In at least 150 words



1.      Discuss at least three examples of species that demonstrate the different functions of feathers. What is the importance of structural pigments? 

2.      Relate wing shape to flight characteristics in birds. What shape is more advantageous to soaring flight? Why? Consider a species with short, rounded wings. What habitats should this species be better able to exploit? Why? 

3.      How have birds successfully adapted to arid environments throughout the world? Explain using at least three examples of species, describing the key physical and physiological characteristics that have made this possible. 

4.      Explain how melanin is believed to protect feathers against bacterial degradation.



1.      How do languages diffuse and what processes account for the extinct of certain languages?

2.      Differentiate between interfaith and intrafaith boundaries of religion and give examples.


3.      How is religion seen in the cultural landscape?

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