GENOME-WIDE ASSOCIATION STUDIES (GWAS) CONDUCT GWAS TO IDENTIFY GENETIC

VARIANTS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPLEX TRAITS AND DISEASES

1. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a sample of 500 individuals, how

many principal components should be included to address population stratification and ensure accurate and

reliable results?

Solution: Population stratification refers to differences in allele frequencies between subpopulations that

can lead to misleading associations in GWAS. Principal component analysis (PCA) is commonly used to

address population stratification by identifying axes of genetic variation between individuals.

The number of principal components to include in GWAS can be determined by plotting the eigenvalues

of the principal components against their respective components. One common approach is to include

principal components that correspond to the inflection point of the scree plot.

To determine the number of principal components needed, one can plot the eigenvalues in descending

order and identify the point at which the plot shows an inflection or levels off. Let’s say in a particular

GWAS study with 500 individuals, the scree plot of eigenvalues shows a clear inflection point after the first

10 principal components. In this case, the number of principal components to include to address population

stratification and ensure accurate results would be 10.

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

2. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analysis, if the lambda value calculated to

adjust for population stratification is 1.5, how much correction needs to be applied for population stratifica-

tion?

Solution: The lambda value in GWAS is a measure of inflation due to population stratification. It is

calculated as the ratio of the observed median chi-square statistic to the expected median chi-square statistic

under the null hypothesis of no true associations.

Lambda = Observed median chi-square statistic / Expected median chi-square statistic

If the lambda value is 1.5, then it means that there is some inflation in the test statistics due to population

stratification. To correct for this inflation, we need to adjust the test statistics by dividing them by the square

root of the lambda value.

Correction factor = sqrt(lambda) = sqrt(1.5) 1.22

Therefore, a correction factor of approximately 1.22 needs to be applied to adjust for population strati-

fication in this GWAS analysis.

3. Question: In a GWAS analysis, a researcher identified three distinct subpopulations within their study

cohort. Subpopulation 1 has 300 individuals, subpopulation 2 has 200 individuals, and subpopulation 3 has

150 individuals. If the allele frequency of a genetic variant in subpopulation 1 is 0.6, in subpopulation 2

is 0.4, and in subpopulation 3 is 0.2, calculate the weighted average allele frequency of the genetic variant

across all three subpopulations.

Solution: To calculate the weighted average allele frequency across all three subpopulations, we need to

account for the contribution of each subpopulation based on their respective sizes.

Let’s denote: - n1 = number of individuals in subpopulation 1 = 300 - n2 = number of individuals in

subpopulation 2 = 200 - n3 = number of individuals in subpopulation 3 = 150 - p1 = allele frequency in sub-

population 1 = 0.6 - p2 = allele frequency in subpopulation 2 = 0.4 - p3 = allele frequency in subpopulation

3 = 0.2

The weighted average allele frequency is given by: Weighted average allele frequency = (n1*p1 + n2*p2

+ n3*p3) / (n1 + n2 + n3)

Substitute the values: Weighted average allele frequency = (300*0.6 + 200*0.4 + 150*0.2) / (300 + 200

+ 150) Weighted average allele frequency = (180 + 80 + 30) / 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 290

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

Therefore, the weighted average allele frequency of the genetic variant across all three subpopulations

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

populations (A and B), if the frequency of a particular genetic variant is 0.2 in subpopulation A and 0.8 in

subpopulation B, and the overall frequency of this variant in the total population is 0.5, what is the Chi-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

test. The Chi-square statistic compares the observed allele frequencies in the subpopulations with the ex-

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

Given: - Frequency of variant in subpopulation A (pA) = 0.2 - Frequency of variant in subpopulation B

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

First, we calculate the expected allele frequencies in subpopulations A and B based on the overall pop-

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

how many principal components should be included in the analysis to account for population stratification

adequately?

Solution: In GWAS, population stratification refers to differences in genetic ancestry within the study

population that can lead to false-positive associations. One way to address population stratification is by

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

To determine the number of principal components to include, researchers often use a scree plot or Eigen-

value plot. These plots show the variance explained by each principal component, allowing researchers to

decide how many components to retain.

In general, researchers typically choose to include the number of principal components that collectively

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

included for analysis. If the Bonferroni correction is applied with a significance level of 0.05, what is the

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

GWAS, where significance thresholds need to be adjusted to account for testing multiple SNPs across the

genome.

The Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold is calculated by dividing the desired significance level (usu-

ally 0.05) by the number of independent tests performed. In this case, the total number of SNPs included

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 0.05 / 500,000 Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 1.0 x

10−7

Therefore, the adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance in

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

ponents for each individual to account for population stratification. If there are 10 principal components

included in the analysis, how many principal components are typically sufficient to adjust for population

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

stratification, which is the presence of differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls that are

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

depending on the specific study population and genetic diversity. However, as a general guideline, including

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

Therefore, in this case, if researchers include 10 principal components in the analysis, they are likely

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

8. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers identified a genetic variant associated with a complex trait.

