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Final Project
Ashley Jones
HUM 100
08/18/2023
Kimberlee Neitz
YOUR ASSIGNMENT: Please carefully study your assigned resources for this
week and review the instructions and rubric for this assignment before you begin.
Then just click and type to fill in all text boxes on the remaining pages. The text
boxes are automatically formatted and double-spaced for you, and they will grow
in size as you type to provide you with as much space as you need to explain
your ideas. Complete all parts.
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Impact
Type a paragraph that names and describes the cultural work you were analyzing
back in Weeks 2 and 4 (unless you switched topics with instructor approval). Explain
several of the work’s characteristics. Remember to cite sources in APA format, as
prescribed by the university.
The Crazy Horse Memorial is a mountain monument under construction on privately
held land in the Black Hills, in Custer County, South Dakota, United States. It depicts
the Oglala Lakota warrior Crazy Horse, riding a horse and pointing to his tribal land.
The memorial is being carved from Thunderhead Mountain with a series of controlled
explosions. The site also encompasses a visitor center, a museum documenting
Native American history, and a university. The memorial is owned by the Crazy Horse
Memorial Foundation.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Type a paragraph that explains the purpose of your selected cultural work. Analyze
the creator’s possible intention(s) and evaluate how successful the creator was in
accomplishing that goal(s). Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed
by the university.
The Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation’s mission is to protect and preserve the
culture, tradition, and living heritage of the North American Indians. The foundation
demonstrates its commitment to this endeavor by following these objectives:
Continuing the progress on the world’s largest sculptural undertaking by carving a
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Memorial of Lakota leader Crazy Horse. Providing educational and cultural
programming to encourage harmony and reconciliation among all peoples and
nations. Acting as a repository for Native American artifacts, arts, and crafts through
THE INDIAN MUSEUM OF NORTH AMERICA and THE NATIVE AMERICAN
EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL CENTER. Establishing and operating THE INDIAN
UNIVERSITY OF NORTH AMERICA, and when practical, a medical training center
for American Indians. The Memorial’s namesake, Oglala Lakota leader Crazy Horse,
and the founders of Crazy Horse Memorial–Chief Henry Standing Bear (1874-1953),
Korczak (1908-1982) and Ruth (1926-2014) Ziolkowski continue to serve as
examples of discernment, determination, courage, faith, imagination, fortitude,
freedom, promise, strength, and character. The original intention of the Crazy Horse
Memorial was to pay tribute to indigenous people. Chief Henry Standing Bear
envisioned a memorial to honor Native Americans. Standing Bear and Native elders
chose and invited Korczak Ziolkowski to carve a monument in South Dakota’s sacred
Black Hills.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Type a paragraph that explains how your selected cultural work reflects the culture in
which it was created. In what ways is this work a product of its time, place, etc.?
Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the university.
The Crazy Horse Memorial reflects the culture in which it was created by honoring
Native American history and culture. It is a product of its time and place because it
was created during a time when Native American culture was not widely recognized
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or celebrated in mainstream American society. The memorial serves as a reminder of
the importance of reconciliation, respecting differences, embracing diversity, striving
for unity, and appreciating life’s deeper meaning as it has always been represented in
Native American cultural values. The Crazy Horse Memorial is a mountain monument
under construction on privately held land in the Black Hills, in Custer County, South
Dakota, United States. It will depict the Oglala Lakota warrior Crazy Horse, riding a
horse and pointing to his tribal land. The memorial is being carved from Thunderhead
Mountain with a series of controlled explosions. The site also encompasses a visitor
center, a museum documenting Native American history, and a university. The
memorial’s namesake, Oglala Lakota leader Crazy Horse, was among the warriors
who fought under Sitting Bull at the Battle of the Little Bighorn (1876), where Colonel
George Armstrong Custer and his men were killed; about 50 Lakota and Northern
Cheyenne also died. The memorial is owned by the Crazy Horse Memorial
Foundation. The original intention of the Crazy Horse Memorial was to pay tribute to
indigenous people. Chief Henry Standing Bear envisioned a memorial to honor Native
Americans. Standing Bear and Native elders chose and invited Korczak Ziolkowski to
carve a monument in South Dakota’s sacred Black Hills.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
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Questions
Brainstorm some questions you think your chosen work brings up about relationships
between culture and expression. In other words, type a paragraph listing and
explaining questions that compare the creator’s possible intentions behind this work
to your own interpretations of it.
The Crazy Horse Memorial raises several questions about the relationships between
culture and expression. Here are some questions that compare the creator’s possible
intentions behind this work.
