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CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 1
Currentc Networkc Architecture
Southernc Newc Hampshirec Universityc
ITc 640-Q5156c Telecommunication/c Networkingc
Dr.c Charliec Shao
Projectc Plan
SNHUEnegryc Inc,c isc ac mediumc sizedc oilc andc gasc companyc thatc isc focusedc onc thec
discoveryc andc drillingc ofc oil-basec products.c c Thec companyc wantsc toc growc focusedc onc
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 2
explorationc intoc ac companyc thatc alsoc providesc thec transportationc andc refinementc ofc itsc
discoveries.c c Thisc isc ac bigc stepc forc thec company,c andc itc wantsc toc makec surec thec
communicationc infrastructurec isc readyc toc deliveryc inc thec nextc 12c toc 18c months.c
Physicalc networkc devices:c
Perc article:c “Exploringc thec Modernc Computerc Network:c Types,c Functions,c andc Hardware”c
thec networkc infrastructurec containsc threec categoriesc ofc networkc components:
Endc devices
Intermediaryc devices
Networkc media
Hardwarec comprisesc thec componentsc ofc thec networkc platformc thatc typicallyc arec visible,c
suchc asc ac laptop,c PC,c switch,c router,c wirelessc accessc point,c orc thec cablingc usedc toc
connectc thec devices.c Occasionally,c somec networkc componentsc mayc notc bec visible.c Inc thec
casec ofc wirelessc media,c forc example,c messagesc arec transmittedc throughc thec airc usingc
invisiblec radioc frequencyc orc infraredc waves.c c Thec physicalc Computersc (workc stations,c
laptops,c filec servers,c webc servers)
Networkc printers
VoIPc phones
TelePresencec endpoints
Securityc cameras
Mobilec handheldc devicesc (suchc asc smartphones,c tablets,c PDAs,c andc wirelessc
debit/creditc cardc readersc andc barcodec scanners)c (Exploringc thec Modernc Computerc
Network:c Types,c Functions,c andc Hardware,c 2013).
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 3
Thec physicalc ofc thec networkc withc thec OSIc transportc layer:c switch,c router,c firewall,c PCc
workc stations,c servers,c application.c c Thec devicec usec forc networkc layerc isc router.c c Layerc 3,c
thec networkc layerc ofc thec OSIc model,c providesc anc end-to-endc logicalc addressingc systemc
soc thatc ac packetc ofc datac canc bec routedc acrossc severalc layerc 2c networksc (Ethernet,c Tokenc
Ring,c Framec Relay,c etc.).c Notec thatc networkc layerc addressesc canc alsoc bec referredc toc asc
logicalc addresses.c c Toc makec itc easierc toc managec thec networkc andc controlc thec flowc ofc
packets,c manyc organizationsc separatec theirc networkc layerc addressingc intoc smallerc partsc
knownc asc subnets.c Routersc usec thec networkc orc subnetc portionc ofc thec IPc addressingc toc
routec trafficc betweenc differentc networks.c Eachc routerc mustc bec configuredc specificallyc forc
thec networksc orc subnetsc thatc willc bec connectedc toc itsc interfacesc (Simoneau,c N.D).c
Thec Firewallc devicec isc usec inc Transportc layerc ofc thec OSIc model,c offersc end-to-endc
communicationc betweenc endc devicesc throughc ac network.c Dependingc onc thec application,c thec
transportc layerc eitherc offersc reliable,c connection-orientedc orc connectionless,c best-effortc
communicationsc (Simoneau,c N.D).
Criticalc Trafficc Patterns:c
c Accordingc article:c “7c factorsc thatc anc impactc yourc networkc performance”c Annesec Teamc
statesc ac network’sc limitationsc arec criticalc areasc ofc concernc whenc performingc capacityc andc
performancec management.c Thesec limitationsc primarilyc includec thec following:
Errors:c Networkc errorsc canc generallyc bec categorizedc intoc problemsc withc queuing,c latency,c
andc jitter.c Thec datac queuec canc affectc networkc performancec inc severalc ways.c Forc example,c
largerc queuesc increasec thec waitc time,c whilec smallerc queuesc increasec thec probabilityc ofc
droppedc data.
