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INSTRUCTIONS:  
 AnswerALLquestions.
Q1. (a) The value of studying the quantitative and qualitative change in human
growth. (5 marks)
It is important for a teacher to understand human growth and development in order to best meet
the needs of students, both collectively and individually. By understanding typical patterns of
growth and development, teachers are better equipped to make appropriate educational choices.
They are also better able to recognize students who donotfollow typical patterns of
development and to then assist those students in obtaining needed educational support to
improve student success (Villar et al., 2015).
Parents may help their children thrive and handle any issues by understanding more about how
children develop. You can obtain a deeper understanding of how your children behave, think,
learn, and feel, in addition to learning things that can help you become a better parent.
Another key benefit of studying development is learning more about what is expected. While
each individual is unique, human development follows a remarkably consistent pattern. After
studying development, you will know what to expect at different ages and stages.
The most essential benefit of understanding human development is that it makes it easier to
recognize potential problems. It is critical to recognize possible difficulties early on, whether it is
with cognitive, social, or emotional development in early childhood or later in life.
 (b) Explain how a child born and raised in the rural area develops differently from a
child born and raised in an urban area.(5 marks)
There are significant differences in child schooling between urban and rural locations. Compared
to children in metropolitan areas, children in rural areas have a severe lack of education. As a
result, according to current estimates, 25 percent of children of primary school age in rural areas
are illiterate, compared to 16 percent of children of the same age in metropolitan areas (Villar et
al., 2015).
Poor nutrition has been identified as the major risk factor for stunted growth. Disparities in
nutrition between urban and rural locations may be the primary cause of observed growth
discrepancies. Compared to their counterparts in metropolitan regions, children born in rural
communities are malnourished, resulting in stunted physical and mental development.
Mothers in rural locations are less likely than mothers in metropolitan areas to obtain timely
prenatal care and give births outside hospitals.
Infants and toddlers in rural areas are less likely to receive preventive medical or dental care and
recommended vaccines; low-income infants and toddlers in rural families with low incomes are
less likely to have health insurance than their urban counterparts (Patton & Spry, 2021).
(c) Identify any five factors that contribute to boys developing differently from Girls. (5
Marks). 
Girls and boys have slightly varied developmental timelines due to sex variations in the brain. By
most sensory and cognitive development measures, girls are somewhat more advanced: vision,
hearing, memory, smell, and touch are all keener in females than male infants. Girl babies are
also more socially aware, responding more immediately to human voices or faces, or sobbing
more fiercely in response to another infant's cry. They develop fine motor and linguistic abilities
earlier than boys.
Gross motor skills (running, jumping, balancing) develop slightly faster in boys, while fine
motor skills (holding a pencil, writing) develop first in girls. As a result, girls are more likely
than boys to express an interest in art (painting, coloring, crafts).
Boys are also more physically aggressive and impulsive, according to brain research. When boys
take chances, the pleasure area of their brain lights up more. That has not to suggest that girls are
not risk-takers; it is just that boys are more active risk-takers on average (Balasundaram &
Avulakunta, 2022).
Individual differences and experiences play a significant role. Boys reared in a home that values
art and music may prefer to learn a musical instrument to soccer, while women raised in a
physically active setting may enjoy rock climbing. Some boys reared in a sports-oriented family,
on the other hand, may prefer sketching or music, whereas some girls nurtured in an artistic
milieu may favor sports (Campbell, 2021).
TOTAL MARKS THIS SECTION: (15 MARKS)
CAT. 2Term paper not less than five pages.

 Pick any  ONE  of the following topics and discuss in depth the related issues.
1. How we grow and develop according to the study of human growth and development.
Introduction 
Development refers to the qualitative changes in the organism as whole. Development is a
continuous process through which physical, emotional and intellectual changes occur. It is a
wider and comprehensive term than growth. It is also possible without growth. Development is
continuous and gradual process (Skinner). According to Ong, (2017) development is concerned
with growth as well as those changes in behavior which results from environmental situation.”
Thus, development is a process of change in growth and capability over time due to function of
both maturation and interaction with the environment.
Development is a continuous process
An individual's development continues throughout their lifetime. This process takes place in the
context of a person's living environment. The underlying framework for the next stage of
development is one stage of development. A child's understanding and experiences of his
surroundings are limited. However, as he grows, he gains additional knowledge through
investigations of previously gained abilities, and the new skills constitute the foundation for
further achievement and mastery of skills. The child, for example, can write and draw; he must
have developed hand control to wield a pencil and crayon. As a result, as a person matures, he
gains many experiences and information (Villar et al., 2015).
Development follows a direction and uniform pattern in an orderly manner:
Development proceeds from the center of the body outward. This is the principle of
proximodorsal development that describes the direction of development (from nearer to far
apart). It means that the spinal cord develops before outer parts of the body. The child’s arms
develop before the hands and the hands and feet develop before the fingers and toes.
Development proceeds from the head downwards. This is called the cephalocaudal principle.
According to this principle, development occurs from head to tail. The child gains control of the
head first, then the arms and then the legs (Balasundaram & Avulakunta, 2022).
Individual Differences in the Development Process
Even though all children's development patterns are similar, the rate at which they develop
differs. Each child develops per their abilities and perceptions of their surroundings. Genetically
and environmentally, children differ from one another. As a result, both biological and
environmental factors influence an individual's development, resulting in individual variances in
development. Understanding individual variability in development rates should make us wary of
utilizing and depending on age and stage features to categorize children (Villar et al., 2015).