What cultural values and beliefs does the Crazy Horse Memorial represent?
How does the memorial reflect the culture in which it was created?
What is the relationship between the memorial’s artistic expression and its cultural
significance?
How does the memorial challenge or reinforce cultural stereotypes and assumptions?
What is the role of art in preserving and promoting cultural heritage?
How can art be used to promote cross-cultural understanding and reconciliation?
The Crazy Horse Memorial was created to honor Native American history and culture.
The creator’s possible intentions behind this work may have been to promote cross-
cultural understanding and reconciliation, challenge cultural stereotypes and
assumptions, and preserve and promote cultural heritage. However, your own
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interpretations of the memorial may depend on your own cultural background and
experiences. For example, you may interpret the memorial as a symbol of Native
American resistance and resilience against colonialism and oppression. Alternatively,
you may see it as a celebration of Native American culture and traditions. The
relationship between the creator’s intentions and your own interpretations of the
memorial raises important questions about the role of art in promoting cultural
understanding and appreciation.
Brainstorm some questions you think your chosen work brings up about how each of
us sees the world and values different parts of it on our own. Type a paragraph listing
and explaining questions about the ways you and others view and appreciate –
positively or negatively – this cultural work through individual/personal experiences
and potentially learn from it.
Here are some questions that the Crazy Horse Memorial raises about how each of us
sees the world and values different parts of it on our own: How do our individual
experiences and cultural backgrounds shape our interpretations of the Crazy Horse
Memorial? What can we learn from the memorial about Native American history and
culture? How can we use art to promote cross-cultural understanding and
appreciation? What is the role of cultural heritage in shaping our identities and
worldviews? How can we appreciate cultural heritage without appropriating or
exploiting it? What is the relationship between cultural heritage and social justice?
The Crazy Horse Memorial raises important questions about how we view and
appreciate cultural heritage. How do our individual experiences and cultural
backgrounds shape our interpretations of the memorial? What can we learn from the
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memorial about Native American history and culture? How can we appreciate cultural
heritage without appropriating or exploiting it? What is the relationship between
cultural heritage and social justice? By asking these questions, we can gain a deeper
understanding of the memorial’s cultural significance and use it as a tool for
promoting cross-cultural understanding and appreciation.
Type a paragraph that explains some specific procedures for researching and
answering the questions you named in the two text boxes above in this section.
To research and answer the questions about the relationships between culture and
expression, and the ways you and others view and appreciate cultural heritage, you
can use various sources of information, such as: Websites that provide information
about different cultures, their history, traditions, values, and beliefs. For example, you
can use Khan Academy to learn about the concept of cultural heritage and its
importance. You can also use FamilySearch to discover your own cultural identity and
heritage through genealogy and family stories. Books, articles, journals, and other
publications that explore the topics of culture and heritage from different perspectives.
You can use online databases or libraries to find relevant sources for your research.
For example, you can use Google Scholar to search for academic papers on culture
and heritage. Interviews with people who belong to different cultural groups or have
experience with different cultures. You can ask them questions about their cultural
identity, their traditions, their views on cultural heritage, and their opinions on other
cultures. You can use online platforms or social media to connect with people from
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different backgrounds and locations. For example, you can use Skype to conduct
video interviews with people from around the world. Personal observations and
reflections on your own culture and heritage, as well as other cultures that you
encounter or learn about. You can use journals, diaries, blogs, or podcasts to record
your thoughts and feelings about culture and heritage. You can also use creative
forms of expression, such as art, music, poetry, or storytelling to express your cultural
identity and appreciation. For example, you can use Spotify to listen to music from
different cultures and create your own playlists. These are some of the procedures
that you can use to research and answer questions about culture and heritage.
Analysis: Culture Shifts/Events
Type a paragraph that explains a culture shift or specific event that either caused, or
was caused by, your selected work. Why might something like that move humans to
express themselves? Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the
university.
The Crazy Horse Memorial was created as a tribute to Native American history and
culture. It reflects a cultural shift towards recognizing and celebrating the contributions
of indigenous people to American society. The memorial also represents a cultural
shift in the way that Native American history is taught and remembered. For many
years, Native American history was ignored or misrepresented in mainstream
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American culture. The Crazy Horse Memorial serves as a reminder of the importance
of preserving and promoting Native American culture and heritage. It also raises
important questions about the relationship between cultural heritage and social
justice, and the role of art in promoting cross-cultural understanding and appreciation.
