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Cross-Cultural Psychology: Psychosocial Perspectives of Women
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Cross-Cultural Psychology: Psychosocial Perspectives of Women
Part 1
Cross-cultural psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how cultural
differences affect people’s thinking and behavior. It explores how culture affects behavior
(Cherry, 2022). Moreover, it investigates the influences that various cultural backgrounds
have on a person's behavior and personality, both in terms of similarities and contrasts. On
the other hand, culture has been described as a set of shared moral values, rules, customs, and
attitudes passed from generation to generation (Cherry, 2022). The world's cultures are
similar in many ways yet distinct in many other ways. For instance, while happiness is a
universal emotion shared by people from all cultures, it is exhibited differently.
Cultural disputes are caused by people from different cultures having different moral
standards and social conventions. Someone with a different perspective may consider
someone acting in accordance with their culture's beliefs and practices in a different way.
Conflict may result from this situation's misunderstandings. For example, people from the
majority Anglo culture in America frequently mistakenly believe that their conduct and views
are the only acceptable ones, oblivious that the USA is home to many different cultures
(Williams, n.d.). They cannot frequently recognize the uniqueness of their own culture. An
example is the case of the scenario where the two communities had ideological differences in
the roles of women’s participation in political, educational, and community groups.
Cross-cultural psychologists study the differences and similarities between
individualistic and collectivist cultures. Individualistic cultures prioritize personal needs over
those of the broader group (Cherry, 2020). In this regard, people are viewed as independent
and autonomous in this kind of society. Individual attitudes and preferences frequently
determine social behavior. Western European and North American cultures are often more
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individualistic (Cherry, 2020). In contrast, collectivist cultures emphasize the value of the
group and social collaboration.
Discrimination against women has been linked to the social construct of gender
differences contributed by gender segregation during childhood. Consequently, gender
segregation may become a problem in the future because children of different genders grow
up in a gender-integrated society; these gender stereotypes may shape the behavior and traits
of children when they reach adulthood. For example, preventing women from participating in
fields such as education, politics, and community projects.
Surveys conducted in 55 developing nations have shown that females are more likely
than boys to drop out of school at the lower secondary level. There are 775 million adult
illiterates worldwide, and about two-thirds are women (Karam, n.d.). One way to fight gender
inequality is to give girls access to education. Both boys and girls face barriers to education,
but girls are most affected. These barriers include early marriages and specific religious and
cultural norms that prevent girls from accessing education (Pekular, 2019). The World Bank
claims that women with more education tend to be healthier, engage in formal labor markets,
make more money, and marry later in life.
Secondly, women should be given platforms to exercise power and succeed
economically. Globally across 62 percent of countries, there has never been any woman as
head of state, contributing to the disproportionate number of men to women (Pekular, 2019).
The interests and values of women will be better reflected if women are allowed equal
presence in politics and leadership posts.
Lastly, to end gender discrimination, society should end sexual assault and violence
against women. Even though several states have laws regulating domestic violence and
sexual assault, these laws often go ignored, treating women's and girls' rights to security and
justice (Pekular, 2019).
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Part 2
Culture may greatly influence how people express, understand, and feel emotions.
Our culture gives us structure, norms, expectations, and standards to assist us in
comprehending different emotions (Bagheri, Kosnin, & Besharat). Additionally, people from
different cultures express their emotions differently. Those with a high level of emotional
control understand others and help them feel their feelings safely. They also refrain from
passing judgment on other people. High emotion control is crucial in a successful cross-
cultural transition (Bagheri, Kosnin, & Besharat). Being able to regulate negative emotions
during stress and conflict, which is unavoidable in intercultural living, is crucial for healthy
adjustment. Thus, in this scenario, reaction to emotions will enable people to adjust to other
people's cultures and encourage them during stressful times.
Part 3
The term "gender" refers to the socially established distinctions between men and
women that determine their attitudes, opportunities, social interactions, and relationships with
one another. It also establishes what men and women value at any given moment, and it
varies depending on the setting, making it context-specific (Worthy, Lavigne, & Romero,
2020). As children become aware of gender roles at a younger age, they maintain the same
views up to adulthood when they hold many gender stereotypes. For example, men tend to
outdo women in law enforcement and politics. From this scenario, culture indeed shapes the
way we perceive gender stereotypes, especially in women's roles in society.
Culture has an impact on beliefs about what behaviors are acceptable for men,
women, and between men and women. Due to the influence they have on people's daily lives
in a variety of situations, such as the workplace, home, and community, gender identity and
culture are intimately intertwined. The majority of cultures have some labor division that
specifies which tasks or occupations are appropriate for men rather than women, despite the
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fact that there are considerable distinctions between them. (Worthy, Lavigne, & Romero,
2020). While there are differences, similarities also exist. Women, for instance, often have
restricted finances, autonomy, and decision-making ability. Culture affects psychological
processes (Triandis, Malpass, & Davidson, 2003). Individual beliefs and behaviors affect
cultural norms and practices as they develop through time. These cultural paradigms
influence individuals' future beliefs and behaviors, which in turn affect the persistence and
evolution of culture over time.