The study controlled for five confounding factors. If the p-value for this genetic variant is 0.0002, what

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

account for the increase in the chance of false positives. In this case, the adjusted p-value would be calculated

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

If the original p-value is 0.0002 and there were 5 confounding factors controlled for in the GWAS study,

the number of independent tests would be 1 (for the genetic variant) + 5 (for the confounding factors) = 6.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

Therefore, the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction would

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

correction is applied to account for multiple testing. If the significance threshold is set at 0.05, and there are

1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, what would be the adjusted significance threshold

after Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction adjusts the significance threshold by dividing the desired alpha level

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

Therefore, the adjusted significance threshold after Bonferroni correction for a GWAS analysis with 1

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

associated with diabetes, researchers analyze the genomes of 1000 cases (individuals with diabetes) and

1000 controls (healthy individuals). If the frequency of a genetic variant in the cases is 0.4 and in the

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

Solution: First, let’s calculate the odds of having the genetic variant in the cases and controls: Odds of

genetic variant in cases = Frequency of genetic variant in cases / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in cases)

= 0.4 / (1 - 0.4) = 0.4 / 0.6 = 0.67 Odds of genetic variant in controls = Frequency of genetic variant in

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

Next, let’s calculate the odds ratio: Odds ratio = Odds of genetic variant in cases / Odds of genetic

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

individuals of European descent is 0.23, while in individuals of African descent, the mean value is 0.35. If

the standard deviation of this genetic variant is 0.10 in both populations, what is the Z-score for this genetic

variant in individuals of European descent?

Solution: Z-score is calculated as Z = (X - ) / , where X is the observed value, is the mean, and is the

standard deviation.

For individuals of European descent: X = 0.23 (mean value) = 0.23 (given) = 0.10 (standard deviation)

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

12. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does it

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

Solution: In GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

- If = 1, it indicates no inflation and no presence of population stratification. - If > 1, it indicates

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

In this case, when = 1.2, it indicates that there is some inflation present in the analysis, implying that

there might be population stratification influencing the study results. Researchers would need to account

for this population stratification to avoid false positive associations and correctly identify genetic variants

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

associated with a complex trait or disease, how many principal components are commonly used to control

for population stratification?

Solution:

Population stratification is a potential confounder in GWAS due to differences in genetic ancestry among

study participants. To address this issue, principal component analysis (PCA) is commonly used to identify

genetic ancestry patterns in the dataset. Typically, the top 10 principal components are calculated and used

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

lation A and Population B), how many principal components should be included to correct for population

stratification?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false positive results in GWAS if not properly corrected.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

stratification, a common rule of thumb is to include the number of principal components that correspond to

the number of distinct populations minus one.

In this case, we have two distinct populations (Population A and Population B). Therefore, the number

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

populations (population 1 and population 2), the average genome-wide genetic variation between individuals

within each population is found to be 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. Calculate the inflation factor () of the study

due to population stratification.

Solution: The formula to calculate the inflation factor () in GWAS due to population stratification is:

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

Expected median chi-square statistic for a sample size n with genetic variation 2isn∗2Observedmedianchi−

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic For this GWAS study, =

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

16. Question: In a GWAS study of a complex trait, if the genomic inflation factor () is determined to be

1.2, and the standard error of the test statistic is 0.05, what is the corrected standard error after adjusting for

population stratification using genomic control?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is a measure used to assess the presence of population stratification

in GWAS analyses. It quantifies the extent to which the observed test statistics are inflated compared to what

is expected under the null hypothesis.

The formula for correcting the standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

Plugging in the values: Corrected standard error = 0.05 / sqrt(1.2) Corrected standard error = 0.05 /

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

Therefore, the corrected standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic control

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

populations, how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is commonly used to correct for population stratification by including

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

In this case, 3 distinct genetic clusters indicate that there are 2 principal components needed to correct

for population stratification. The number of principal components required is equal to the number of distinct

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

Solution: To account for a certain percentage of genetic variation in a population stratification analysis

using principal components, researchers typically aim to include enough principal components to reach that

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

Since each principal component explains a portion of the remaining genetic variation, we need to divide

the additional percentage by the percentage explained by each subsequent principal component. In this case,

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

researchers want to ensure that the genetic variants identified are truly associated with the trait of interest and

not due to population stratification. If they calculate a genomic inflation factor () of 1.05, what correction

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the inflation of test statistics in GWAS due to

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

Therefore, the correction factor that should be applied to the association test statistics to address popu-

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

als, how many principal components should typically be included to correct for population stratification

effectively?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false-positive associations in GWAS if not properly ac-

counted for. One common method to correct for population stratification is through the use of principal

component analysis (PCA). In general, a good rule of thumb is to include the top 5-10 principal components

to account for population structure effectively.