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 4
Speed:c Pipec sizec isc thec amountc ofc datac thec networkc canc sendc simultaneouslyc onc ac singlec
connection.c It'sc oftenc confusedc withc connectionc speed,c althoughc pipec sizec doesn'tc actuallyc
affectc thec speedc atc whichc datac travelsc betweenc nodes.c Whilec hardwarec capabilitiesc determinec
thec maximumc bandwidthc thatc isc theoreticallyc available,c softwarec mechanismsc typicallyc
allocatec ac lowerc bandwidthc forc eachc networkc service.
Memory:c Memoryc isc ac computingc resourcec thatc hasc requirementsc inc bothc thec datac andc
controlc planes.c Thec performancec ofc thec entirec networkc canc degradec whenc controlc planec
processesc fail,c asc isc thec casec whenc routingc convergencec requiresc additionalc memory.
Distance:c Distancec canc havec ac dramaticc impactc onc networkc performance,c especiallyc whenc
thec applicationsc haven'tc beenc optimized.c Thec maximumc speedc atc whichc datac canc bec forwardc
isc thec speedc ofc light,c whichc isc 186,000c milesc perc secondc orc 186c milesc perc millisecond.c Thisc
packetc forwardingc delayc becomesc significantc whenc anc enterprisec isc runningc anc internationalc
client/serverc application.
Centralc Processingc Unitc (CPU):c Ac node'sc centralc processingc unitc (CPU)c isc typicallyc usedc byc
bothc thec controlc andc datac planes.c Capacityc andc performancec managementc requiresc ac networkc
andc itsc nodesc toc havec insufficientc processingc capabilityc atc allc times.c Ac singlec nodec withc anc
inadequatec CPUc canc impactc thec entirec networkc duec toc thec highc degreec ofc interdependencec
betweenc thec nodesc inc thec modernc network.c Insufficientc processingc canc alsoc increasec latencyc
ifc ac node'sc CPUc isc unablec toc keepc upc withc networkc traffic.
Applications:c Applicationsc canc alsoc affectc ac network'sc capacityc andc performance,c withc issuesc
suchc asc thec amountc ofc datac thec applicationc isc ablec toc transmitc comparedc toc whatc itc needsc toc
transmit.c Thisc factorc isc especiallyc criticalc forc thec performancec ofc Widec Areac Networksc
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 5
(WANs).c Additionalc applicationc characteristicsc thatc affectc capacityc andc performancec includec
applicationc keep-alivesc andc windowc sizesc (Team,c 2017).
Managementc ofc ac network'sc availability,c capacity,c andc performancec isc thereforec
crucialc forc achievingc anc organization'sc businessc objectives.c Itc reallyc impactc ofc losingc
connectivityc betweenc Dallasc routerc andc thec Memphisc routerc affectc toc business,c
communicationc betweenc thec users.c c Thec networkc losec connectivityc meansc lostc dollarsc andc
lostc businessc opportunities.c Thec applicationc mayc bec impactc shouldc be:c email,c Videoc
Conferencing,c Payroll,c Accountingc andc HR.c Whenc thec routerc losingc connectivesc thec usersc
mustc waitingc onc theirc networkc toc catchc upc toc thec speedc atc whichc theyc arec working.c Theyc
havec toc sitc andc waitc forc filec transfers,c applicationsc toc open,c attachmentsc toc download,c andc
webc pagesc toc open.c Slowc internetc causesc costlyc delaysc inc thec companyc operationsc andc workc
flowc management.c Accordingc toc Pangiotisc Vouzisc inc thec article:c “Impactc ofc Packetc Loss,c
Jitter,c andc Latencyc onc VoIP”c thec poorc VoIPc qualityc becausec latency,c jiter,c andc packetc lossc
canc neverc bec completelyc eliminatedc fromc realc worldc networks.c (Vouzis,c 2016).c Telephonyc isc
allc UDPc based,c andc packetsc mayc notc arrivec atc thec destination,c orc getc discardedc ifc theyc arrivec
delayedc orc containc errors.c Thisc resultsc inc missingc audioc informationc atc thec destination.c
c SQLc Server,c similarc toc otherc enterprisec databasec systems,c canc placec anc extremelyc
largec loadc onc anc I/Oc subsystem.c Inc mostc largec databasec applications,c physicalc I/Oc
configurationc andc tuningc playc ac significantc rolec inc overallc systemc performance.c Therec arec
threec majorc I/Oc performancec factorsc toc consider:
I/Oc bandwidth:c Thec aggregatec bandwidth,c typicallyc measuredc inc megabytesc perc
secondc thatc canc bec sustainedc toc ac databasec device
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 6
I/Oc latency:c Thec latency,c typicallyc measuredc inc milliseconds,c betweenc ac requestc forc
I/Oc byc thec databasec systemc andc thec pointc wherec thec I/Oc requestc isc completed
CPUc cost:c Thec hostc CPUc cost,c typicallyc measuredc inc CPUc microseconds,c forc thec
databasec systemc toc completec ac singlec I/Oc (Descriptionc ofc supportc forc networkc
databasec filesc inc SQLc Server,c 2016).