Group dynamics refers to the process of interaction and behavior of individuals while
in a group environment. People consider the social groupings they are a part of while defining
and evaluating who they are (Gencer, 2019). Alternatively, people distinguish themselves and
organize themselves into social groupings to which they belong. In group dynamics, there are
roles: the word "role" relates to how people act and behave concerning what is expected of
them by other people. On the other hand, group norms are guidelines that outline what types
of conduct are acceptable or unacceptable inside the group (Gencer, 2019). Group members
embrace these norms as a guide for how they should behave. Group dynamics is related to
gender and culture in that, while gender deals with the socially constructed differences of
what is expected of men and women in society, culture shapes the idea of acceptable and
appropriate behaviors between men and women.
Companies that need to gain a competitive advantage globally must adopt cultural
diversity in their organizations. Firstly, diverse working groups may inspire creativity and
innovation (Reynolds, 2018). Since our cultures shape our view of the world, diversity of
thinking has fostered creativity and propelled innovation, assisting in problem-solving and
satisfying client requirements in novel and creative ways. Organizations can gain the most
from workplace diversity by providing a forum for free exchange of ideas, such as by hiring
women (Reynolds, 2018). Working in culturally diverse groups also presents personal and
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professional growth opportunities. Working with individuals from various cultural
backgrounds may be a genuinely exciting experience that teaches others about viewpoints
and traditions from different countries (Reynolds, 2018). Adopting a global perspective and
letting go of biases and ethnocentric worldviews can help one become a global citizen.
Working in culturally diverse groups has its benefits but also some setbacks. The
challenge of integrating into multiracial teams might be exacerbated by prejudice or
derogatory cultural preconceptions (Reynolds, 2018). In this regard, stereotypes from other
cultures can hurt productivity and corporate morale. For example, in this scenario, the
communities involved differ due to different ideologies of women's role in education and
political forums.
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References
Bagheri, Z., Kosnin, A. M., & Besharat, M. A. (n.d.). The In uence of Culture on The Func'oning of
Emo'onal Intelligence. Retrieved from
h,ps://humani'es.utm.my/educa'on/wp-content/uploads/sites/6/2013/11/181.pdf
Cherry, K. (2020, December 11). Individualisc Cultures and Behavior. Retrieved from Verywel Mind:
h,ps://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-individualis'c-cultures-2795273
Cherry, K. (2022, April 25). What is Cross-Cultural Psychology? Retrieved from Columbia University:
h,ps://careerdesignlab.sps.columbia.edu/blog/2022/04/25/what-is-cross-cultural-
psychology/#:~:text=Cross%2Dcultural%20psychology%20is%20a,think%2C%20feel%2C
%20and%20act.
Gencer, H. (2019). Group Dynamics and Behaviors. Universal Journal of Educaonal Research, 7(1).
doi: 10.13189/ujer.2019.070128
Karam, A. (n.d.). Educaon As The Pathway Towards Gender Equality. Retrieved from United
Na'ons: h,ps://www.un.org/en/chronicle/ar'cle/educa'on-pathway-towards-gender-
equality
Pekular, M. (2019, May 30). Five Ways To Fight Gender Inequality. Retrieved from The Borgen
Project: h,ps://borgenproject.org/Gve-ways-to-Gght-gender-inequality/
Reynolds, K. (2018). 13 Bene(ts and Challenges of Cultural Diversity in the Workplace. Retrieved
from Hult Interna'onal Business School: h,ps://www.hult.edu/blog/beneGts-challenges-
cultural-diversity-workplace/
Triandis, H., Malpass, S. R., & Davidson, R. (2003, November). Psychology and Culture. Annual
Review of Psychology, 24(1), 355-378. doi::10.1146/annurev.ps.24.020173.002035
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Williams, A. (n.d.). Resolving Con.ict in Mulcultural Environment. Retrieved from Beyond
Intractability: h,ps://www.beyondintractability.org/artsum/williams-resolving
Worthy, L., Lavigne, T., & Romero, F. (2020). Stereotypes and Gender Roles. In Culture and
Psychology. Retrieved from
h,ps://open.maricopa.edu/culturepsychology/chapter/stereotypes-and-gender-roles/
Worthy, L., Lavigne, T., & Romero, F. (2020). Sex and Gender. In Culture and Psychology. Retrieved
from h,ps://open.maricopa.edu/culturepsychology/chapter/632/
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