Therefore, in this case with a sample size of 1000 individuals, it is recommended to include around 5-10

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

identifies population stratification with a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2. If the researcher corrects for

population stratification using principal component analysis (PCA) and the new genomic inflation factor is

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (1.2 - 1.05) / (1.2 - 1) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = (0.15)

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

22. Question: In a GWAS study, if the genomic inflation factor () is found to be 1.3, what does this value

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () in a GWAS study is used to assess the presence and extent of

population stratification. A value of 1 for indicates no population stratification, while a value greater than 1

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

In this case, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 suggests that there is some degree of population strati-

fication in the GWAS analysis. This means that the association findings could potentially be confounded

by population structure rather than true genetic associations. Researchers need to correct for population

stratification to avoid false-positive associations and ensure the reliability of their GWAS results.

Therefore, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 indicates that population stratification needs to be addressed

through methods like principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control to account for the influence

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

researchers calculate the genomic inflation factor to assess the potential impact of population stratification

on the study results. If the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () is calculated as the ratio of the observed median test statistic

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

In this case, the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0.

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if the first 10

principal components explain 80

Solution: Population stratification refers to the presence of subpopulations within a study population

that may result in spurious associations in GWAS. Including principal components derived from genetic

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

Cumulative variance = Variance explained by PC1 + Variance explained by PC2 + ... + Variance explained

by PC10

Given that the first 10 principal components explain 80Proportion explained by each component = Vari-

ance explained by the component / Total variance

Assuming the variance explained by each component is equal, we can calculate the proportion explained

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

plained by each component = 0.9 0.8 + Additional components * 0.08 = 0.9 Additional components * 0.08

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

Therefore, we need to include 2 additional principal components to correct for population stratification,

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

25. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

Solution: In a GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification. A value of = 1 indicates no population stratification, while values greater than 1 suggest the

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

For a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2, it indicates that there is some degree of inflation in the test

statistics compared to what would be expected under a null hypothesis of no genetic association. In this case,

the study may have some underlying population substructure that could lead to false positive associations.

Thus, a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2 indicates moderate population stratification present in the

GWAS analysis. Researchers need to consider strategies to correct for population stratification, such as using

principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control methods, to control for false positive associations

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

Therefore, the weighted average allele frequency of the genetic variant across all three subpopulations

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

populations (A and B), if the frequency of a particular genetic variant is 0.2 in subpopulation A and 0.8 in

subpopulation B, and the overall frequency of this variant in the total population is 0.5, what is the Chi-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

test. The Chi-square statistic compares the observed allele frequencies in the subpopulations with the ex-

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

Given: - Frequency of variant in subpopulation A (pA) = 0.2 - Frequency of variant in subpopulation B

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

First, we calculate the expected allele frequencies in subpopulations A and B based on the overall pop-

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

how many principal components should be included in the analysis to account for population stratification

adequately?

Solution: In GWAS, population stratification refers to differences in genetic ancestry within the study

population that can lead to false-positive associations. One way to address population stratification is by

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

To determine the number of principal components to include, researchers often use a scree plot or Eigen-

value plot. These plots show the variance explained by each principal component, allowing researchers to

decide how many components to retain.

In general, researchers typically choose to include the number of principal components that collectively

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

included for analysis. If the Bonferroni correction is applied with a significance level of 0.05, what is the

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

GWAS, where significance thresholds need to be adjusted to account for testing multiple SNPs across the

genome.

The Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold is calculated by dividing the desired significance level (usu-

ally 0.05) by the number of independent tests performed. In this case, the total number of SNPs included

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 0.05 / 500,000 Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 1.0 x

10−7

Therefore, the adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance in

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

ponents for each individual to account for population stratification. If there are 10 principal components

included in the analysis, how many principal components are typically sufficient to adjust for population

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

stratification, which is the presence of differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls that are

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

depending on the specific study population and genetic diversity. However, as a general guideline, including

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

Therefore, in this case, if researchers include 10 principal components in the analysis, they are likely

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

8. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers identified a genetic variant associated with a complex trait.

The study controlled for five confounding factors. If the p-value for this genetic variant is 0.0002, what

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

account for the increase in the chance of false positives. In this case, the adjusted p-value would be calculated

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

If the original p-value is 0.0002 and there were 5 confounding factors controlled for in the GWAS study,

the number of independent tests would be 1 (for the genetic variant) + 5 (for the confounding factors) = 6.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

Therefore, the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction would

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

correction is applied to account for multiple testing. If the significance threshold is set at 0.05, and there are

1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, what would be the adjusted significance threshold

after Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction adjusts the significance threshold by dividing the desired alpha level

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

Therefore, the adjusted significance threshold after Bonferroni correction for a GWAS analysis with 1

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

associated with diabetes, researchers analyze the genomes of 1000 cases (individuals with diabetes) and

1000 controls (healthy individuals). If the frequency of a genetic variant in the cases is 0.4 and in the

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

Solution: First, let’s calculate the odds of having the genetic variant in the cases and controls: Odds of

genetic variant in cases = Frequency of genetic variant in cases / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in cases)

= 0.4 / (1 - 0.4) = 0.4 / 0.6 = 0.67 Odds of genetic variant in controls = Frequency of genetic variant in

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

Next, let’s calculate the odds ratio: Odds ratio = Odds of genetic variant in cases / Odds of genetic

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

individuals of European descent is 0.23, while in individuals of African descent, the mean value is 0.35. If

the standard deviation of this genetic variant is 0.10 in both populations, what is the Z-score for this genetic

variant in individuals of European descent?

