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Training for the New Georgia Performance Standards Day 2: Unpacking Standards for Unit Development

Participant’s Guide

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Acknowledgements

This training program was developed by the Georgia Department of Education as part of a series of professional development opportunities to help teachers increase student achievement through the use of the Georgia Performance Standards. For more information on this or other GPS training modules, please contact Robin Gower at (404) 463-1933 or [email protected]

Use of This Guide

The module materials, including a Leader’s Guide, Participant’s Guide, PowerPoint Presentation, and supplementary materials, are available to designated trainers throughout the state of Georgia who have successfully completed a Train-the-Trainer course offered through the Georgia Department of Education.

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Agenda

This is a one-day course, with approximately six hours of instructional time. Introduction ! Overview of the Module ! Review of Day 1 Content and of Redelivery, if applicable Discussion of Day 1 Assignment ! Small Group ! Large Group Unpacking Standards ! Identifying Big Ideas and Enduring Understandings ! Developing Essential Questions ! Identifying Skills and Knowledge Summary and Follow-Up Work ! Follow-Up Assignment ! Summary ! Evaluations

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Module Goal

GPS content training is designed to provide classroom teachers with the knowledge and skills they need to use the Standards Based Education model to implement the new Georgia Performance Standards. Teachers will acquire the requisite knowledge and skills to unpack the GPS, to design balanced assessments that measure the extent to which students have mastered the standards, to make instructional decisions using researched-based best practices that allow students to achieve a deep understanding of the knowledge and skills they need, and to map the curriculum in order to fully implement the GPS. Key words from the goal: ! Standards Based Education (SBE) ! Georgia Performance Standards (GPS) ! Knowledge and skills ! Research-based best practices ! Deep understanding Note that the goal will not be reached by any single day of training. It will take preparation, multiple days of classroom instruction, and follow up to master this goal. Various days of training will deal with different components of the goal, such as assessment, instruction, and curriculum planning.

Module Objectives

By the end of Day 2 of training, participants will be able to: 1. Describe and apply the rationale for identifying big ideas, enduring understandings,

essential questions, and skills and knowledge for a standard. 2. Develop, for a given standard, big ideas, enduring understandings, essential questions, and

what students should know and be able to do (unpack the standard).

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Standards Based Education Template

Stage 1:

Stage 2:

Stage 3:

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A Big Idea…

…Provides a “conceptual lens” for organizing content. A Big Idea refers to core concepts, principles, theories, and processes that should serve as the focal point of the curricula, instruction, and assessment. Big Ideas reflect expert understanding and anchor the discourse, inquiries, discoveries, and arguments in a field of study. They provide a basis for setting curriculum priorities to focus on the most meaningful content. …Serves as an organizer for connecting important facts, skills, and actions. Big Ideas function as the “conceptual Velcro” for a topic of study. They connect discrete knowledge and skills to a larger intellectual frame and provide a bridge for linking specific facts and skills. A focus on these larger ideas helps students to see the purpose and relevance on content. …Transfers to other contexts. Discrete facts do not transfer. Big Ideas are powerful because they embody transferable ideas, applicable to other topics, inquiries, context, issues, and problems. Because we can never cover all the knowledge on a given topic, a focus on the Big Ideas helps to manage information overload. Big Ideas provide the conceptual through lines that anchor a coherent curriculum. …Manifests itself in various ways within disciplines. Big Ideas are typically revealed through one or more of the following forums: a core concept (e.g., adaptation), a focusing theme (e.g., man’s inhumanity to man), an ongoing issue or debate (e.g., liberal vs. conservative), a puzzling paradox (e.g., poverty amidst plenty), an important process (e.g., writing process), an authentic problem or persistent challenge (e.g., illiteracy, voter apathy), an illuminating theory (e.g., Manifest Destiny), an underlying assumption (e.g., the markets are rationale), or differing perspectives (e.g., terrorist vs. freedom fighter). …Requires uncoverage because it is an abstraction. A Big Idea is inherently abstract. Its meaning is not always obvious to students, and simply covering it (i.e., the teacher or textbook defining it) will not ensure student understanding. “Coverage” is unlikely to cause genuine insight; understanding must be earned. Thus, the idea must be uncovered—its meaning discovered, constructed or inferred by the learners, with the aid of the teacher and well-designed learning experiences. How to identify big ideas: Read the standard thoroughly. Underline the big ideas in the standard. Make additional notes as needed. Note that this is just a stepping stone in the process; once you have turned your Big Ideas into enduring understandings, you do not need to write them down.