Development depends on maturation and learning
Maturation is a biology term that refers to biological growth and development progression. The
physical changes occur in consecutive order and provide youngsters with new capacities.
Maturation is primarily due to changes in the brain and neurological system. Maturation is
mainly due to changes in the brain and neurological system. The kid's environment and the
learning that occurs due to the child's experiences have a significant role in determining whether
the child develops to their full potential. An enriched environment and various experiences aid
the development of a child’s potential (Campbell, 2021).
Development is predictable
Throughout one's life, one's development is predictable. Even though hereditary and
environmental variables influence its development, it occurs in a predictable pattern. Different
components of motor development, emotional behavior, communication, social behavior, idea
formation, goals, intellectual growth, and other areas of development follow predictable patterns.
For example, a child's height and other physical characteristics continue to develop until they
reach a certain age. In general, all children exhibit a similar development pattern throughout their
lives. Prenatal and postnatal periods are commonly followed by all children's growth. Infancy,
babyhood, childhood, puberty, and so on are all part of the postnatal era (Balasundaram &
Avulakunta, 2022).
FACTORS AFFECTING HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
1) Hereditary Factors
Human development is influenced by heredity. The child inherits their parents' genetic
endowments. It is the hereditary transmission of traits from one generation to the next. Physical
and psychological qualities, including height, weight, eye color, IQ, personality, and creativity,
are innately determined and hereditary. The genetic code is the foundation on which the brain
and body develop and present themselves in visible form and behavior (Balasundaram &
Avulakunta, 2022).
2) Environmental Factors
Another essential component of human growth is the place where an individual lives. The
youngster develops and lives in his surroundings. The environment contains various stimuli and
provides the required input and experiential ground for a child's development. Enrichment or
impoverishment of the environment would generate disparities in his ability. For example, a
child may have inherited musical talent from his parents through genetic transmission. Still, if he
does not receive the proper environment and support to develop his innate ability, he will not
excel in the field of music (Patton & Spry, 2021).
3) Home Environment
The child's understanding of the outside world is greatly influenced by their home environment.
It improves his self-esteem and prepares him to confront the outside world. The youngster begins
to absorb knowledge through interactions with parents and other family members. His home
environment modulates the child’s conduct during his early years of development. For the
youngster, the familial environment can be either supportive or stressful. The child develops
naturally in a supportive, warm, and pleasant environment. Children may become maladjusted
due to an unsupportive and stressful home environment, broken families, or uncaring parents
(Patton & Spry, 2021).
4) Cultural Factors
Culture is a set of beliefs, attitudes, and values passed down from generation to generation. It is
both a product of previous human activity and a shaper of future goals. Both the family and
society have an impact on a child's growth. The socialization processes teach the child habits,
beliefs, attitudes, skills, and judgment standards. The child's socialization processes are
influenced by society's culture, customs, and traditions. For example, welcoming someone is
common, but different cultures have varied behavioral experiences.
5) Socioeconomic Status (SES)
Human development is influenced by socioeconomic status. Parental education, occupation, and
income determine the socioeconomic status index. Children from low socioeconomic
backgrounds may become malnourished, lack education in numerous areas, and hinder their
average growth. Parenting in families with a high socioeconomic status differs from parenting in
families with a low socioeconomic status. Children from higher socioeconomic groups receive
better nourishment, receive better medical care, and are exposed to greater intellectual
stimulation than children are from lower socioeconomic groups.
6) Normative influences
Normative effects affect most persons in a group in the same way. These factors may be
biological or environmental—for example, biological phenomena like sexual maturity or decline
in old age. Individuals are influenced by environmental events such as starting school at the age
of six, becoming a parent, etc. Floods, famines, and other natural calamities affect most
individuals of the same age, in the same area, at the same time, and in the same generation.
Unusual life occurrences in an individual's life are examples of non-normative impacts. For
instance, a parent's death when a child is young, birth abnormalities, etc.
7) Education and Training
Each youngster is equipped with unique abilities, which need to be cultivated via adequate
education and training. Therefore, the first and foremost stage is to identify and acknowledge the
child's capacity, and the second step is to provide appropriate opportunities to develop the same.
If a proper identification of the ability is impossible and the child does not have access to
appropriate resources, his intrinsic skill may not be developed. As a result, sufficient education
and training affect human development (Villar et al., 2015).
Conclusions
An individual lives in a society and different social processes influence the individual’s attitudes,
beliefs etc. As individuals interact with the environment and through interaction gain knowledge
and experiences, therefore the environment molds individuals’ behaviors.
References
Balasundaram, P., & Avulakunta, I. D. (2022). Human Growth and Development. InStatPearls.
StatPearls Publishing.
Campbell B. C. (2021). Editorial: Evolutionary Perspectives on Human Growth and
Development.Frontiers in endocrinology,12, 672452.
https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2021.672452
da Rocha Neves, K., de Souza Morais, R. L., Teixeira, R. A., & Pinto, P. A. (2016). Growth and
development and their environmental and biological determinants.Jornal de
pediatria,92(3), 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2015.08.007
Ong K. K. (2017). Healthy Growth and Development.Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop
series,87, 141–151. https://doi.org/10.1159/000448964
Patton, G. C., & Spry, E. A. (2021). Connecting ages and stages in human development.The
Lancet. Child & adolescent health,5(1), 4–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-
4642(20)30345-X
Villar, J., Papageorghiou, A. T., Pang, & R., Salomon, (2015). Monitoring human growth and
development: a continuum from the womb to the classroom.American journal of
obstetrics and gynecology,213(4), 494–499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2015.07.002
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