The Crazy Horse Memorial might move humans to express themselves because it
represents a cultural heritage that is often overlooked or misrepresented in
mainstream American society. By creating a monument that honors Native American
history and culture, the creators of the memorial are expressing their appreciation for
this cultural heritage and their desire to promote cross-cultural understanding and
appreciation. The memorial also serves as a reminder of the importance of preserving
and promoting cultural heritage for future generations. By expressing themselves
through art, the creators of the memorial can communicate their message to a wider
audience and inspire others to appreciate and celebrate cultural diversity.
Great American Adventures. (n.d.). What was the original intention of the Crazy Horse
Memorial? 8
Name a concept or resource from our course resources and type a few sentences
explaining how it helped you learn and analyze the cultural shift you described above.
Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the university.
One concept from our course resources that helped me learn and analyze the cultural
shift you described above is the idea of cultural appropriation. Cultural appropriation is
the act of taking or using elements from another culture, especially without proper
respect or understanding. It can be seen as a form of exploitation, domination, or
erasure of the original culture. The Crazy Horse Memorial can be seen as an example
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of cultural appropriation, as it involves a non-Native American sculptor carving a
Native American hero on a sacred land that was stolen by the U.S. government. The
memorial also uses the name and image of Crazy Horse, who never allowed his
picture to be taken and who was known for his humility and resistance to white
encroachment. Some Lakota people have criticized the memorial as a sacrilege and
an insult to their culture and history. However, the Crazy Horse Memorial can also be
seen as an example of cultural appreciation, as it involves a collaboration between a
Lakota elder and a sculptor who shared a common vision of honoring Native
American heroes and preserving Native American culture. The memorial also aims to
be a humanitarian and educational endeavor that benefits Native American causes
and promotes Native American awareness and understanding. Some Lakota people
have supported the memorial as a symbol of pride and resilience. The Crazy Horse
Memorial, therefore, illustrates the complexity and controversy of cultural
representation and interpretation. It shows how different groups of people can have
conflicting views on what constitutes honor, respect, and justice. It also invites us to
reflect on our own assumptions and biases about Native American history and
culture, and to learn more about the diverse and dynamic realities of Native American
people today.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
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Analysis: Relationship Between Creative Expression & Culture
Type a paragraph that explains the relationship between your selected work and its
broader culture – at the time it was created, now, and/or in the future. To which
universal cultural themes or ideas does your selected work connect? Remember to
cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the university.
The Crazy Horse Memorial is a work of art that reflects the relationship between
Native American culture and the broader American culture. It is a monument that
honors the Lakota leader Crazy Horse, who was a renowned warrior and defender of
his people’s land, culture, and way of life. He fought against the U.S. military in
several battles, including the Battle of the Little Bighorn in 1876, where he helped
defeat General Custer and his troops. He was killed by a soldier in 1877 at Fort
Robinson, Nebraska. The memorial was commissioned by a Lakota elder named
Henry Standing Bear in 1939, who wanted to honor Native American heroes and
preserve Native American culture. He wrote to a Polish American sculptor named
Korczak Ziolkowski, who had worked briefly on Mount Rushmore, another
monumental carving in the same region that features the faces of four U.S.
Presidents. Ziolkowski accepted the challenge and dedicated his life to the project,
which he envisioned as a humanitarian and educational endeavor that would benefit
Native American causes and promote Native American awareness and
understanding. The memorial is still under construction and is expected to take many
more years to complete. It will be the largest sculpture in the world when finished,
measuring 641 feet long and 563 feet high. The site also encompasses a visitor
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center, a museum documenting Native American history, a cultural center showcasing
Native American art and crafts, an educational center offering scholarships and
programs for Native American students, and a university that offers courses on Native
American studies. The complex attracts millions of visitors every year and hosts
various events and activities that celebrate Native American culture.
The memorial is a symbol of the cultural shift that has occurred in the U.S. over time,
from a history of oppression and conflict to a recognition and appreciation of diversity
and reconciliation. It shows how Native American culture has influenced and enriched
the broader American culture, as well as how Native American people have faced and
overcome many challenges and hardships. It also shows how different groups of
people can have conflicting views on what constitutes honor, respect, and justice, and
how art can be a powerful medium for expressing and communicating those views.
