1 / 25100%
Change management Data Analysis
Name
MMSL 6000 - Dynamic Leadership
2022
4.0 Overview
This chapter reports the results of the findings. The research aimed at fulfilling the following
objectives: to establish the effects of change management strategies on organizational
performance, to investigate how resistance to change affects organizational performance of
hotels and to find out the impacts of change implementation on organizational performance.
Tables and charts have been used to present findings .The chapter is structured into two sections;
general information section and analysis of findings regarding change management practices.
The analysis was done quantitatively. Questionnaires and interview schedules were used to
collect data. A total of 55 questionnaires were distributed to the respondents, and 35
questionnaires were returned filled, which accounts for 64% response rate.
4.1 General information of the respondents
This section will discuss general information of the respondents in terms of gender, age, marital
status, academic qualifications, job tittle, duration of employment and departments that the
respondents worked
4.1.1 Gender of the respondents.
48.57% of the respondents were male and females respectively, while 2.86% did not indicate their
gender. This shows that females are given equal employment opportunities like men in hotels as shown in
the figure 4.1 below.
Figure.4.1 Gender of the respondents.
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.1.2 Age of Respondents
Most of the respondents 51.43% were in the age bracket of 26-40 years while 31.43% of the
respondents were 18 to 25 years and those above 40 years were 17.14 %. This implies that
majority of the employees in the hotel industry are young which could be attributed to the heavy
physical workload in hotels requiring young and energetic people as shown in the Figure 4.2
below.
Figure4.2 Age composition of the respondent
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.1.3 Academic qualifications.
Figure 4.3 below shows the respondents’ academic qualification where in, 11.43% had attained
university education, 57.14% had been to college, 28.57% to secondary school and 2.86% had
been to primary school. This shows that most of the respondents were well trained and qualified
in their work.
Figure.4.3. Academic qualifications
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.1.4 Job tittle.
From Figure 4.4 below it can be noted that majority of the respondents 49% were junior
staff ,while 32% were supervisors and only 20% were middle level managers.
Figure.4.4. Job tittle of the respondents
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.1.5 Duration of employment.
Table 4.1 below shows that most of the respondents 42.9% had been working in their respective
hotels for less than 5years, 37.1% of them have worked for 6-10years, while 20% have worked
for more than ten years. This implies that there is a high rate of employee turnover in hotels
maybe due to ineffective change management.
TABLE 4.1 DURATION OF EMPLOYMENT
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid BELOW 5 YEARS 15 42.9 42.9
6-10 YEARS 13 37.1 80.0
ABOVE 10 YEARS 7 20.0 100.0
Total 35 100.0
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.1.6 Department.
Table 4.2 below shows the departments the respondents work in, it can be noted that the
respondents were distributed almost equally in all the departments.
Table 4.2 Department the respondents worked in.
Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent
Valid HOUSEKEEPING 9 25.7 25.7
FRONT OFFICE 10 28.6 54.3
FOOD AND BEVERAGE 9 25.7 80.0
OTHERS 7 20.0 100.0
Total 35 100.0
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.2 CHANGES IN ORGANISATIONS
The Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed that certain areas of change were
experienced in their organisations. The extent of agreement were assigned weights where strongly agree
was assigned 5 while strongly disagree was assigned 1.The weighted averages were calculated and the
factors ranked according to order of magnitude as shown in table 4.3 below. The results indicate that new
technology is an area of change that is majorly experienced in the various selected hotels while a policy
change is rarely experienced in the selected hotels and thus was ranked last.
Table 4.3 Areas of change experienced by respondents in the selected organisations
Extent of agreement Strongly
agree
5
Agree
4
Neutral
3
Disagree
2
Strongly
disagree
1
rank
New technology 29 6 - - - 11.27 1
New products/ services 21 9 4 1 - 10.33 2
New training programs 17 9 6 3 - 9.67 3
Restructuring the hotel 17 12 2 2 2 9.67 3
Changes in management 21 5 3 3 3 9.53 5
Rebranding the hotel 16 11 3 4 1 9.47 6
New department 16 9 4 3 3 9.13 7
Changes in work
procedures
12 13 5 3 2 9 8
Job description 9 17 5 1 3 8.87 9
Policy changes 10 13 5 7 - 8.73 10
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
Using information from the above table, the researcher will further discuss individually two
aspects that ranked high and low.
