Contemporary World History - Post 1945: HIS

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CHAPTER OUTLINE

• Worldwide Conflict

• Western Europe on the Front Line

• Regional Conflicts

• International and Regional Convergence

Conflict and Convergence: 1945–19506

1943

Sartre’s Being and Nothingness is published

The “big three” meet at Tehran conference

1945

Yalta conference is held

VE Day ends the war in Europe

Potsdam conference is held

VJ Day ends the war in the Pacific

Ho Chi Minh “decolonizes” Vietnam

Korea is divided into occupation zones

The United Nations is founded

1946

The first Indochina war begins

Bretton Woods system goes into effect

Kennan writes the “Long Telegram”

Churchill makes “Iron Curtain” speech

1947

India is decolonized

India and Pakistan are created

UN Partition Plan for Palestine is approved

Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, and National Security Act go into effect in United States

The “Red Scare” takes hold in the United States

1941

United States and USSR join the Allies

C H A P T E R T I M E L I N EC H A P T E R T I M E L I N E

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Photos from left to right: Vietminh troops march into Hanoi, 1954; UN poster; The new “big 3”; Family fleeing from square block of Jewish occupied buildings in the Jewish district of Jerusalem, February, 1948.

1948

Congress of Europe meets

Gandhi is assassinated

USSR blockades Berlin, and United States flies airlift around it

The OAS is established

State of Israel is created and recognized

The first Arab- Israeli War begins

1949

Mao wins civil war in China and establishes PRC

Chinese nationalists flee to Taiwan

The German Federal Republic is created

NATO is established

1950

Sino-Soviet Treaty is signed

U.S. government issues NSC-68

1955

Moscow creates the Warsaw Pact

119

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Worldwide Conflict The defining structural characteristic of the latter half of the twentieth century was the conflict between the two “superpowers” that emerged at the end of World War II. After thirty years of war and its consequences in Europe, Germany’s and Italy’s military ca- pacities were almost completely destroyed and Great Britain’s and France’s had been greatly diminished. What was left of Japan’s military was being dismantled by the United States during the Occupation, and China was engaged in an intermittent civil war from April 1927 through May 1950. By 1945, only the United States and USSR were capable of fielding effective military ma- chines, and the United States was clearly

leading in terms of military technology, proven by its use of the atomic bombs in Japan. The mil- itary alliance these two countries forged to defeat fascism in World War II was not strong enough to overcome the ideological differences between them.

The Roots of the Cold War Patterns of war in the twentieth century (really throughout the history of humankind) were based on technological growth: close-range combat of the late 1800s led to long-range weapons (grenades, mortar, nerve gas) for total war in World War I, which led to airplanes and bombing in World War II. With the advent of the atomic bomb and rapidly expanding nu- clear technology, it became obvious that waging a total war would have destructive conse- quences worldwide. This led to the Cold War, which does not mean “no war”; it simply means that the primary combatants never engaged in direct military conflict against one an- other. As long as the two superpowers with the nuclear weapons did not go to war, the world could survive. Somewhat ironically, it was because of the advancements in military technol- ogy that the United States and USSR could not engage one another in traditional military warfare without potentially destroying the world.

In many ways, the goals of the two main contenders in the Cold War followed the very tradi- tional goals of combatants throughout history—each side was fighting for control of territory. The Cold War is often referred to as an ideological war, implying that the two sides were fighting over beliefs. On some level, that is certainly true—the stated goal of the USSR was to spread communism, and the stated goal of the United States was to contain the spread of communism

The victors of the second world war were anxious to avoid the mistakes made at the end of theGreat War, particularly those that contributed to the worldwide economic depression. This re-quired cooperation, which led to convergence in several key economic and political areas in the latter half of the twentieth century. But differ- ent views on who should dominate the post- war political, economic and social cultures led to regional and international conflicts. It was in these immediate postwar years, 1945–1950, that the patterns of conflict and convergence that would structure the rest of the century, as well as shape the twenty-first century, were established.

Cold War describes the conflict between the United States and USSR between 1945–1991, when the two primary combatants never engaged in direct military conflict against one another

Occupation after the Japanese surrendered at the end of the WWII, the Allied military, led by General MacArthur, supervised the political, economic and social reconstruction of Japan from 1945–1952

120 CHAPTER 6 • CONFLICT AND CONVERGENCE: 1945–1950

W O R K I N G W I T H T H E T H E M E S

THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY The “total war” era of the first half of the twentieth century gives way to a “Cold War,” driven by the ongoing development of weapons technology.