Accordingc fromc Renec Millmanc inc thec article:c “What’sc slowingc downc yourc networkc
andc howc toc fixc itc Networkc managementc toc watchc whenc networkc slowc isc toc seec
bandwidthc asc thec problem,c butc withc investigation,c itc isc oftenc notc withinc ac LANc
environment,c wherec ac highc amountc ofc bandwidthc isc available.c Morec likely,c thec problemc
liesc withinc thec WAN,c wherec capacityc isc morec finitec andc expensivec (Millman,c N.D).
Patternc acrossc thec Infrastructure:
Accordingc Michellec inc article:”c Thec Layersc ofc thec OSIc Modelc Illustrated”c Thec
organizationsc havec ac systemsc (servers,c desktops,c laptops,c mobilec devices,c etc.)c availablec
worldwidec andc connectedc throughc LANc andc WANc connectionsc inc multiplec locationsc suchc asc
thec internet,c internalc networks,c perimeterc networks,c asc wellc asc acrossc firewallsc andc otherc
securityc equipmentc thatc needc toc bec managedc andc supportedc centrally,c usingc ac systemsc
managementc toolc orc solutionc thatc hasc toc bec designed,c adaptedc andc configuredc inc orderc toc
addressc businessc andc technicalc concerns.c c Firstc wec needc identifyc networkc requirementc onc 2c
factors:
Businessc goals:c Focusc onc howc thec networkc canc makec thec businessc morec successful.c
Technicalc requirements:c Focusc onc howc thec technologyc isc implementedc withinc thec network
Thec nextc onec wec needc characterizingc thec existingc network:c Informationc aboutc thec currentc
networkc andc servicesc isc gatheredc andc analyzed.c Itc isc necessaryc toc comparec thec functionalityc
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 7
ofc thec existingc networkc withc thec definedc goalsc ofc thec newc project.c Thec designerc determinesc
whetherc anyc existingc equipment,c infrastructure,c andc protocolsc canc bec reused,c andc whatc newc
equipmentc andc protocolsc arec neededc toc completec thec design.c c Thenc designc networkc
topology:c thec networkc applicationsc andc servicec requirementsc arec identified,c andc thenc thec
networkc isc designedc toc supportc them.c Whenc thec designc isc complete,c ac prototypec orc proof-of-
conceptc testc isc performed.c Thisc approachc ensuresc thatc thec newc designc functionsc asc expectedc
beforec itc isc implemented.c Routersc arec smallc electronicc devicesc thatc joinc multiplec computerc
networksc togetherc viac eitherc wiredc orc wirelessc connections.c c Routersc containc ac processorc
(CPU),c severalc kindsc ofc digitalc memory,c andc input-outputc (I/O)c interfaces.c Theyc functionc asc
whenc ac networkc packetc leavesc thec computer,c orc otherc networkingc device,c inc routec toc ac
destinationc outsidec its’c ownc LAN,c somec additionalc informationc mustc bec attachedc toc thec
packet.c c Thisc informationc wouldc bec inc thec formc ofc ac defaultc gateway.c c Thisc defaultc gatewayc
wouldc typicallyc bec ac router.c c Ifc thec routerc doesc notc havec specificc knowledgec ofc wherec thec
packetc shouldc bec delivered,c itc forwardsc thec packetc upstreamc toc anotherc special-purposec
computers,c onec thatc doesc notc requirec ac keyboardc orc displayc (Michell,c 2017).c c
Networkc switchesc arec thec gluec thatc bindsc computerc communications.c c Yourc computerc
atc workc typicallyc connectsc toc ac networkc switch.c Ac switch’sc jobc isc toc receivec packetsc fromc ac
computer,c orc otherc networkingc device,c andc sendc themc toc thec properc place.c c Thec switchc
keepsc ac listc ofc allc thec devicesc connectedc toc itc (Aubrett’sc non-technicalc ITc dictionary).c c c Inc
addition,c switchesc sharec thisc informationc withc otherc switchesc toc whichc theyc arec linked.c c c
Thisc way,c ifc computerc Ac needsc toc communicatec withc computerc B,c thec switchesc knowc
exactlyc wherec computerc Ac andc computerc Bc arec connectedc asc longc asc theyc existc onc thec samec
LAN.c c Ifc computerc Ac andc computerc Bc doc notc existc onc thec samec LAN,c thec computerc mustc
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 8
providec thec informationc ofc ac router,c calledc ac defaultc gateway,c whichc canc handlec thec trafficc
whenc itc sendsc thec packet.