4.2.1. New technology.
Most of the respondents 83% strongly agreed that new technology is an area of change that is
majorly experienced in the various selected hotels while 17% of them also agreed as shown in
the figure 4.5 below. This can be attributed to the fact that hotels have to keep up with the
changing trends in technology in order to remain competitive and increase their market share.
Technological changes are also easier to implement.
Figure 4.5 New technologies as an area of change experienced in the selected hotels
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.2.2 Policy changes.
The respondents view on policy changes as an area of change experienced in the hotel was that
25.7% strongly agreed, 37.1% agreed, 14.3% were neutral while 20% disagreed and 2.9%
strongly disagreed as shown in the figure 4.6 below. This was chosen as a least form of change
experienced in hotels because a policy change is a radical change that has an impact on the
whole system of the organization and fundamentally redefines what the organization is. It’s
therefore harder to implement than incremental changes like change in technology.
Figure.4.6 Policy Changes as an area of change experienced in selected hotels.
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.3 RESISTANCE TO CHANGE.
The Respondents were asked to indicate the extent to which they agreed that certain ways of
managing resistance help in improving hotel performance. The weighted averages were
calculated and the factors ranked according to order of magnitude as shown in table 4.4 below.
The results indicate that when employees are trained on the new changes their level of resistance
to the change is well managed and therefore the hotels performance will improve as compared to
when they are just given support to deal with the changes which was ranked last. Training
employees on change in the selected hotels in Nairobi and Employee support as a means of
managing resistance to change which were ranked highest and lowest respectively will be
discussed further.
Table 4.4 Ways of managing resistance to change in the selected hotels.
Extent of agreement Strongly
agree
5
Agree
4
Neutral
3
Disagree
2
Strongly
disagree
1
Rank
Employees are trained on the new changes 23 11 1 - - 10.8 1
Employees are fully involved in the change
process
19 10 5 1 - 10.13 2
Change is gradual and not instant 18 11 3 2 1 9.87 3
Change is not imposed on employees 14 11 4 5 1 9.13 4
Change is planned 12 13 6 4 - 9.2 5
Open communication about the change 11 16 4 3 1 9.2 5
Employees are given support to deal with the
change
11 10 5 4 5 8.2 7
Source: Authors own
compilation, 2011
4.3.1 Training employees on changes.
As a way of managing resistance, most of the respondents 65.71% strongly agreed that training
employees on new changes helps improve hotel performance, while 31.43% of them were also in
agreement and 2.86% of the respondents did not indicate their opinion on whether training
employees on new changes helps improve hotel performance or not as shown in figure 4.7
below. It was chosen as the best way of managing resistance because, training employees ensures
that they master the new ways of doing things and thus they will not resist change on the grounds
of it being a threat to their expertise or jobs.
Figure 4.7 Training employees on change in the selected hotels in Nairobi.
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.2.2 Employee support.
31.4% of the respondents strongly agreed that employee support helps in improving hotel
performance while 28.6% also agreed on the same. 14.3% did not indicate their opinion, 11.4%
of the respondents were in disagreement and 14.3% strongly disagreed as shown in Figure 4.8
below. Employee support was ranked last because most hotel managers do not fully support their
employees and instead impose change on them, which consequently affects their work
performance.
Figure4.8 Employee support as a means of managing resistance to change.
Source: Authors own compilation 2011
4.4 STRATEGIES FOR MANAGING CHANGE.
Various respondents had various views on the strategies for managing change that help in
improving hotel performance. The extent of agreement was analyzed in percentages and the
averages calculated. The weighted averages was also calculated and ranked in order from the
highest to the lowest as shown in table 4.5 below. The results indicated that Empirical-rational
was the most preferred strategy for managing change as compared to power coercive strategy
which was ranked last.
As shown in table 4.5 below, the respondents also had various opinions on the strategies for
managing change, where in 64% pointed out that all the strategies for managing change can help
improve the hotels performance, 21% of the respondents had a different view that implementing
the strategies may not help improve the hotels performance. However 16% of the respondents
were in a neutral position. Empirical-rational and power coercive which were ranked first and
last respectively will be discussed further.
Table 4.5 Strategies for managing change.