Reproduced with permission from Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design Professional Development

Workbook. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2004.

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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An Enduring Understanding…

…Involves the big ideas that give meaning and importance to facts. Enduring understandings are made up of the concepts, principles, and theories that weave many facts into revealing and useful patterns. They involve the (few) organizing priority ideas that enable us to make sense of past lessons, conduct current inquiry, and create new knowledge. …Can transfer to other topics, fields, and adult life. Such understandings endure in that they enable us to make vital and informative connections in our learning—as students and as adults. For example, the idea that “might does not make right” applies to both playground disputes and international diplomacy. …Is usually not obvious, often counter-intuitive, and easily misunderstood. An understanding is an inference, not a fact. It is an insight derived from inquiry. Key understandings in intellectual fields (e.g., in physics: Objects remain in motion at a constant velocity if no force acts on them) often violate common sense and conventional wisdom. They are thus often prone to misunderstanding by students. These understanding therefore cannot be covered; they must be uncovered. …May provide a conceptual foundation for basic skills. The skill-based teaching in mathematics, foreign language, and physical education does not seem to deal with “understanding.” In most units, all skills derive their value from the strategic principles that help us know when and how to use the skill. The understandings also justify the use of a skill (e.g., the student who can explain why you should use a bent-arm pull in swimming free style) and enable the student to extend the use of the skill to new situations (e.g., the use of bent-arm pull in back stroke). …Is deliberately framed as a generalization—the “moral of the story.” An understanding is a generalization derived from inquiry. It is the specific insight that should be inferred from study of the topic (not just the stating of the topic)—what we want the student leaving the study to realize. Note: The enduring understanding of a unit might be that there is no single agreed-upon understanding, or that people disagree about how the issues, facts, or text should be understood. How to identify enduring understandings: Frame them as full-sentence generalizations starting with “The student will understand that…” Avoid statements that are vague or trite. It may help to think about common misunderstandings about the topic. Enduring understandings may be overarching (beyond the specifics of the unit) or topical. Reproduced with permission from Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook.

Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2004.

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Essential Questions…

…Have no simple “right” answer; they are meant to be argued. Essential questions yield inquiry and argument—a variety of plausible responses, not straightforward facts that end the matter. They should uncover rather than cover the subject’s puzzles and perspectives. They should result in conclusions drawn by the learner, not recited facts. Like enduring understandings, they may be topical or overarching. Examples: Does art reflect culture or help shape it? What makes a great story? …Are designed to provoke and sustain student inquiry, while focusing learning and final performances. Essential questions work best when they are designed and edited to be thought provoking to students, engaging them in sustained, focused inquiries that culminate in important performance. They involve the counterintuitive, the visceral, the whimsical, the controversial. Examples: Does food that is good for you have to taste bad? Are censorship and democracy compatible? …Often address the conceptual or philosophical foundations of a discipline. They reflect the most historically important issues, problems, and debates in a field of study. Examples: What is a proof? Nature or nurture? Can fiction reveal truth? …Raise other important questions. Essential questions lead to other important questions within, and sometimes across, subject boundaries. Example: In nature, only the strong survive? (Leads to questions such as, “What is strength? Are insects strong, since they are survivors?) …Naturally and appropriately recur. The same important questions are asked and asked again throughout one’s learning. Example: What makes a book “great?” …Stimulate vital, ongoing rethinking of big ideas, assumptions, and prior lessons. They force us to ask deep questions about the nature, origin, and extent of our understanding. Example: (In light of fractions, place value, irrationals, and negative square roots) what is a number? How to develop essential questions: Two to five per unit is reasonable. Put them in language appropriate to students. Use them as organizers for the unit, making the “content” answer the questions. Sequence questions so they lead naturally from one to another. Share essential questions with other teachers to ensure curricular coherence. Reproduced with permission from Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2004.