CHANGING IDENTITIES Thirty years of war in Europe greatly impacted its citizens. Two new issues evolve that will remain dominant features for the remainder of the twentieth century: the implications of the Cold War on people throughout the world and the short- and long-term consequences of decolonization.

SHIFTING BORDERS Because the Allies cannot agree on political ideology, their division of the postwar world into occupation zones has serious worldwide ramifications. The creation of new indepen- dent countries in the late 1940s through decolonization leads to regional violence.

GLOBALIZATION Two seemingly contradictory paths emerge: international political and economic division created by the Cold War and unprecedented convergence in the creation of the United Nations and Bretton Woods system, as well as the development of regional organizations.

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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(which is a less aggressive way of saying, “to spread democracy”). In order to accomplish its goal, however, each side would have to control a territory, or control the government of that terri- tory at the very least.

How did the world get to this somewhat artificial divide between democracy and commu- nism, with each ideology outright vilifying the other to prove to the rest of the world that its political and economic system was the better one? Thanks to the actions of Mussolini and Hitler, fascism had essentially been discredited as an ideological form of political governance (not that it ended it in reality, of course). During World War II, the democracies and communist USSR joined together to defeat those fascist regimes. Interestingly, it is in this military alliance to de- feat fascism that the Cold War took shape.

The “Big Three” When Hitler broke his nonaggression pact with Stalin and invaded the USSR, he forced the Soviet Union into a military alliance with the Allies. The Soviets proved to be absolutely vital in the final defeat of Berlin and Germany, which created a bit of a problem after the war because the Red Army physically occupied all of Eastern Europe and one-half of Germany. Driving out the Soviets would require military action, which the United States and Britain could not even contemplate at that point. But the alliance between the USSR and the Allies was a military one only and had nothing to do with achieving political harmony. Predictably, when it came time for all the winners to sit down at the table and bring the war in Europe to its conclusion, the USSR wanted to install communist governments in Eastern Europe that would be subordinate to Moscow. And predictably, Great Britain and the United States opposed such expansion.

The first meeting of the “big three” was in Tehran, Iran, in November 1943, before the war even ended. They agreed to keep fighting to- gether and pursue unconditional surrender from Germany and Japan in an effort to avoid the diplo- matic messes created by the negotiations at the end of World War I. Churchill and Roosevelt agreed to open a second front in France (leading to D-Day), and in return, Stalin promised to join the war in the Pacific after Germany was defeated. But as the Soviets moved through Eastern Europe on their way to Germany, they held onto the territory for themselves. Churchill opposed Stalin’s actions, and in October 1944 they talked and tentatively agreed on how they would divide up control of the Balkans after the war. There was a lot of tension over the countries of Eastern Europe occupied by the Soviet military—Stalin wanted them all to be communist under his control, while the United States and Great Britain still had hopes of freely elected democratic governments every- where in the world. Stalin agreed to let the citizens decide (self-determination), knowing that he would violate the agreements anyway and establish communist regimes. When it came to Germany, all three men agreed that it would be stripped of its government and military and would be divided into four occupation zones (one for each of the Allied powers, including France).

The next time the “big three” met was in February 1945, in Yalta, just before Germany fell. Roosevelt’s goal was to encourage the USSR to get involved in the war against Japan after

ANALYSIS Look carefully at the body language in this photograph. What does it tell you about each man? What does it tell you about the relationship between them?

ideological war conflict rooted in differing world views; to win, one ideology would become dominant over all others

WORLDWIDE CONFLICT 121

The “big three”: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin.

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Read the Document Long Telegram on mysearchlab.com

122 CHAPTER 6 • CONFLICT AND CONVERGENCE: 1945–1950

Germany was defeated, so he and Churchill promised Stalin he could control significant regions in the Pacific after Japan was defeated. Roosevelt expressed his idea of a United Nations (UN) organization to ensure peace after the war—sort of a League of Nations, but with more muscle. Because Stalin agreed to participate, the United States made some more concessions to him, allowing the USSR to essentially control all of Eastern Europe, assuming the people were allowed to choose their own governments. Stalin was relentless in “convincing” them to “choose” communism.

The last time the Allied leaders met was in the Berlin neighborhood of Potsdam in July 1945. Germany was defeated, Roosevelt had passed away and had been replaced by Truman, and the British people had replaced the very conservative Churchill with Clement Attlee and his Labour Party. The leaders confirmed past agreements, expanded Soviet control in Eastern Europe, and carved Germany into four separate occupation zones until they could figure out a better arrangement (which did not come until 1990). Rather than creating an unsatisfactory, overarching peace treaty like the Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, they left Potsdam with no treaties at all. Such agreements would come slowly in following years. When the Allied leaders left Potsdam, the world had been divided into two unfriendly camps: the West (led by the United States) and the East (led by the USSR).