Solution: Z-score is calculated as Z = (X - ) / , where X is the observed value, is the mean, and is the

standard deviation.

For individuals of European descent: X = 0.23 (mean value) = 0.23 (given) = 0.10 (standard deviation)

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

12. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does it

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

Solution: In GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

- If = 1, it indicates no inflation and no presence of population stratification. - If > 1, it indicates

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

In this case, when = 1.2, it indicates that there is some inflation present in the analysis, implying that

there might be population stratification influencing the study results. Researchers would need to account

for this population stratification to avoid false positive associations and correctly identify genetic variants

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

associated with a complex trait or disease, how many principal components are commonly used to control

for population stratification?

Solution:

Population stratification is a potential confounder in GWAS due to differences in genetic ancestry among

study participants. To address this issue, principal component analysis (PCA) is commonly used to identify

genetic ancestry patterns in the dataset. Typically, the top 10 principal components are calculated and used

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

lation A and Population B), how many principal components should be included to correct for population

stratification?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false positive results in GWAS if not properly corrected.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

stratification, a common rule of thumb is to include the number of principal components that correspond to

the number of distinct populations minus one.

In this case, we have two distinct populations (Population A and Population B). Therefore, the number

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

populations (population 1 and population 2), the average genome-wide genetic variation between individuals

within each population is found to be 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. Calculate the inflation factor () of the study

due to population stratification.

Solution: The formula to calculate the inflation factor () in GWAS due to population stratification is:

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

Expected median chi-square statistic for a sample size n with genetic variation 2isn∗2Observedmedianchi−

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic For this GWAS study, =

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

16. Question: In a GWAS study of a complex trait, if the genomic inflation factor () is determined to be

1.2, and the standard error of the test statistic is 0.05, what is the corrected standard error after adjusting for

population stratification using genomic control?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is a measure used to assess the presence of population stratification

in GWAS analyses. It quantifies the extent to which the observed test statistics are inflated compared to what

is expected under the null hypothesis.

The formula for correcting the standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

Plugging in the values: Corrected standard error = 0.05 / sqrt(1.2) Corrected standard error = 0.05 /

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

Therefore, the corrected standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic control

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

populations, how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is commonly used to correct for population stratification by including

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

In this case, 3 distinct genetic clusters indicate that there are 2 principal components needed to correct

for population stratification. The number of principal components required is equal to the number of distinct

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

Solution: To account for a certain percentage of genetic variation in a population stratification analysis

using principal components, researchers typically aim to include enough principal components to reach that

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

Since each principal component explains a portion of the remaining genetic variation, we need to divide

the additional percentage by the percentage explained by each subsequent principal component. In this case,

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

researchers want to ensure that the genetic variants identified are truly associated with the trait of interest and

not due to population stratification. If they calculate a genomic inflation factor () of 1.05, what correction

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the inflation of test statistics in GWAS due to

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

Therefore, the correction factor that should be applied to the association test statistics to address popu-

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

als, how many principal components should typically be included to correct for population stratification

effectively?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false-positive associations in GWAS if not properly ac-

counted for. One common method to correct for population stratification is through the use of principal

component analysis (PCA). In general, a good rule of thumb is to include the top 5-10 principal components

to account for population structure effectively.

Therefore, in this case with a sample size of 1000 individuals, it is recommended to include around 5-10

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

identifies population stratification with a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2. If the researcher corrects for

population stratification using principal component analysis (PCA) and the new genomic inflation factor is

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (1.2 - 1.05) / (1.2 - 1) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = (0.15)

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

22. Question: In a GWAS study, if the genomic inflation factor () is found to be 1.3, what does this value

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () in a GWAS study is used to assess the presence and extent of

population stratification. A value of 1 for indicates no population stratification, while a value greater than 1

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

In this case, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 suggests that there is some degree of population strati-

fication in the GWAS analysis. This means that the association findings could potentially be confounded

by population structure rather than true genetic associations. Researchers need to correct for population

stratification to avoid false-positive associations and ensure the reliability of their GWAS results.

Therefore, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 indicates that population stratification needs to be addressed

through methods like principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control to account for the influence

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

researchers calculate the genomic inflation factor to assess the potential impact of population stratification

on the study results. If the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () is calculated as the ratio of the observed median test statistic

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

In this case, the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0.

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if the first 10

principal components explain 80

Solution: Population stratification refers to the presence of subpopulations within a study population

that may result in spurious associations in GWAS. Including principal components derived from genetic

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

Cumulative variance = Variance explained by PC1 + Variance explained by PC2 + ... + Variance explained

by PC10

Given that the first 10 principal components explain 80Proportion explained by each component = Vari-

ance explained by the component / Total variance

Assuming the variance explained by each component is equal, we can calculate the proportion explained

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

plained by each component = 0.9 0.8 + Additional components * 0.08 = 0.9 Additional components * 0.08

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

Therefore, we need to include 2 additional principal components to correct for population stratification,

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

25. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

Solution: In a GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification. A value of = 1 indicates no population stratification, while values greater than 1 suggest the

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

For a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2, it indicates that there is some degree of inflation in the test

statistics compared to what would be expected under a null hypothesis of no genetic association. In this case,

the study may have some underlying population substructure that could lead to false positive associations.