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Knowledge and Skills

Knowledge. Getting students to construct meaning, organize information, and (selectively) store information. This includes: Vocabulary Terminology Definitions Key factual information

Formulas Critical details Important events, people Sequence and timelines

Rules Laws Principles Concepts

Skills. Getting students to demonstrate the ability to do something. These may be very simple, discrete operations, or more complex creative ones. This includes: Actions, procedures, and processes Basic skills—decoding, arithmetic

computation Psychomotor skills—running, swimming a

back stroke, playing an instrument Study skills

Communication skills—listening, speaking, writing Thinking skills—comparing, inferring,

analyzing, interpreting Research, inquiry, investigation skills Interpersonal/group skills

Verbs to use when stating knowledge and skills. These are samples only: Demonstrate Derive State Describe List Design Express Induce Instruct

Create Critique Compare/contrast Evaluate Illustrate Judge Make meaning of Make sense of Use

Model Predict Prove Show Synthesize Justify Choose Imagine Assess

Write Draw Translate Adapt Build Determine Perform Solve Test

How to develop knowledge and skill statements: Look at the enduring understandings, essential questions, and elements. Ask yourself, “What knowledge and skills do students need in order to reach this goal?” Start each knowledge/skill statement with a verb. Reproduced with permission from Wiggins, Grant and Jay McTighe. Understanding by Design Professional Development Workbook.

Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 2004.

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide The Marriage of Standards and Elements

ELA10RL1 The student demonstrates comprehension by identifying evidence (e.g., diction, imagery, point of view, figurative language, symbolism, plot events and main ideas) in a variety of texts representative of different genres (e.g., poetry, prose [short story, novel, essay, editorial, biography], and drama) and using this evidence as the basis for interpretation. The texts are of the quality and complexity illustrated by the Grade Ten reading list.

The student identifies and analyzes elements of poetry and provides evidence from the text to support understanding; the student:

a. Identifies, responds to, and analyzes the effects of diction, syntax, sound, form, figurative language, and

structure of poems as these elements relate to meaning.

i. sound: alliteration, end rhyme, internal rhyme, consonance, assonance

ii. form: lyric poem, narrative poem, fixed form poems (e.g., ballad, sonnet) iii. figurative language: personification, imagery, metaphor, simile, synecdoche, hyperbole, symbolism

My Love is Like a Red, Red, Rose

O, my luve's like a red, red rose

That's newly sprung in June

O, my luve's like the melodie

That's sweetly play'd in tune

As fair art thou, my bonie lass

So deep in luve am I

And I will luve thee still, my Dear

Till a' the seas gang dry

Till a' the seas gang dry, my Dear

And the rocks melt wi' the sun!

O I will luve thee still, my Dear

While the sands o' life shall run

--Robert Burns

Working only at the element level, the student

Identifies: “my luve’s like a red, red rose” is a simile

Analyzes (separates into parts): the speaker in the poem is comparing his love to a red, red rose

But to meet the standard, the student must employ this simile as evidence and demonstrate comprehension by using the

evidence/simile as the basis for interpretation. In other words, when the speaker defines/describes his love by comparing it to

a “red, red, rose/That’s newly sprung in June, he is saying that his love is _____________. Here the student should

demonstrate that s/he understands how the characteristics of the rose relate to the message the speaker is relaying about the

characteristics of his love.

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GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Unpacking a Standard

Standards (underline Big Ideas) Critical Component Elements Enduring Understandings Essential Questions What Students Should Know And Be Able to Do

GPS Day 2 Training Participant’s Guide

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Unpacking a Standard Standard (underline Big Ideas) Critical Component Elements Enduring Understandings Essential Questions What Students Should Know And Be Able to Do

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Follow-Up Assignment

! Select the standard that we have not previously unpacked. ! Unpack the standards to determine the big ideas, enduring

understandings, essential questions, and what students should know and be able to do. You may choose to use one of the templates from this Participant’s Guide to unpack the standard(s), or you may come up with a form of your own.

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Presenter(s) ____________________________________________________________ Date(s) ________________________ Location ________________________________

Position: ( ) Primary ( ) Elementary ( ) Middle ( ) High ( ) Administrator Overall Evaluation: ( ) Poor ( ) Fair ( ) Good ( ) Very Good ( ) Excellent

General Comments & Feedback: What did you expect to learn from this session?

What did you learn from this session?

What do you need now?

What worked best in this session?

How could this session be improved?

Georgia Performance Standards Content Specific Training

Evaluation Instrument

  • Acknowledgements
  • Use of This Guide
  • Agenda
  • Module Goal
  • Module Objectives
  • Standards Based Education Template
  • A Big Idea…
  • An Enduring Understanding…
  • Essential Questions…
  • Knowledge and Skills
  • Follow-Up Assignment
      • Position: ( ) Primary ( ) Elementary ( ) Middle ( ) High ( ) Administrator
        • Overall Evaluation: ( ) Poor ( ) Fair ( ) Good ( ) Very Good ( ) Excellent
              • What did you learn from this session?
              • What do you need now?
              • What worked best in this
              • session?