken to Brown County Jail. While
attempting to get Jonathan out of the car, officers shot out the rear window and used pepper
spray. Once outside of the vehicle, Tubby was hit with a beanbag that knocked him to the
ground. “He jumped up and he ran. The video that we have ends as soon as Jonathan jumped out
of the back of the car; everything went black because there is no video after that. We did hear the
canine and then we heard the shots. Green Bay Police Officer Erik O’Brien fired eight shots
from his gun, and five of them hit Tubby- O’Brien was not charged. No weapon was found on
Tubby.” (Native Americans Most Likely to Die from Police Shootings, Families Who Lost Loved
Ones Weigh In, 2021)
Professional Practices
1. Understanding the Public
Description of Practice: Being evident in their neighborhoods and conscious of their locals is a
meaningful professional practice of law enforcement officials. Neighborhood events and
community functions are a great way for police departments to interact with citizens on an
informal level.
Possible Outcomes:
Builds mutual trust between police officers and the community.
Establishes positive associations with the police.
Helps in addressing district concerns and diminishing misconduct.
2. Diversity Training
Description of Practice: Several police department agencies feel necessity for diversity training
on some parallel. Cultural diversity training was first implemented in the 1960’s. Police
departments today continue to promote officers to cultivate in cultural awareness and
Possible Outcomes:
Increased awareness of differing cultures.
Allow law enforcement officials to welcome similarities that prevail beyond contrasting
Elevation in community trust and justice.
3. Procedural Justice
Description of Practice: Procedural justice is a professional practice that focuses on the
integrity of actions used by those in positions of authority, such as law enforcement officers.
“Procedural justice is based on four central principles: treating people with dignity and respect,
giving citizens ‘voice’ during encounters, being neutral in decision making, and conveying
trustworthy motives.” (Procedural Justice, n.d.)
Possible Outcomes:
Validates that how we treat and speak to people is meaningful.
Decline number of communications in which citizens experience mistreatment or
needless use of force by law enforcement.
Accentuates clarity between police officers and community.
4. Police Legitimacy
Description of Practice: To achieve police legitimacy there is three main components law
enforcement should keep in mind including: trust and confidence in the police from the public,
the willingness of the community to accept police authority, and showing residents that the
actions of the police are reserved and morally compelling. Police being involved in at-risk
programs for the youth is one way law enforcement agencies can contribute to lowering present
and future crimes.
Possible Outcomes:
Implementing police legitimacy can increase officer’s ability and authority to
effectively do their job.
Builds trust, confidence, and acceptance of police authority.
Strengthen the publics’ impression that the actions of the police are morally
justified and pertinent.
5. Diverse Hiring Processes
Description of Practice: Diversity in hiring within a police agency is the utmost powerful way
to enhance policing and showing the community the commitment of law enforcement to serve its
various needs. Procedures to advance diversity in policing can be consummated through
dedicated and calculated recruitment, such as working with numerous educational institutions.
Possible Outcomes:
Demonstrates a promise to parallel treatment of the law within the community.
Create good relationships with communities of color.
Heightened critical thinking and problem-solving skills.
Community Relations Services Toolkit for Policing Importance of Police- Community
Relationships and Resources for Further Reading. (n.d.). Retrieved March 30, 2022,
from https://www.justice.gov/file/1437336/download#:~:text= Transparency%20is%20
Flavin, B. (2018). Police Officers Explain Why Diversity in Law Enforcement Matters |
Rasmussen College. Rasmussen.edu. https://www.rasmussen.edu/degrees/justice-studies/
Ortiz, E. (2020, August 2). Lack of awareness, data hinders cases of missing and murdered
Native American women, study finds.JNBC News. https://www.nbcnews.com/news/us-
Procedural Justice. (n.d.). National Initiative.
https://trustandjustice.org/resources/intervention/procedural-justice#: ~:text=Procedural%
Native Americans Most Likely To Die From Police Shootings, Families Who Lost Loved Ones Weigh In.
(2021, June 2). WUWM 89.7 FM - Milwaukee’s NPR.
Azmy, A. (2021). Police studies program for at-risk youth in youth villages: program
evaluation and understanding the psychological mechanism behind participation in the
program and perceptions towards police legitimacy. Police Practice & Research, 22(1),
640–656. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1080/15614263.2020.1712200
Students also viewed