Extent of agreement Strongly
agree
Agree Neutral Disagree Strongly
disagree
R
a
n
k
FQ % FQ % FQ % F
Q
% FQ %
Empirical-rational 14 40% 11 31.4% 7 20% 3 8.6% 0 0% 9.4 1
Environmental -adaptive 13 37.1% 14 40% 4 11.4% 3 8.6% 1 2.9% 9.33 2
Normative -Reeducative 14 40% 12 34.3% 3 8.6% 3 8.6% 3 8.6% 9.07 3
Power-coercive 6 17.1% 5 14.3% 8 22.9% 9 25.7% 7 20% 6.6 4
Average 34% 30% 16% 12.88 8%
Source: Authors own
compilation, 2011
4.4.1. Empirical rational strategy.
Figure 4.9 shows that 40% of the respondents acknowledged that empirical rational was the best strategy
for managing change that helps to improve hotels performance, 31.43% of the respondents had the same
view, 20% were in a neutral position while 8.57% of the respondents were in disagreement. This is
attributed to the fact that many employees will fully embrace and implement change when given
rewards to motivate them hence leading to improvement in their work performance and as a
result this strategy was ranked first.
4.4.2 Power coercive strategy.
As shown in Figure 4.9 below, 17.14% of the respondents claimed that power coercive was the right
strategy for managing change that helps to improve hotels performance, 14.29% were also in agreement.
However 22.86% of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed that power coercive was the right
strategy for managing change that can help improve the hotels performance. Most of the respondents
45.71% were in disagreement. As compared to other strategies, this strategy was ranked last because
most of the respondents do not prefer it as it imposes change on them leading to declined
productivity and increased employee turnover thus reducing the hotels overall performance.
Figure.4.9 Strategies for managing change in the selected hotels in Nairobi.
Source: Authors own compilation, 2011
4.5 CHANGE IMPLEMENTATION.
Different aspects of implementing change can help to improve hotel performance. The research
results indicated that 45% of the respondents were in strong agreement that all the aspects of
implementing change help in improving organizational performance, 33.2% were also in
agreement, while 11% of the respondents did not agree that all the aspects of implementing
change help in improving organizational performance. 10.7% of the respondents did not indicate
their opinion on the same as shown in table 4.6 below. The researcher has chosen to explain two
areas that were of interest to her.
4.6 Aspects of implementing change in the selected hotels.
Extent of agreement Strongly
agree
agree neutral disagree S
t
r
o
n
g
l
y
d
i
s
a
g
r
e
e
FQ % FQ % FQ % FQ % FQ %
Employees are trained on the changes 20 57.1% 13 37.1% 2 5.7% 0 0% 0 0%
Open communication during 16 45.7% 12 34.3% 5 14.3% 1 2.9% 1 2.9%
implementation
Employees are aware on the need for
change
19 54.3% 9 25.7% 4 11.4% 0 0% 3 8.6%
Managers demonstrate strong leadership 17 48.6% 12 34.3% 2 5.7% 2 5.7% 2 5.7%
Employees issues are addressed during
implementation
16 45.7% 11 31.4% 4 11.4% 2 5.7% 2 5.7%
Hotel has a plan for change 15 42.9% 10 28.6% 4 11.4% 3 8.6% 3 8.6%
Managers collect and analyse feedback 12 34.3% 13 37.1% 4 11.4% 4 11.4% 2 5.7%
Employees are informed when changes are
to be implemented
11 31.4% 13 37.1% 5 14.3% 3 8.6% 3 8.6%
Average 45% 33.2% 10.7% 5% 6%
Source: Authors own compilation,
2011
4.5.1 Training employees on the changes and organizational leadership
Figure 4.11 below shows two aspects of implementing change that can be used to improve the
organizational performance where in, 57.14% of the respondents strongly agreed that training employees
on the changes during implementation helps to improve hotels performance, 37.14% were also in
agreement, while 5.71% were neither in agreement nor disagreement. This is because training gives
them knowledge, skills and expertise needed when implementing the changes hence fostering
quick implementation of the change.
82.9% of the respondents were of the opinion that organizational performance can be improved when
managers demonstrate strong leadership during implementation, however 5.7% of the respondents
differed with them and another 5.7% had a neutral position. This is attributed to the fact that without
strong leadership, positive change won't happen.