Thus, a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2 indicates moderate population stratification present in the

GWAS analysis. Researchers need to consider strategies to correct for population stratification, such as using

principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control methods, to control for false positive associations

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

Therefore, the weighted average allele frequency of the genetic variant across all three subpopulations

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

populations (A and B), if the frequency of a particular genetic variant is 0.2 in subpopulation A and 0.8 in

subpopulation B, and the overall frequency of this variant in the total population is 0.5, what is the Chi-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

test. The Chi-square statistic compares the observed allele frequencies in the subpopulations with the ex-

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

Given: - Frequency of variant in subpopulation A (pA) = 0.2 - Frequency of variant in subpopulation B

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

First, we calculate the expected allele frequencies in subpopulations A and B based on the overall pop-

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

how many principal components should be included in the analysis to account for population stratification

adequately?

Solution: In GWAS, population stratification refers to differences in genetic ancestry within the study

population that can lead to false-positive associations. One way to address population stratification is by

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

To determine the number of principal components to include, researchers often use a scree plot or Eigen-

value plot. These plots show the variance explained by each principal component, allowing researchers to

decide how many components to retain.

In general, researchers typically choose to include the number of principal components that collectively

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

included for analysis. If the Bonferroni correction is applied with a significance level of 0.05, what is the

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

GWAS, where significance thresholds need to be adjusted to account for testing multiple SNPs across the

genome.

The Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold is calculated by dividing the desired significance level (usu-

ally 0.05) by the number of independent tests performed. In this case, the total number of SNPs included

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 0.05 / 500,000 Bonferroni corrected p-value threshold = 1.0 x

10−7

Therefore, the adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance in

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

ponents for each individual to account for population stratification. If there are 10 principal components

included in the analysis, how many principal components are typically sufficient to adjust for population

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

stratification, which is the presence of differences in allele frequencies between cases and controls that are

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

depending on the specific study population and genetic diversity. However, as a general guideline, including

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

Therefore, in this case, if researchers include 10 principal components in the analysis, they are likely

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

8. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers identified a genetic variant associated with a complex trait.

The study controlled for five confounding factors. If the p-value for this genetic variant is 0.0002, what

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

account for the increase in the chance of false positives. In this case, the adjusted p-value would be calculated

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

If the original p-value is 0.0002 and there were 5 confounding factors controlled for in the GWAS study,

the number of independent tests would be 1 (for the genetic variant) + 5 (for the confounding factors) = 6.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

Therefore, the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction would

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

correction is applied to account for multiple testing. If the significance threshold is set at 0.05, and there are

1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tested, what would be the adjusted significance threshold

after Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction adjusts the significance threshold by dividing the desired alpha level

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

Therefore, the adjusted significance threshold after Bonferroni correction for a GWAS analysis with 1

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

associated with diabetes, researchers analyze the genomes of 1000 cases (individuals with diabetes) and

1000 controls (healthy individuals). If the frequency of a genetic variant in the cases is 0.4 and in the

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

Solution: First, let’s calculate the odds of having the genetic variant in the cases and controls: Odds of

genetic variant in cases = Frequency of genetic variant in cases / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in cases)

= 0.4 / (1 - 0.4) = 0.4 / 0.6 = 0.67 Odds of genetic variant in controls = Frequency of genetic variant in

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

Next, let’s calculate the odds ratio: Odds ratio = Odds of genetic variant in cases / Odds of genetic

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

individuals of European descent is 0.23, while in individuals of African descent, the mean value is 0.35. If

the standard deviation of this genetic variant is 0.10 in both populations, what is the Z-score for this genetic

variant in individuals of European descent?

Solution: Z-score is calculated as Z = (X - ) / , where X is the observed value, is the mean, and is the

standard deviation.

For individuals of European descent: X = 0.23 (mean value) = 0.23 (given) = 0.10 (standard deviation)

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

12. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does it

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

Solution: In GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

- If = 1, it indicates no inflation and no presence of population stratification. - If > 1, it indicates

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

In this case, when = 1.2, it indicates that there is some inflation present in the analysis, implying that

there might be population stratification influencing the study results. Researchers would need to account

for this population stratification to avoid false positive associations and correctly identify genetic variants

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

associated with a complex trait or disease, how many principal components are commonly used to control

for population stratification?

Solution:

Population stratification is a potential confounder in GWAS due to differences in genetic ancestry among

study participants. To address this issue, principal component analysis (PCA) is commonly used to identify

genetic ancestry patterns in the dataset. Typically, the top 10 principal components are calculated and used

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

lation A and Population B), how many principal components should be included to correct for population

stratification?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false positive results in GWAS if not properly corrected.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

stratification, a common rule of thumb is to include the number of principal components that correspond to

the number of distinct populations minus one.