Behind the Iron Curtain In a speech to the Soviet people in early 1946, Stalin made a statement implying that capitalism made future wars inevitable:

It would be wrong to think that the Second World War broke out accidentally, or as a result of blunders committed by certain statesmen, although blunders were certainly committed. As a matter of fact, the war broke out as the inevitable result of the development of world economic and political forces on the basis of present-day monopolistic capitalism. Marxists have more than once stated that the capitalist system of world economy contains the elements of a general crisis and military conflicts, that, in view of that, the develop-

ment of world capitalism in our times does not proceed smoothly and evenly, but through crises and catastrophic wars.

The U.S. Department of State asked George Kennan, a U.S. diplomat in Moscow since 1933, for his view on Stalin’s intentions. His now-famous response, The Long Telegram of February 22, 1946, warned that “in the long run, there [could] be no permanent, peaceful coexistence” with the Soviet Union. In Kennan’s mind, the conflict stemmed from Stalin’s belief in Marxism and his fear that Western capitalism would affect his people; therefore, the American way of life had to be destroyed. Probably the most important feature of this Long Telegram is Kennan’s conclu- sion regarding how best to handle the situation. Although Stalin would never negotiate or com- promise, the problem could be solved “without recourse to any general military conflict.” Ultimately, Kennan said, the Soviet system of government is weaker than the American system of government and American success “. . . depends on health and vigor of our own society. . . Every courageous and incisive measure to solve internal problems of our own society, to improve self-confidence, discipline, morale and community spirit of our own people, is a diplo- matic victory over Moscow. . .” The United States should firmly guide other countries in devel- oping political, economic, and social well-being “and unless we do,” Kennan warned, “Russians certainly will.” Kennan’s words became the cornerstone of American foreign policy for most of the remainder of the twentieth century.

A few weeks after Kennan’s telegram, Winston Churchill, the former British prime minister, spoke at a college in Fulton, Missouri. His speech was not well received at the time—many people viewed Churchill as a warmonger trying to drag the United States into another military

ANALYSIS These words were taken from Stalin’s “Two Worlds” speech of 1946. Why did the U.S. government react to these words with concern?

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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sphere of influence a geographic region over which one country directly or indirectly controls political, economic, social, and/or military decision making

WORLDWIDE CONFLICT 123

conflict—but the speech coined the phrase that best described the political and ideological divide between the Soviets and the West as the Cold War began:

. . . From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of con- trol from Moscow.

Churchill was referring to the divide across Eastern Europe between free countries with Western-style democratic governments and the Eastern bloc countries with communist governments that answered directly to the USSR. Stalin, of course, perceived Churchill’s speech as a threat, particularly the opening phrases in which Churchill seemed to challenge America to act against communism: “. . . The United States stands at this time at the pinnacle of world power . . . with this primacy in power is also joined an awe-inspiring accountabil- ity to the future.” Churchill may well have been trying to pro- voke the United States to stay involved in European affairs rather than return to isolationism as it did after World War I, but there was good reason for him to be concerned about the future of democracy in Europe.

As agreed upon during the Tehran, Yalta and Potsdam conferences, the Soviet military occupied the territory it conquered on the way to Berlin to defeat Hitler, including Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary and parts of Czechoslovakia, Austria and Germany. In violation of those same agreements, however, Stalin refused to allow democratic elections in those countries, and each was ruled by a communist government supported by the Red Army. With the exception of Yugoslavia, where the communist yet fiercely nationalist leader Josip Broz Tito refused to comply with Stalin’s domination, each of these communist countries fell under the Soviet sphere of influence. They became known as the satellite states because they resolutely dupli- cated Stalin’s political and economic models, although they were technically independent coun- tries. Additionally, a civil war between democratic and communist forces in Greece threatened to replace the democratic government there, and the USSR clearly hoped to add Turkey to the satellite bloc to secure the Soviet border.