Figure 4.11 Aspects of implementing change
Source: Authors own compilation 2011
4.7 ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE.
Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured
against its intended outputs. Table 4.7 below displays a summary of the dimensions of
organizational performance experienced in hotels as a result of effectively managing change.
72% of the respondents were in agreement that effective change management results in improved
organizational performance, whereas 15% of the respondents disagreed on the same while 13%
of the respondents neither agreed nor disagreed. The researcher chose to explain three of the
dimensions.
Table 4.7 Dimensions of organizational performance experienced in the selected hotels.
Extent of agreement Strongly agree Agree Neutral Disagree S
t
r
o
n
g
l
y
d
i
s
a
g
r
e
e
FQ % FQ % FQ % FQ % FQ %
Increase in market share 18 51.4 7 20 5 14.3 3 8.6 2 5.7
Reservation efficiency 16 45.7 9 25.7 5 14.3 3 8.6 2 5.7
Increase average room rate 10 28.6 13 37.1 6 17.1 2 5.7 4 11.4
Reduced staff turnover 12 34.3 10 28.6 4 11.4 5 14.3 4 11.4
F&B cost efficiency 19 54.3 9 25.7 4 11.4 1 2.9 2 5.7
No customer complaints 13 37.1 15 42.9 4 11.4 1 2.9 2 5.7
Average 41.9% 30% 13.31% 7.17% 7.6%
Source: Authors own compilation,
2011
Effective change management increases the likelihood of success and improved performance in
hotels. When answering the question on the dimensions of performance that are experienced in
the hotel as a result of managing change, 51.4% of the respondents strongly agreed that increase
in market share was experienced, 20% also agreed, while 11.43% were neutral,14.29%
disagreed and 11.43% strongly disagreed. This could be attributed to the fact that most of the
respondents 80 % also pointed out that there were no customer complaints when change was
effectively managed while only 8% were in disagreement. Customers will not complain when
they are satisfied with the services given and the changes made. This will therefore increase the
hotels market share through word of mouth advertisement to others and repeat business.
Well implemented changes in technology at the reservation department results in reservation
efficiency that leads to improved performance of the hotel. This was pointed out by 70% of the
respondents who were in agreement that reservation efficiency was experienced in their hotel as
a result of managing change effectively, whereas only 14% of them disagreed. Figure 4.12
illustrates three dimensions of performance experienced that include increase in market share,
reservation efficiency and no customer complaints.
Figure 4.12 Dimensions of performance experienced in the selected hotels .
Source: Authors own compilation,
2011
CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 INTRODUCTION.
This chapter presents the discussion of the findings from the research, conclusions,
recommendations and suggestions for areas of further research deemed relevant for this study.
The research aimed at fulfilling the following objectives: to establish the effects of change
management strategies on organizational performance, to investigate how resistance to change
affects organizational performance of hotels and to find out the impacts of change
implementation on organizational performance. The main objective of the research was to find
out the effects of change management on organizational performance.
5.1 Discussions of findings.
This section will discuss personal information of the respondents such as gender, age, academic
qualifications and duration of employment. It will also discuss in detail the areas of change,
resistance to change, strategies of managing change and change implementation
5.1.1 Personal information of the respondents
Data analysis of the questionnaires revealed that 48.57% of the respondents were male and
female respectively. From this, the researcher concluded that nowadays ladies are given equal
employment opportunities like men in hotels and as a result the responses given for this research
is of equal representation from both genders and therefore not biased. Equal representation was
also seen in departmental distribution.
Most of the respondents 82% were below 40 years. This showed that majority of the employees
in the hotel industry are young. This could be attributed to the heavy physical workload in hotels
requiring young and energetic people.
There was a high percentage of college and university level education which could mean that
employers in the Nairobi area are employing well trained and qualified staff to ensure that they
properly manage change hence improving organizational performance.
Most of the respondents (43%) had worked in the establishment for a period of less than 5years.
This implies that there is a high rate of employee turnover in hotels which could be due to
ineffective change management and ignoring the people side of change thus forcing employees
to look for better work conditions elsewhere.
