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Annotated Bibliography #3
Rosa Smith
Liberty University
Article 1
Eckert, J. (2014, October). Teach like a novice: lessons from beginning teachers: all teachers
can add to their classroom management toolkit by reflecting on the lessons they learned
early in their careers. Phi Delta Kappan, 96(2), 13.
Jonathan Eckert (2014) completed his research on classroom management by initially reviewing
his own career as a first time teacher. Classroom management is considered the greatest
challenge for beginning teachers and remains a crucial element throughout a teacher’s career.
The author felt that there is quite a bit of information to glean from a beginning teachers’ own
reflection and perspective of their experiences. The author also notes that there is a large
distinction between novice teachers and veteran teachers in their ability to manage the classroom.
The author has developed an aspect of a teacher’s program that places student teachers in diverse
areas throughout communities to give them first hand experience in teaching the masses. The
author developed seven strategies to assist beginning teachers in their careers. They strategies
that can help improve classroom management are: maintain a growth mindset; try new ideas,
reflect, then accept, reject or modify; do not dismiss extrinsic motivation; give students a reason
to pay attention; be demanding; build important relationships; and fill the classroom. The author
provides guidance on how to establish these strategies within the classroom. The research is
based on the author’s observations and reviews of beginning teachers throughout the program.
The information in this article is beneficial for the intended research because it provides a
blueprint that can be used by teachers in a variety of communities to assist with classroom
Article 2
Eisenman, G., Edwards, S., & Cushman, C. A. (2015). Bringing reality to classroom
management in teacher education. The Professional Educator, 39(1), 1-12.
Eisenman, Edwards and Cushman (2015) discuss the difficulty of effectively managing a
classroom for pre service teachers. The authors focus on the lack of attention that is given to
classroom management in teacher preparation programs. The article discusses why teacher
preparation programs do not focus on classroom management for pre service teachers.
Beginning teachers who were interviewed stated that weak classroom management skills and
disruptive students were the most significant barriers to being a good teacher. Most teachers felt
as if their teacher programs did not provide them with the tools necessary to enter a classroom
and be successful. The authors examined a variety of other topics in teacher education programs
that are primarily highlighted during university studies. For example, when reading skills of
students were found to be lacking throughout the world, universities implemented reading across
the curriculum to combat reading deficiencies. Research was conducted to determine the best
practices for teaching student’s how to read and for teachers to integrate reading in all aspects of
learning. Yet, teaching practicum is usually given one semester within a teacher education
program. The authors noted that most people feel classroom management is about controlling
the behavior of students. This article provides an alternate view and deems classroom
management as a tool to improve student learning. The information in this article is beneficial
for the intended research because it provides an alternative look at what classroom management
is and the importance of professional attention needed to change how it is viewed in educator
Article 3
Floress M, Rock A, Hailemariam A. (2017) The caterpillar game: A classroom management
system. Psychology In The Schools. 54(4):385-403.
Floress, Rock and Hailemariam (2017) conducted a single case experimental design that was
used to evaluate the effects of the caterpillar game, which is a classroom management system.
The classroom management system was used on disruptive behavior in a general education first
grade classroom. This article focuses on the results of the research conducted and the effects of
behavior after the game was introduced into the setting. In the article, the authors note that even
though disruptive behaviors are a major concern for teachers in the profession, most teachers do
not receive adequate training in classroom management when enrolled at university. When
teachers have to deal with frequent disruptive behaviors, it elicits stress and results in teacher
attrition. The authors also discuss the rates that are associated with teacher burn out and teachers
who leave their assignments within the first five years. The authors introduce the concept of
behavior specific praise or BSP and how its correct delivery by teachers can have a profound
impact on a classroom. The authors also note that teachers should focus on BSP rather than the
unwanted behaviors. By creating the environment where specific wanted behaviors are
recognized, students will try to model the wanted behaviors to receive the individual praise and
decrease unwanted behaviors. The information in this article is beneficial for the intended
research because it provides another system that can be used by teachers to assist in improving
classroom management skills.
Article 4
Lester, R. R., Allanson, P. B., & Notar, C. E. (2017). Routines are the foundation of classroom
management. Education, 137(4), 398+.
Lester, Allanson, and Notar (2017) discussed the importance of classroom management and how
routines are required for student success. The authors emphasized two concepts: classroom
management is the key to learning and routines are the foundation of classroom management.
Since students require structure in their lives, classroom management techniques should be
structured into routines that students can follow. According to the authors, the classroom and
school should implicitly provide the environment for learning to take place. The article provided
a comprehensive definition for classroom management that is widely accepted. Classroom
management constitutes the provisions and procedures necessary to establish and maintain an
environment in which instruction and learning can occur. Routines ensure a safe and secure
environment and have a direct impact on student’s academic learning. The authors also discuss
the misconception that classroom management is a set of rules to combat disciplinary problems
that occur in the classroom setting. Discipline is problem based and promotes compliance,
whereas classroom management is concerned with how things are to be completed and serve as
guidelines. The information in this article is beneficial for the intended research because it
demonstrates how the use of effective classroom management techniques can assist in both the
prevention and intervention of negative chaotic classroom environments, which is a large cause
of teacher stress, and burn out rates, which leads to attrition.
Article 5
Gage, N. A., Scott, T., Hirn, R., & MacSuga-Gage, A. (2018). The relationship between
teachers’ implementation of classroom management practices and student behavior in
elementary school. Behavioral Disorders, 43(2), 302-315.
Gage, Scott, Hirn and MacSuga-Gage (2018) researched the effects that a teacher’s classroom
management practices have on a student’s probability of success within the classroom. The
author’s researched evidenced based classroom management practices, which included: active
instruction and supervision of students, opportunities for students to respond and feedback to
students. In the study, the authors examined the degree to which teachers implemented
evidenced based classroom management practices and whether there was a relationship between
use of teacher behaviors and students’ time engaged in instruction and the rate of disruptions.
The authors also noted that there a number of mitigating factors that influence student success,
but the most important is the teacher. The research provided further proof that evidenced based
practices gave students the highest degree of success when employed by teachers. Teachers that
did not utilize evidence based practices struggled to maintain an active learning classroom
environment. Those students were simply not engaged and suffered because of their teacher’s
underuse of evidenced based practices. The information in this article is beneficial for the
intended research because it provides empirical evidence about students who receive low rates of
classroom management practices compared to students with high rates of classroom management
procedures, which can then predict student outcome.
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