The U.S. Response After thirty years of war and economic hardship, Europe was in shambles politically, economi- cally, industrially, commercially and socially. Much had been destroyed, leading many Western Europeans to wonder if communism was a way out of the hard life and injustices they suffered. President Truman believed that if the United States did not step in to help, communist move- ments underfoot in Western Europe would be successful. After studying Kennan’s Long Telegram, Truman made three key announcements:

1. The official U.S. policy of containment, eventually formalized in NSC-68 to prevent the spread of communism to noncommunist countries

EAST GERMANY

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

BULGARIA

ROMANIA

YUGOSLAVIA

HUNGARY

POLAND

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST

REPUBLICS

Bla ck S

ea

0 200 mi

0 200 km

MAP 6.1 Soviet Sphere of Influence by 1948

Read the Document Iron Curtain Speech on mysearchlab.com

Read the Document National Security Council Memorandum Number 68 on mysearchlab.com

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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Read the Document The Truman Doctrine on mysearchlab.com

2. The Truman Doctrine to support “free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” (primarily targeted toward Greece and Turkey)

3. The Marshall Plan to provide money for the rebuilding of Europe

Under the Marshall Plan, any European state was invited to submit a request to the United States to receive funding for reconstruction programs. At first, Poland and Czechoslovakia tried to sign up, but Stalin quickly realized the political aspect of this economic program and blocked participation from countries within the Soviet sphere of influence. Taking money from the U.S. Congress would certainly place a country squarely within the U.S. sphere of influence.

In four years, the Marshall Plan provided aid to sixteen countries in the total amount of $13.2 billion. The Allies received the largest shares: Great Britain got $3.2 billion to rebuild its oil industry; France got $2.7 billion to modernize industry and transportation; and West Germany used its $1.5 billion to create a free-enterprise industrial system that worked so well it boosted German production 50 percent within four years. Overall, the Marshall Plan achieved its economic goals—the nations of Western Europe rebounded economically, enabling them to trade with the United States. And economic well-being in the Western world provided the

124 CHAPTER 6 • CONFLICT AND CONVERGENCE: 1945–1950

MAKE THE CONNECTION Using the map on the right as a guide and documents 6.3, 6.4, and 6.5, what connections can you make between the policy of containment, the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan?

StockholmStockholm

CopenhagenCopenhagen

WarsawWarsawBerlinerlin

ViennaVienna

BudapestBudapest

BucharBuchar

IstanbulIstanbul

AthensAthens

SofiaSofia

BelgradeBelgrade TriesteTrieste

ParisParis

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IRELANDELAND

FRANCEFRANCE

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SWITZ.SWITZ.

BELG.BELG.

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NETH.NETH.

DEN.DEN.

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HUN.HUN. ROMANIAROMANIA

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CZECH.CZECH.

AUS.AUS.

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UNITEDUNITED KINGDOMKINGDOM

Moscow

Stockholm Oslo

Copenhagen

WarsawBerlin

Vienna

Budapest

Bucharest

Istanbul

Athens

Sofia

Belgrade Trieste

Rome

Paris

London Dublin

Madrid Lisbon

NORWAY

SWEDEN

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FINLAND

ICELAND

IRELAND

FRANCE

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AUS.

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ALB.

GREECE TURKEY

MOROCCO ALGERIA TUNISIA

UNITED KINGDOM

North Sea

Mediterranean Sea

Black Sea

B al

ti c

S ea

ATLANTIC OCEAN

Less than $400 million

$400 million to $1.2 billion

More than $1.2 billion

MAP 6.2 Marshall Plan Aid to Europe, 1948–1952

Read the Document The Marshall Plan on mysearchlab.com

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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“proof” that democracy generated wealth for all, leading to a high degree of political stability in the United States and Western Europe.

The mental image of the iron curtain across Europe, the language of the containment policy and the bold political and economic promises of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan solidi- fied the divisions, differences and distance between the East and the West—the Cold War had begun and both sides had made their positions clear. But was the United States prepared to fol- low through? Not quite yet.

The National Security Act of 1947 created the Department of Defense and included the army, navy and air force as equals within it. The act also created the National Security Council to advise the president of foreign policy matters and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to collect and analyze intelligence information and conduct covert operations outside of the United States. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) would continue to handle internal af- fairs. One of the first actions of the National Security Council was to recommend increasing military spending by 400 percent. The military budget jumped from $13 billion in 1949 to more than $40 billion in one year. To prevent communist influences from surfacing within the United States, Executive Order 9835 in March 1947 revoked governmental security clearances for peo- ple who were considered politically “leftist.” The Taft-Hartley Act, which passed in June 1947 despite a presidential veto, restricted the power of labor unions. In 1949, Congress instituted a peacetime draft to make sure the military was trained and ready to go at moment’s notice. Congress also revived the House Committee on Un-American Activities and went after America’s film industry, academicians, and eventually even members of the U.S. military and top State Department officials. Republican Senator Joseph McCarthy led this Red Scare and held Senate hearings that accused people of sympathizing with communists. At the least, many people lost their jobs and friends; at the worst, they faced contempt citations, criminal trials, and even prison sentences.