5.1.2 Change in organization.
Consistent with the literature (Carnall, 1995; Mullins, 1995; Sadler, 1995), the research indicated
that changes and developments particularly in technology and customer attitudes in the external
environment and problems concerning cost and operational inconsistencies in the internal
environment forced the participant hotels to consider change on an on-going basis. It was
difficult, however, to attribute change specifically to either external or internal environmental
forces alone. For example, in the cases of ‘changing the menu’, ‘repositioning’, ‘re-branding’,
‘restructuring the hotel’, ‘installing computers’ and ‘opening or expanding a new department’, it
was certain that both the external and internal environments came together to force hotel firms to
consider the need for change.
On the change cases currently undertaken in the hotels, most of them were incremental changes
and few such as (‘re-branding’ and‘re-positioning’) were identified as radical change. All the
respondents stated that incremental changes are more common than radical changes, that they are
easier to implement and that they are preferable in terms of overcoming resistance. This is also
consistent with the literature (Johnson1998).
Based upon the definitions given by Nadler and Tushman (1999), only one case in the sample could
be clearly defined as proactive, that is ‘creating a new managerial position of duty manager’. In
this case, the hotel implemented this change despite the fact that there were no immediate
problems in this area. It was also observed that in the case of opening a new reservation
department, although the change was initially planned in anticipation of future needs, the rate of
change was such that by the time the change was being implemented it had actually become a
necessity. This illustrates the point that the rapid rate of environmental and organizational change
can often lead to what had originally been proactive proposals being over-taken or even
superseded by events during planning and implementation. From these findings therefore hotels
still tend to take a reactive approach rather than a proactive approach to change.
5.1.3 Resistance to change
On the objective of investigating how resistance to change affects organizational performance of
hotels, consistent with the literature (Cole 2006) most of the respondents strongly agreed that all
the listed ways of managing resistance help in improving organizational performance . The
results also indicated that different employees prefer their resistance to change to be managed in
different ways ,for instance training employees on the new changes was ranked first as the most
preferred option of managing resistance to change that can help improve organizational
performance. This is because training employees ensures that the employees master the new
ways of doing things and thus they will not resist change on the grounds of it being a threat to
their expertise or jobs.
Fully involving employees in the change process was ranked second because employees should
be engaged and involved in order for change to work as it helps them embrace and be committed
to the change. Most of the respondents also agreed that open communication about the change
was important as it helped them to adjust effectively by informing them why the change is
needed. It can also help prevent unfounded fears and potentially damaging rumours from
developing. Giving employees support to deal with the change was ranked last because although
emotional support and encouragement is important to help deal with anxiety that is a natural
response to change most hotel managers do not fully support their employees and instead impose
change on them, which consequently affects the hotels performance.
It is evident from the research findings that if not well managed resistance affects the change
process, delaying or slowing down its beginning, obstructing or hindering its implementation,
and increasing its costs. Employees’ reaction to emotional stress affects their morale and
productivity which in turn leads to poor customer service delivery and customer dissatisfaction.
Dissatisfied customers may therefore move to other competitors and valued employees may
leave the organization, thus negatively affecting organizational performance. Managers should
therefore realize that some resistance is inevitable, however, and should plan ways to deal with
resistance early in the change process.
5.1.4 Change management strategies
On the objective of establishing the effects of change management strategies on organizational
performance, most of the respondents agreed that one strategy is not sufficient for managing
change as different change cases need to be managed differently for positive improvement in
performance to be seen. Accordingly, most of the respondents chose Empirical-rational as the
best strategy that can be used to manage change and improve the hotels performance. This could
be because successful change is based on the communication of information and the proffering
of incentives. Many employees fully embrace and implement change when given rewards hence
leading to improvement in their work performance.
Environmental adaptive was ranked second because many of the respondents preferred this
strategy as it sought to shift the burden of change from management and the organization to the
people. It exploits their natural adaptive nature and avoids the many complications associated
with trying to change people or their culture.
According to Nickols (2006) Successful change is based on the exercise of authority and the
imposition of sanctions. The basic aim of power- coercive strategy is to decrease people’s
options, and not increase them. Most of the respondents therefore do not prefer this strategy as it
imposes change on them leading to declined productivity and increased employee turnover thus
reducing the hotels overall performance.
5.1.5 Change implementation.
According to Okumus (2003), one key reason why implementation fails is that hotel managers
and supervisors do not have practical, yet theoretically sound models to guide their actions
during implementation. Without adequate models, they try to implement strategies without a
good understanding of the multiple factors that must be addressed, often simultaneously, to make
implementation work.