In this case, we have two distinct populations (Population A and Population B). Therefore, the number

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

populations (population 1 and population 2), the average genome-wide genetic variation between individuals

within each population is found to be 0.02 and 0.03, respectively. Calculate the inflation factor () of the study

due to population stratification.

Solution: The formula to calculate the inflation factor () in GWAS due to population stratification is:

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

Expected median chi-square statistic for a sample size n with genetic variation 2isn∗2Observedmedianchi−

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic For this GWAS study, =

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

16. Question: In a GWAS study of a complex trait, if the genomic inflation factor () is determined to be

1.2, and the standard error of the test statistic is 0.05, what is the corrected standard error after adjusting for

population stratification using genomic control?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is a measure used to assess the presence of population stratification

in GWAS analyses. It quantifies the extent to which the observed test statistics are inflated compared to what

is expected under the null hypothesis.

The formula for correcting the standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

Plugging in the values: Corrected standard error = 0.05 / sqrt(1.2) Corrected standard error = 0.05 /

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

Therefore, the corrected standard error after adjusting for population stratification using genomic control

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

populations, how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is commonly used to correct for population stratification by including

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

In this case, 3 distinct genetic clusters indicate that there are 2 principal components needed to correct

for population stratification. The number of principal components required is equal to the number of distinct

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

Solution: To account for a certain percentage of genetic variation in a population stratification analysis

using principal components, researchers typically aim to include enough principal components to reach that

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

Since each principal component explains a portion of the remaining genetic variation, we need to divide

the additional percentage by the percentage explained by each subsequent principal component. In this case,

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

researchers want to ensure that the genetic variants identified are truly associated with the trait of interest and

not due to population stratification. If they calculate a genomic inflation factor () of 1.05, what correction

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

Solution: Genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the inflation of test statistics in GWAS due to

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

Therefore, the correction factor that should be applied to the association test statistics to address popu-

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

als, how many principal components should typically be included to correct for population stratification

effectively?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to false-positive associations in GWAS if not properly ac-

counted for. One common method to correct for population stratification is through the use of principal

component analysis (PCA). In general, a good rule of thumb is to include the top 5-10 principal components

to account for population structure effectively.

Therefore, in this case with a sample size of 1000 individuals, it is recommended to include around 5-10

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

identifies population stratification with a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2. If the researcher corrects for

population stratification using principal component analysis (PCA) and the new genomic inflation factor is

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (1.2 - 1.05) / (1.2 - 1) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = (0.15)

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

22. Question: In a GWAS study, if the genomic inflation factor () is found to be 1.3, what does this value

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () in a GWAS study is used to assess the presence and extent of

population stratification. A value of 1 for indicates no population stratification, while a value greater than 1

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

In this case, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 suggests that there is some degree of population strati-

fication in the GWAS analysis. This means that the association findings could potentially be confounded

by population structure rather than true genetic associations. Researchers need to correct for population

stratification to avoid false-positive associations and ensure the reliability of their GWAS results.

Therefore, a genomic inflation factor of 1.3 indicates that population stratification needs to be addressed

through methods like principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control to account for the influence

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

researchers calculate the genomic inflation factor to assess the potential impact of population stratification

on the study results. If the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

Solution: The genomic inflation factor () is calculated as the ratio of the observed median test statistic

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

In this case, the observed median test statistic is 1.4 and the expected median test statistic is 1.0.

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

how many principal components should be included to correct for population stratification if the first 10

principal components explain 80

Solution: Population stratification refers to the presence of subpopulations within a study population

that may result in spurious associations in GWAS. Including principal components derived from genetic

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

Cumulative variance = Variance explained by PC1 + Variance explained by PC2 + ... + Variance explained

by PC10

Given that the first 10 principal components explain 80Proportion explained by each component = Vari-

ance explained by the component / Total variance

Assuming the variance explained by each component is equal, we can calculate the proportion explained

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

plained by each component = 0.9 0.8 + Additional components * 0.08 = 0.9 Additional components * 0.08

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

Therefore, we need to include 2 additional principal components to correct for population stratification,

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

25. Question: In a GWAS analysis, if the genomic inflation factor () is calculated to be 1.2, what does

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

Solution: In a GWAS analysis, the genomic inflation factor () is used to assess the presence of population

stratification. A value of = 1 indicates no population stratification, while values greater than 1 suggest the

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

For a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2, it indicates that there is some degree of inflation in the test

statistics compared to what would be expected under a null hypothesis of no genetic association. In this case,

the study may have some underlying population substructure that could lead to false positive associations.

Thus, a genomic inflation factor () of 1.2 indicates moderate population stratification present in the

GWAS analysis. Researchers need to consider strategies to correct for population stratification, such as using

principal component analysis (PCA) or genomic control methods, to control for false positive associations

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

adequately?

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

decide how many components to retain.

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

genome.

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

10−7

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

after Bonferroni correction?

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

variant in individuals of European descent?

standard deviation.

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

for population stratification?