The First Conflict of the Cold War: the Berlin Airlift For the U.S. government, 1947 was a busy year; and Stalin decided to test the new policies—he wanted to gauge how committed the United States was to containment. In June 1948, Stalin tried to push the line between the communists (supported by the USSR) and the Western democracies (supported by the United States), which ran right down the middle of Germany. Even though the city of Berlin was located 110 miles inside of East Germany (controlled by the USSR), it too was divided into four sectors—one part to each of the victorious Allies. The French, British and American sectors combined to form West Berlin, and the USSR agreed to allow access through East German territory to and from West Berlin.

But in June 1948, the Soviets cut off all power to West Berlin and closed all transportation access, completely forming a blockade around it. Although U.S. troops were stationed nearby, using them against the Soviet troops who were upholding the blockade would most certainly re- sult in armed conflict, escalating the Cold War just as it got underway. Truman decided the better way to handle this was to bypass the blockade and show the Soviets that they could not “beat” the United States. For almost one year, basic necessities were consistently flown into West Berlin via the Berlin Airlift. At the peak of the Berlin Airlift, Western cargo planes were landing at one of Berlin’s three airports at a rate of one plane every sixty-two seconds. In May 1949, the Soviets realized that the United States was not going to simply surrender West Berlin and dis- continued the blockade, but not before 275,000 flights had carried a staggering 2.3 million tons of supplies into West Berlin. The point was made—the United States would take action to con- tain the spread of communism.

Stalin’s aggression in Berlin led to the birth of the German Federal Republic in 1949, cre- ated by a constitution written by Germans under Allied supervision. Germany was no longer one country divided into occupation zones; it became two independent states—familiarly known as West and East Germany—that formed the front line of the Cold War.

House Committee on Un-American Activities a standing committee of nine representatives who investigated suspected communists in influential positions in U.S. society

WORLDWIDE CONFLICT 125

Watch the Video President Truman and the Threat of Communism on mysearchlab.com

Watch the Video The Berlin Airlift on mysearchlab.com

The World in the 20th Century: A Thematic Approach, First Edition, by Stephanie A. Hallock. Published by Pearson. Copyright © 2013 by Pearson Education, Inc.

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126 CHAPTER 6 • CONFLICT AND CONVERGENCE: 1945–1950

Western Europe on the Front Line For almost the entire first half of the twentieth century, Western Europe had been torn apart by war, and the results were absolutely devastating. The physical destruction was almost unimag- inable; an estimated 70 percent of Europe’s industrial infrastructure was destroyed. From the largest cities on the continent to the smallest rural villages, farmland, factories and all meth- ods of transportation were unusable and, in many cases, simply gone. People suffered through bombings, military occupations, war crimes, forced labor camps and the Holocaust. Approximately 37 million Europeans were dead, which included almost twice as many civil- ians as military. For those left to survive in what American journalist William Shirer described

KielKiel

HamburgHamburg BremerhavenBremerhaven

BremenBremen

HannoverHannover

SchwerinSchwerin

PotsdamPotsdam

HalleHalle

ErfurtErfurt DresdenDresden

DüsseldorfDüsseldorf

BerlinBerlin

WiesbadenWiesbaden

MainzMainz

StuttgartStuttgart

MunichMunich

TübingenTübingen

KehlKehl (Fr. military area)(Fr. military area)

FreiburgFreiburg

RHINELAND-RHINELAND- PALATINATEPALATINATE

SAARSAAR

BADENBADEN

WÜRTTEMBERG-WÜRTTEMBERG- HOHENZOLLERNHOHENZOLLERN

BAVARIABAVARIA

WÜRTTENBERG-BADENWÜRTTENBERG-BADEN

HESSEHESSE THURINGIATHURINGIA SAXONYSAXONY

SAXONY-ANHALTSAXONY-ANHALT

BRANDENBURGBRANDENBURG

NORTH RHINE-WESTPHALIANORTH RHINE-WESTPHALIA

LOWER SAXONYLOWER SAXONY

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Kiel

Hamburg Bremerhaven

Heligoland (Br. military area)

Bremen

Hannover

Schwerin

Potsdam

Halle

Erfurt Dresden

Düsseldorf

Berlin

Wiesbaden

Mainz

Stuttgart

Munich

Tübingen

Kehl (Fr. military area)

Freiburg

RHINELAND- PALATINATE

SAAR

BADEN

WÜRTTEMBERG- HOHENZOLLERN

BAVARIA

WÜRTTEMBERG-BADEN

HESSE THURINGIA SAXONY