It can be noted from the research findings that, the main aspect of implementing change that
assisted in improving the hotels performance was training employees on the changes during
change implementation with 58%, of the employees strongly agreeing. This was because training
gives them knowledge, skills and expertise needed when implementing the changes hence
fostering quick implementation of the change. Another aspect was fully involving employees in
the change process during implementation, as a result the employees embrace and are committed
to the change and work hard to make it happen thus improving the hotels performance. The third
aspect was open communication during change implementation, it can be noted from the
research findings that effective communication is important during implementation to enable
employees to know the reason and accurate information about the change; it also helps to
connect each step of the change implementation process to each other. As a result the change
project will be completed on time, on budget and on schedule thus improving the hotels
performance.
The fourth aspect was awareness on the need for change by the employees, from the research it
can be noted that people have to understand the logic for the change before they can process the
information and get on board to support and advocate the change. They should also be aware of
the outcome from the change that the hotel seeks for them to be able to achieve it and improve its
performance.
Aspects of change management such as the strategies employed, and implementation of change
can greatly affect the performance of an organization. However, the strategies and
implementation may be good but if the employees do not embrace the same and resist them,
these can impact negatively on the organisations performance. Change implementers must
display absolute integrity, reliability, openness, and fairness--always behaving in ethically and
socially responsible ways. Likewise, they must communicate that they care about both the people
and the organization as active coordination, cooperation and communication between managers
and employees is a key factor in developing and implementing successful change in hotel firms.
Hotel managers should ensure that their employees are well trained, informed, and aware on the
need for change and have a plan for change, if performance improvement is to be expected from
them.
5.1.6 Organizational performance
Organizational performance comprises the actual output or results of an organization as measured
against its intended outputs (or goals and objectives).According to Richard et al. (2009)
organizational performance should be related to factors such as profitability, improved service
delivery, customer satisfaction, market share growth, and improved productivity and sales.
Consistent with the literature, findings from the research indicate that food and beverage cost
efficiency is a dimension of performance that is experienced in hotels as a result of effectively
managing change. This is because when change is well managed it will lead to increased
productivity and reduced wastages thus leading to F&B cost efficiency.
Other dimensions were increase in market share and no customer complaints, this happens as a
result of effectively managing change leading to customer satisfaction. Satisfied customers will
have no complaints and through repeat visits and word of mouth advertisement will market the
hotel to others leading to increased market share. The last dimension was reduced staff turnover.
Managing the people side of change ensures that employees’ issues during change are handled
thus reducing staff turnover.
The responses from the interview carried out on top management indicated that none of the
managers mentioned using any analytical tools such as force-field analysis or the ADKAR model
when dealing with change. It was also noted that none of the managers had any training on
managing change and that the majority of the managers found the implementation stage the most
difficult, risky and time-consuming part of a change process. Perhaps, this was because the
majority of them appeared to have spent less time in the analysis and planning stages than in the
implementation stage.
Finally, the findings of this research indicate that managing change is a learning process both for
the organization and for the individual. Almost every manager stated that they had gained
experience and knowledge of the change process which has helped them to cope with the
continuously changing nature of hotels. This confirms the arguments of Carnall (1995)and Grundy,
1993Grundy (1993). It was not clear, however, how this knowledge and experience could be kept
within the organization shared and used for further changes.
5.2 CONCLUSION
This research focused on the effects of change management on organizational performance. The
study established that resistance to change affects organizational performance of hotels. This can
be supported by the fact that resistance introduces costs and delays into the change process,
hindering its implementation. Training employees on the new changes, open communication,
participation, and emotional support can go a long way towards managing resistance to change.
Change management strategy employed affects organizational performance. Specifically,
empirical-rational is the most effective, followed by environmental adaptive, normative-
Reeducative, and power-coercive strategy respectively. Power coercive is not effective as it
imposed change on employees leading to declined productivity and increased employee turnover
thus reducing the hotels overall performance.
Change implementation negatively affects organizational Performance. Implementation is the
most difficult step because it involves moving from the known to the unknown and is therefore
risky, stressful and complex. However, it can be effective with a participative style of mgt.