The memorial connects to some universal cultural themes or ideas, such as identity,
resistance, survival, legacy, and vision. It represents the identity of Crazy Horse as a
leader and a hero of his people, as well as the identity of Native American people. It
represents the resistance of Crazy Horse and his people against the U.S.
government’s attempts to take their land and destroy their culture. It represents the
survival of Native American people despite centuries of genocide, discrimination, and
assimilation. It represents the legacy of Crazy Horse and his people as an inspiration
for future generations. And it represents the vision of Standing Bear and Ziolkowski as
a dream for honoring Native American heroes and preserving Native American
culture.
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Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Name a concept or resource from our course resources and type a few sentences
explaining how it helped you learn and analyze the connections you described above.
Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the university.
One concept or resource from our course resources that could help you learn and
analyze the connections you described above is the humanities lens. The humanities
lens is a way of looking at the world through the perspectives of different disciplines,
such as history, literature, philosophy, art, and religion. The humanities lens helps us
to understand how human beings create, interpret, and communicate meaning
through various forms of expression. It also helps us to appreciate the diversity and
complexity of human cultures and experiences. Using the humanities lens, you could
examine how the Crazy Horse Memorial relates to different aspects of human culture,
such as values, beliefs, traditions, symbols, stories, and aesthetics. You could also
explore how the memorial reflects and influences the social, political, and historical
contexts of its creation and reception. For example, you could ask questions such as:
How does the memorial express the values and beliefs of the Lakota people and their
culture? How does the memorial challenge or critique the dominant narratives and
representations of Native American history and identity in the U.S.? How does the
memorial use artistic techniques and elements to create a powerful and meaningful
visual impact? How does the memorial inspire or provoke different emotional and
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intellectual responses from different audiences? By applying the humanities lens to
your analysis of the Crazy Horse Memorial, you could deepen your understanding of
its cultural significance and relevance to today’s society.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Analysis: Impact on Today’s Issues
Type a paragraph that explains what studying and analyzing your chosen cultural
work has shown you about ways creative expression can affect today’s modern
issues. Remember to cite sources in APA format, as prescribed by the university.
Studying and analyzing the Crazy Horse Memorial can show us how creative
expression can affect today’s modern issues by highlighting the power of art to
convey complex ideas and emotions, challenge dominant narratives and stereotypes,
and promote cultural awareness and understanding. The memorial is a testament to
the resilience, courage, and creativity of the Lakota people and their struggle for
justice and recognition. It also represents a call for unity, respect, and cooperation
among different cultures and communities. By studying the memorial through the
humanities lens, we can learn how to appreciate and respect the diversity of human
experiences and perspectives, and how to use creative expression as a tool for social
change and transformation. We can also learn how to recognize and challenge the
injustices and inequalities that still exist in our society, and how to work towards a
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more inclusive, equitable, and sustainable future for all.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Name a person, concept, or resource from your study of humanities and type a few
sentences explaining how it helped you learn and analyze the impact on today’s
issues that you described above. Remember to cite sources in APA format, as
prescribed by the university.
One person from the study of humanities who has contributed to our understanding of
the impact of creative expression on today’s issues is bell hooks. bell hooks is a
feminist scholar, cultural critic, and writer who has written extensively on the
intersections of race, gender, class, and culture in contemporary society. Her work
emphasizes the importance of critical thinking, dialogue, and creativity in challenging
oppressive systems and promoting social justice. By reading her books and essays,
you can learn how to analyze and critique cultural representations and practices that
perpetuate inequality and violence, and how to create alternative visions and
practices that promote freedom and equality for all. You can also learn how to use
your own voice and creativity to contribute to the ongoing struggles for justice and
liberation in our world.
hooks, b. (2014). Writing beyond race: Living theory and practice. Routledge.
hooks, b. (1992). Eating the other: Desire and resistance. In Black looks: Race
and representation (pp. 21-39). South End Press.
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Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.
https://crazyhorsememorial.org/about-the-memorial/
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References Page
In this section, place your full APA citations for any sources you cited in the text boxes
above. Remember: never list sources here that you did not cite in the text, and never
cite sources within the text that you forget to list here on the references page. In-text
and full reference citations must always match-up and be used in conjunction with
one another.
Visit the Library’s page on formatting a references list for specifics and to see
examples of citations for different types of sources (listed along the left-hand side
bar).
hooks, b. (2014). Writing beyond race: Living theory and practice. Routledge.
hooks, b. (1992). Eating the other: Desire and resistance. In Black looks: Race
and representation (pp. 21-39). South End Press.
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.
https://crazyhorsememorial.org/about-the-memorial/
Crazy Horse Memorial. (n.d.). About the memorial.88
Great American Adventures. (n.d.). What was the original intention of the Crazy Horse
Memorial? 8
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