Solution:

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

stratification?

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

the number of distinct populations minus one.

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

due to population stratification.

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

population stratification using genomic control?

is expected under the null hypothesis.

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

effectively?

to account for population structure effectively.

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

principal components explain 80

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

by PC10

ance explained by the component / Total variance

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

adequately?

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

decide how many components to retain.

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

genome.

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

10−7

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

after Bonferroni correction?

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

variant in individuals of European descent?

standard deviation.

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

for population stratification?

Solution:

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

stratification?

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

the number of distinct populations minus one.

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

due to population stratification.

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

population stratification using genomic control?

is expected under the null hypothesis.

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

effectively?

to account for population structure effectively.

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

principal components explain 80

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

by PC10

ance explained by the component / Total variance

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

adequately?

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

decide how many components to retain.

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

genome.

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

10−7

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

after Bonferroni correction?

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

variant in individuals of European descent?

standard deviation.

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

for population stratification?

Solution:

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

stratification?

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

the number of distinct populations minus one.

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

due to population stratification.

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

population stratification using genomic control?

is expected under the null hypothesis.

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

effectively?

to account for population structure effectively.

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

principal components explain 80

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

by PC10

ance explained by the component / Total variance

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

adequately?

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

decide how many components to retain.

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

genome.

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

10−7

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

after Bonferroni correction?

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

controls / (1 - Frequency of genetic variant in controls) = 0.2 / (1 - 0.2) = 0.2 / 0.8 = 0.25

variant in controls = 0.67 / 0.25 = 2.68

Therefore, the odds ratio for this genetic variant in the GWAS study of diabetes is 2.68.

11. Question: In a GWAS study, researchers found that the mean value of a certain genetic variant in

variant in individuals of European descent?

standard deviation.

Plugging the values into the formula gives: Z = (0.23 - 0.23) / 0.10 Z = 0 / 0.10 Z = 0

Therefore, the Z-score for this genetic variant in individuals of European descent is 0.

indicate about the presence of population stratification?

stratification, which can lead to false positive associations.

inflation, suggesting potential population stratification.

associated with the trait or disease of interest.

Answer: 1.2 ( = 1.2 indicates some inflation and potential population stratification present)

13. Question: When performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic variants

for population stratification?

Solution:

to control for population stratification in GWAS analyses.

Therefore, the numerical answer to this question is 10 principal components.

14. Question: In a GWAS study with a total of 1,000 individuals from two distinct populations (Popu-

stratification?

Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is a common method used to address population stratification in

GWAS.

To determine the number of principal components that should be included to correct for population

the number of distinct populations minus one.

of principal components to include for correcting population stratification would be:

Number of principal components = Number of distinct populations - 1 Number of principal components

= 2 - 1 Number of principal components = 1

Thus, in a GWAS study involving 1,000 individuals from Population A and Population B, one principal

component should be included to correct for population stratification.

15. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from two different

due to population stratification.

= median(observed chi-square statistic) / expected median chi-square statistic

First, we need to calculate the observed median chi-square statistic:

For population 1: Population 1 sample size (n1) = 500 Population 1 genetic variation (12)=0.02

squarestatisticforpopulation1 = 500 ∗0.02 = 10

For population 2: Population 2 sample size (n2) = 500 Population 2 genetic variation (22)=0.03

Observed median chi-square statistic for population 2 = 500 * 0.03 = 15

Next, we calculate the expected median chi-square statistic for the combined populations:

Expected median chi-square statistic = (n1 * 12+n2∗22)/(n1+n2)Expectedmedianchi−squarestatistic =

(500 ∗0.02 + 500 ∗0.03)/1000 = 0.025

Now we can calculate the inflation factor ():

median(10, 15) / 0.025 = 15 / 0.025 = 600

Therefore, the inflation factor () of the study due to population stratification is 600.

population stratification using genomic control?

is expected under the null hypothesis.

control is: Corrected standard error = Standard error / sqrt()

Given: = 1.2 Standard error = 0.05

1.0954 Corrected standard error 0.0456

is approximately 0.0456.

17. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with 1000 individuals from different

the study identifies 3 distinct genetic clusters based on ancestry?

Solution: Population stratification can lead to spurious associations in GWAS if not accounted for.

the appropriate number of principal components as covariates in the association analysis.

genetic clusters minus 1.

Therefore, 3 distinct genetic clusters - 1 = 2 principal components needed.

So, the correct answer is: 2.

18. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) conducted on a population of 1000 indi-

viduals, researchers identified 3 principal components that explain 80

cumulative percentage of variation explained.

In this case, with 3 principal components explaining 80

The additional percentage of genetic variation needed to reach 90Additional percentage needed = 90

Now, we need to determine how many principal components are required to explain this additional 10

each additional principal component explains approximately 1

Number of additional principal components required = Additional percentage / Percentage explained by

each additional principal component Number of additional principal components required = 10

Therefore, researchers would need to include 10 additional principal components in their analysis to

account for 90

19. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a total sample size of 500 individuals,

factor should be applied to the association test statistics to address population stratification?

population stratification. The formula to correct for population stratification is:

Corrected test statistic = Observed test statistic / ()

Given = 1.05, the correction factor should be applied as follows:

Correction factor = 1 / (1.05) Correction factor 1 / 1.0247 Correction factor 0.9752

lation stratification is approximately 0.9752.

20. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individu-

effectively?

to account for population structure effectively.

principal components for effective correction of population stratification.

21. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a complex trait, a researcher

1.05, what percentage of the inflation in test statistics was explained by the PCA correction?

Solution: 1. Calculate the percentage of inflation explained by PCA correction using the formula:

Percentage of inflation explained = (original −corrected)/(original −1) ∗100

2. Substitute the given values into the formula:

/ (0.2) * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 0.75 * 100Percentage of inflation explained = 75

Therefore, the PCA correction explained 75

suggest about population stratification in the analysis?

suggests that there may be population stratification present in the analysis.

of population substructure on the genetic associations identified in the study.

23. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) involving a diverse population sample,

what is the calculated genomic inflation factor?

to the expected median test statistic.

= Observed median test statistic / Expected median test statistic

So, = 1.4 / 1.0 = 1.4

Therefore, the calculated genomic inflation factor for this GWAS study is 1.4.

24. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) analyzing a population of 500 individuals,

principal components explain 80

data can help correct for population stratification in GWAS.

In this question, the first 10 principal components explain 80

We can calculate the cumulative variance explained by the first 10 principal components as follows:

by PC10

ance explained by the component / Total variance

by each component as: Proportion explained by each component = 0.8 / 10 = 0.08

To reach 90Total proportion explained by 10 components + Additional components * Proportion ex-

= 0.1 Additional components = 0.1 / 0.08 Additional components = 1.25

resulting in a total of 12 principal components.

this value indicate about population stratification in the study?

presence of inflation due to population stratification.

and ensure the reliability of the genetic variants identified in the analysis.

/ 650 Weighted average allele frequency = 0.4461

is 0.4461.

4. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a population consisting of two sub-

square value for testing population stratification?

Solution: To test for population stratification in GWAS, one commonly used method is the Chi-square

pected allele frequencies based on the overall population frequency.

(pB) = 0.8 - Overall frequency of the variant in the total population (p) = 0.5

ulation frequency:

Expected frequency of variant in subpopulation A = p * Proportion of subpopulation A Expected fre-

quency of variant in subpopulation B = p * Proportion of subpopulation B

Expected frequency in subpopulation A = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation A = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Expected frequency in subpopulation B = 0.5 * Proportion of subpopulation B = 0.5 * 0.5 = 0.25

Next, we calculate the Chi-square value to test for population stratification:

Chi-square = [(Observed frequency - Expected frequency)2/Expectedfrequency] = [(0.2−0.25)2/0.25]+

[(0.8−0.25)2/0.25] = [(−0.05)2/0.25] + [(0.55)2/0.25] = (0.0025/0.25) + (0.3025/0.25) = 0.01 +

1.21 = 1.22

Therefore, the Chi-square value for testing population stratification in this GWAS analysis is 1.22.

5. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) with a sample size of 1000 individuals,

adequately?

including principal components (PCs) in the analysis to correct for population substructure.

decide how many components to retain.

explain at least 90

Let’s assume that in our GWAS with 1000 individuals, the first 10 principal components collectively

explain 95

Therefore, the numerical answer is 10 principal components.

6. Question: In a GWAS study, after quality control filtering steps, a total of 500,000 SNPs were

adjusted p-value threshold that should be used to determine genome-wide significance?

Solution: The Bonferroni correction is a method used to address the issue of multiple comparisons in

genome.

after quality control filtering is 500,000.

10−7

this GWAS study is 1.0 x 10−7.

7. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS), researchers obtained principal com-

structure in a GWAS?

Solution: In a GWAS, researchers use principal components analysis (PCA) to correct for population

due to differences in ancestry rather than the trait or disease being studied.

The number of principal components required to correct for population structure in a GWAS can vary

approximately 5-10 principal components is often sufficient to adjust for population stratification.

adequately adjusting for population structure in the GWAS.

Numerical Answer: 10

would be the adjusted p-value after correcting for multiple testing using Bonferroni correction?

Solution: Bonferroni correction is a method used to adjust p-values in multiple testing scenarios to

by dividing the original p-value by the number of independent tests performed.

Adjusted p-value = Original p-value / Number of independent tests Adjusted p-value = 0.0002 / 6 Ad-

justed p-value 0.0000333

be approximately 0.0000333.

9. Question: In a GWAS analysis for a complex trait with high genetic heterogeneity, a Bonferroni

after Bonferroni correction?

(0.05) by the number of tests performed. In this case, we have 1,000,000 SNPs tested.

Adjusted significance threshold = 0.05 / 1,000,000 Adjusted significance threshold = 5 x 10−8

million SNPs would be 5 x 10−8.

10. Question: In a Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) aimed at identifying genetic variants

controls is 0.2, what is the odds ratio for this genetic variant?

genetic