Firewall:c c Ac firewallc isc thec gatekeeperc betweenc ac privatec networkc andc thec restc ofc thec
world.c Thec firewallc determinesc what,c ifc anything,c insidec thec privatec networkc shouldc bec
accessiblec fromc thec outside.c Firewallsc existc inc manyc forms.c Somec arec hardwarec appliancesc
whichc arec dedicatedc solelyc toc performingc thec firewallc functions.c Somec firewallsc arec softwarec
componentsc whichc runc onc routersc designedc toc sitc atc thec networkc edge.c Somec firewallsc arec
softwarec packagesc whichc runc onc ac server.c Mostc PCc operatingc systemsc suchc asc Microsoftc
havec ac built-inc firewallc toc protectc localc resourcesc (Aubrett’sc non-technicalc IT,c dictionary).c c
Thec firewall’sc jobc isc toc examinec networkc packetsc whichc arec sentc toc destinationsc withinc thec
privatec networkc toc seec ifc theyc shouldc bec allowedc toc pass.
Performancec Issues:c
Itc reallyc impactc ofc losingc connectivityc betweenc Dallasc routerc andc thec Memphisc routerc
affectc toc business,c communicationc betweenc thec users.c c Thec networkc losec connectivityc meansc
lostc dollarsc andc lostc businessc opportunities.c Thec applicationc mayc bec impactc shouldc be:c
email,c Videoc Conferencing,c Payroll,c Accountingc andc HR.c Whenc thec routerc losingc
connectivesc thec usersc mustc waitingc onc theirc networkc toc catchc upc toc thec speedc atc whichc theyc
arec working.c Theyc havec toc sitc andc waitc forc filec transfers,c applicationsc toc open,c attachmentsc
toc download,c andc webc pagesc toc open.c Slowc internetc causesc costlyc delaysc inc thec companyc
operationsc andc workc flowc management.c
Thec riskc ofc justc havingc ac singlec routerc orc switchc withinc Memphisc officec itc couldc shutc
downc thec Memphisc sitec ifc thec routerc inc Memphisc down,c orc switchc down.c c Thec routec trafficc
takesc amongc differentc networkc providersc alsoc affectsc performance.
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 9
Securityc issues:c
Ac highc securityc communicationc flowc pathc isc notc usefulc whenc thec networkc pathc
cannotc supportc capacityc andc reachabilityc requirements.c Thec deploymentc phasec inc
communicationc networkc canc facilitatec anc optimalc networkc pathc byc focusingc onc bothc thec
networkc performancec andc thec networkc securityc atc thec samec time.c c Thec networkingc andc
securityc industriesc reflectc thisc dichotomyc withc strongc securityc companiesc andc strongc
networkingc companies.c Ac firewallc isc ac networkc securityc devicec thatc grantsc orc rejectsc
networkc accessc toc trafficc flowsc betweenc anc untrustedc zonec (e.g.,c thec Internet)c andc ac trustedc
zonec (e.g.,c ac privatec orc corporatec network).c Thec firewallc actsc asc thec demarcationc pointc orc
“trafficc cop”c inc thec network,c asc allc communicationc shouldc flowc throughc itc andc itc isc wherec
trafficc isc grantedc orc rejectedc accessc (Singh,N.D).c c Ac firewallc isc ac networkc securityc devicec
thatc monitorsc incomingc andc outgoingc networkc trafficc andc decidesc whetherc toc allowc orc blockc
specificc trafficc basedc onc ac definedc setc ofc securityc rules.c Thereforec ifc networkc downc isc affectc
toc firewall.c c Ac firewallc isc everyc bitc asc criticalc toc securityc asc anc anti-virusc program.c Firewallsc
stopc malwarec fromc spreadingc toc ac networkc andc defendc againstc hackersc attemptingc toc
infiltratec ac targetedc system.c Disablingc ac firewallc canc thereforec leavec ac businessc vulnerablec toc
abuse,c allowingc virusesc toc infectc interconnectedc devices,c andc givingc cybercriminalsc thec
opportunityc toc executec maliciousc codec remotely.c End-to-endc latencyc (thec delayc thatc happensc
toc ac packetc endc toc endc fromc thec PCc toc thec server)c andc anyc errorsc causingc re-transmissionc onc
thec networkc willc alsoc degradec applicationc performancec andc slowc thec networkc (Millman,c
N.D).
