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Scientists use information from scientific studies to research and design experiments. Scientists use primary, peer-reviewed, scientific literature to keep up-to-date on developments happening around the globe. Background information is an integral step in the scientific research process. For the ‘Environment, Ethics, & Human Health’ assignment, you will be writing a Primary Literature Review. You will choose a main topic and one or more sub-topics and use primary, peer-reviewed, literature to discuss your topic of choice. Once you have read the primary literature on your topic and sub-topics, you will compile the information. The paper must be written in your own words, you MAY NOT copy or quote any portion(s) of the literature you review. Detailed instructions for the writing assignment are in a separate document on Canvas.

This topic proposal is your guide to get you started on the topic choice and outline process which is needed for writing any good paper. Once completed, upload this worksheet to Canvas. You will receive feedback on your topic choice and outline submitted. Please allow up to two weeks after the due date to receive feedback.

Writing Prompt:

Many issues affect the environment such as pollution, global warming, disease, and resource availability. These issues are not isolated or stopped by some boundaries drawn on a map and all can have a direct effect on human health. For this assignment, you will write your paper based on topics that look at environmental issues and their impact on human health with a global and Political scope.

This assignment will help you go from general to specific as you decide on your topic. You will choose a main topic, one or more sub-topic(s), and global environments to research. Researching, outlining, and writing multiple drafts are all requirements of writing a good paper.

Answer the following questions based on information from the Research Methods lecture:

Research Methods

1. In your own words, describe the difference between primary, secondary, and tertiary sources.

2. What is meant by ‘peer-reviewed journal’ and why are these sources so important?

3. Specifically, where can you get free, full text peer-reviewed journal articles?

4. For writing a paper at an appropriate level for this class, list the areas of a peer-reviewed journal article that will be most useful. (You may choose from: ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND, MATERIALS & METHODS, RESULTS AND/OR DISCUSSION, REFERENCES).


First and foremost this paper is about HUMANS and the Natural Environment. Please keep that in mind when you are choosing your topics and writing your paper.

1. First, choose ONE of the following major health topics as your main topic. In your final paper, you may address more than one of these, but for now please just choose one. (Choose by deleting all the choices, except the one you wish to write upon. (All the below topics are meant to

refer to humans only):

Cardiovascular System DNA/Genetic Diversity Respiratory System Immunity/Immune System Digestive System Cells & Tissues Sexual Reproduction Fetal/Early Childhood Physical (Anatomical/Physiological) Development Skeletomuscular

2. Next, choose one or two of the following global environment sub-topics to address in your paper.

Give some serious thought as to how you are going to directly correlate your main topic to your chosen sub-topic(s). The sub-topics below can be focused on humans, non-human living organisms or non-living components of the environment. Examples of non-living components of the environment are: pollution, chemicals, water, soil, etc. (Choose by deleting all the choices, except the one or two you wish to write upon).

Deforestation Plastics Food/Agriculture/Soil Access to clean water Pollution (choose one: air, water, soil, food, etc.)

3. Next, choose your locations. In this paper you must use examples from at least one developed nation and one developing nation. You will give examples of how your subtopic relates to your main health topic. Your developed nation can be the United States, but it is not required. You may change your nations later on. You may use “2ndworld countries” or “3rdworld countries” for your developing nations. (PLEASE DO SOME RESEARCH TO FIND COUNTRIES THAT ARE CONSIDERED DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING)

List of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) per the United Nations: List of developed nation according to the United Nations (go down to page 154): WESP2022_ANNEX.pdf

Your developed nation examples will come from which country?

Your developing nation examples will come from which country?

4. Do some research! Now that you have your main topic and sub-topic(s), do some background research to help you define your paper’s focus and how you will connect your main topic and sub-topic. Using the correct APA format, properly cite TWO peer-reviewed journals that will support your chosen topic.

5. Topic Statement: Based on your topic choices from above and your preliminary research, describe how you are going to connect your topics and list 3 specific examples you will use in

your paper. Think about how your global environmental issues sub-topics impact human health, well-being, and disease in your chosen area of the body. You can always change these as you begin to write your paper.

Topic Statement (Specifically, what will your paper be about? How will you address the writing prompt?)

List your 3 examples of how you will support your topic statement:

6. Write your outline! Below, outline your paper. You do not need an enormous amount of detail, but the reader should be able to get the overall impression of what your paper is about, what major examples you will use, and if your paper seems to have a logical flow of ideas. You are not locked into this outline after submission; this will only be used to begin the writing process. Need help with your paper’s outline? Check out: - There is no required format for this, other than you should use a full sentence outline structure with the following major headings:

I. Introduction

II. Main point 1

III. Main point 2

IV. Main point 3

V. Conclusion