Training employees on changes during implementing change assisted in improving hotels
performance. This was because training gives them knowledge, skills and expertise needed when
implementing the changes hence fostering quick implementation of the change.
The research findings indicate that reactive and incremental changes are more common in hotel
firms and that resistance is higher in radical changes than in incremental changes.
Organizations undertake change in order to improve performance through reduced costs,
improved efficiencies, increased revenue, better utilized employees, reduced risk exposure,
efficiently meeting the needs and wants of customers etc. To improve performance, changes must
be made to the processes, systems organization structures or job roles and ultimately these
changes impact how people do their jobs. Effective change management strategies should be
used to implement changes and reduce resistance to change.
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS.
On the basis of this research, the following recommendations were adopted:
1. Staff training related to the change.
Hotels should train their staff on the new areas of change to ensure that they gain the knowledge,
skills and expertise needed when planning managing and implementing the changes hence
fostering quick implementation of the change and reduce resistance to change.
2. Effective communication between managers and employees impacted by the changes.
Hotels should communicate to employees’ details of the change including reasons why the
change is important and the potential consequences of the change. Open communication reduces
resistance and fosters change implementation as it increases awareness on the need for change
and free flow of information between employees and managers.
3. Capability and resources allocation in the hotels.
Hotels should ensure that their employees have the full resources and capabilities they need to
support them through the change process especially when implementing strategies for managing
change.
4. Documentation of the change process.
In order for the hotel to develop and implement successful changes, managers should define and
document each of the specific benefits to be achieved through the change and how it will be
measured, this will help employees have a sense of direction on the action to be taken in order
for them to achieve the intended benefits.
5. Application of participatory style of management.
Hotels should use a participatory style of management as it allows employees to fully participate
in the change process, as a result the employees embrace and are more committed to the change;
they become fully involved in the change and establish a feeling of ownership in the process thus
reducing resistance and improving the hotels performance.
6. Managers should demonstrate Strong leadership throughout the Organization.
Spreading leadership and decision-making responsibilities inspires and motivates everyone to
take a role in implementing change thus improving the hotels performance.
5.4 Suggestions for further study
Further research interests should consider the following:
The impacts of management styles on the implementation of organizational change.
Managers role in implementing organizational change.
.
REFERENCES
Ansoff, I.H. (1990), Implanting Strategic Management, London: Prentice Hall International, Ltd.
Burnes, B. (1994). Managing Change, London: Pitman Publishing.
Beer, M. & Nohria, N. (2000). Breaking the Code of Change, Harvard Business School Press.
Carnall, A. (1995). Managing Change in Organisations, Hertfordshire : Prentice-Hall.
Drucker, P. (1993). The Discipline of Innovation. Harvard Review pp. 3.
Fevzi, O. (1999). Management of the change process in hotels, Oxford Brookes University.
Go and Pine, (1995). Globalization Strategy in the Hospitality Industry, London: Routledge.
Grundy T. (1993). Implementing Strategic Change, London: Kogan Page Limited.
Hill and Jones, R.G. (1992). Strategic Management, An Integrated Approach , Boston :Houghton
Company.
Hiatt,J.&Creasey,T. (2010). Change Management, Prosci Research.
Johnson, G. and Scholes, K. (1997).Exploring Corporate Strategy, Hertfordshire: Prentice-Hall.
Kaiser. J. (1989). The Principles and Practices of Management In the Hospitality Industry, New
York: Reinhold.
Kotter.J. (1995).Leading change: why transformation efforts fail, Harvard Business Review. Free
press.
Lewin,K. (1951). Field Theory in Social Science, New York : Harper and Row.
Mugenda, O., Mugenda, A. (1994). Research Methods: Quantitative and Qualitative Techniques.
Nairobi : African Centre for Technology Studies.
Nadler, A. and Tushman, M.L. (1999). Beyond the charismatic leader: leadership and
organisational change, California Management Review, 32 (2), pp. 77-97.
Thompson, J. (1998). Strategic Management, Awareness and Change, London: Chapman & Hall.
Wood, R.C. (1994). Organizational Behaviour for Hospitality Management , Oxford:
Butterworth Heinemann Ltd.
Waddell, D. and Sohal, A.S. (1998) Resistance: a constructive tool for change management,
Management Decision, 36 (8), pp. 543-548.
Students also viewed