Summarizec thec projectc requirementsc andc deliverables
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 10
Inc thec future,c thec companyc willc extendc thesec servicesc acrossc thec WANc byc usingc
TCP/IPc communicationc processes,c becausec Widec Areac Networkc (WAN)c toc connectc thec twoc
locations.c WANc connectionsc varyc inc bandwidthc dependingc onc yourc needs,c andc mayc bec setc
upc asc ac directc connectionc orc ac virtualc privatec networkc (VPN)c viac thec Internet.c Eitherc way,c
connectingc yourc locationsc willc enablec betterc andc morec securec communicationc withinc yourc
business.c c Forc Memphisc sitec wec willc getc extrac switchc andc routerc forc backc up,c inc casec thec
singlec switch,c andc routerc down.c c Ic wouldc considerc securityc whenc makingc anyc changec toc
companyc networkc infrastructure,c especiallyc whenc connectingc twoc sites.c Ic wouldc considerc
higherc levelc protectionc networkc securityc whenc expendc thec network.
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 11
Reference
Aubrett'sc Non-Technicalc ITc Dictionaryc -c Switch.c (n.d.).c Retrievedc Julyc 9,c 2017,c fromc
https://www.aubrett.com/non-technical/network/switch/non-technical-switch
Balancingc networkc performancec andc networkc securityc inc ac smartc gridc application.c
(n.d.).c Retrievedc Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7819235/
Descriptionc ofc supportc forc networkc databasec filesc inc SQLc Server.c (2016,c Aprilc 12).c
Retrievedc Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/304261/description-of-
support-for-network-database-files-in-sql-server
Exploringc thec Modernc Computerc Network:c Types,c Functions,c andc Hardware.c (2013,c
Decemberc 13).c Retrievedc Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc
http://www.ciscopress.com/articles/article.asp?p=2158215
Millman,c R.c (n.d.).c What’sc slowingc downc yourc networkc andc howc toc fixc it.c Retrievedc
Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc http://www.computerweekly.com/feature/Whats-slowing-down-your-
network-and-how-to-fix-it
Mitchell,c B.c (2017,c Aprilc 07).c Thec Layersc ofc thec OSIc Modelc Illustrated.c Retrievedc
Julyc 9,c 2017,c fromc https://www.lifewire.com/layers-of-the-osi-model-illustrated-818017
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 12
Michell,c B.c (2017,c Februaryc 8).c Whatc Isc ac Routerc forc Computerc Networks?c Retrievedc
Julyc 9,c 2017,c fromc https://www.lifewire.com/how-routers-work-816456
Ranbe,c R.c (n.d.).c Whatc Happensc ifc ac Firewallc Isc Disabled?c Retrievedc Julyc 9,c 2017,c
fromc http://smallbusiness.chron.com/happens-firewall-disabled-62134.html
Simoneau,c P.c (n.d.).c Thec OSIc Model:c Understandingc thec Sevenc Layersc ofc Computerc
Networks.c Retrievedc Julyc 9,c 2017,c fromc http://ru6.cti.gr/bouras-
old/WP_Simoneau_OSIModel.pdf
Singh,c N.c (n.d.).c WHATc ISc Ac FIREWALL?c Firewallsc andc Theirc Evolution.c Retrievedc
Julyc 9,c 2017,c fromc https://www.paloaltonetworks.com/cyberpedia/what-is-a-firewall
Team,c A.c (2017,c Aprilc 18).c 7c FACTORSc THATc CANc IMPACTc YOURc NETWORKc
PERFORMANCE.c Retrievedc Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc http://www.annese.com/blog/7-factors-that-
can-impact-your-network-performance
Vouzis,c P.c (2016,c Augustc 18).c Impactc ofc Packetc Loss,c Jitter,c andc Latencyc onc VoIP.c Retrievedc
Julyc 23,c 2017,c fromc https://netbeez.net/2016/08/18/impact-of-packet-loss-jitter-and-latency-on-
voip/
CURRENTc NETWORKc ARCHITECTURE 13
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