Case Study

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unit_iv_samplingreport_1.pdf

February 4, 2013

Mr. Bob Johnson

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

100 Main Street

Happy Valley, Washington 70001

SUBJECT: ANNUAL AIR SAMPLING SURVEY

Dear Mr. Johnson:

The subject report is attached and discusses the results of the air sampling survey I conducted on

December 13th at the ACME Printing Corporation facility in Happy Valley, WS. The purpose of the

survey was to evaluate personal exposures to select components of commonly used chemicals

associated with the ACME printing process. An additional sample was collected to assess ambient

concentrations of ozone. A discussion of relevant exposure limits is included.

If there are any comments or questions, call me at 720/123-4567.

Thank you.

Signature Here

Sam “IH” Sampler

Industrial Hygienist

1234 1 st Street

Gilbert, WS 70002

720/123-4567

2012 ANNUAL AIR SAMPLING REPORT

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

February 4, 2013

Sampling Conducted By:

Sam “IH” Sampler

Industrial Hygienist

1234 1 st Street

Gilbert, WS 70002

720/123-4567

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ACME Printing Corporation has had an active air sampling program in place for several years. Air

sampling was conducted to assess personal exposures to select components of commonly used

chemicals associated with the printing process. An additional sample was collected to assess ambient

concentrations of ozone. A total of five personal samples were collected and analyzed for ink

components; one area sample was collected and analyzed for ozone. Sampling was conducted in

accordance with established procedures with results being compared to two relevant exposure limits.

Personal samples ranged from 14.8 - 59.0% of the calculated additive Permissible Exposure Limit (i.e.

n-propanol and n-propyl acetate combined). The results are in general agreement with samples taken

in previous years. The area sample result for ozone was deemed insignificant after it was determined

that the lamination process was non-operational the day of the study. Recommendations are made to

share results with affected personnel, continue the annual sampling survey and conduct another ozone

study.

BACKGROUND

The printing industry uses a variety of inks, solvents and adhesives that have chemical constituents

deemed hazardous according to definitions established by the Occupational Safety and Health

Administration (OSHA). Federal regulations require employers to evaluate employee exposures to

select substances and assure that airborne concentrations do not exceed 8-hour, time-weighted

averages known as Permissible Exposure Limits (PELs). Employee exposures below PELs are not

expected to cause adverse health effects in a majority of a healthy working population.

To evaluate exposures, ACME Printing has been conducting air sampling on an annual basis for

several years. Previous year’s results have generally shown personal sampling results at or below 50%

of the applicable PEL. Area samples in high traffic areas near production units have shown levels

below PELs. Additional process-specific studies have also been conducted and have shown localized

areas where ambient concentrations exceed the applicable PEL. However, given the highly variable

nature of work activities, workers do not occupy these areas for enough time to reach the PEL.

Finally, air sampling surveys have been conducted that characterize short-duration, potentially high

exposure activities. These studies showed ambient vapor concentrations near the associated OSHA

short term exposure limit but concluded that the infrequent nature of the activity and the “worst case”

design used for the study resulted in low worker exposure potential.

CHEMICAL HAZARDS & EXPOSURE POTENTIAL

A review of current chemical usage shows that inks and adhesives are two of the most commonly used chemical

materials across the plant. A review of the Safety Data Sheets (SDSs) for a typical ink and adhesive used shows

two primary ingredients: n-propyl alcohol (n-propanol) and n- propyl acetate. A brief hazard review and

exposure assessment is as follows:

Chemical Name CAS#

Primary

Route(s) of

Exposure

Health Hazard Exposure

Potential

n-propyl alcohol 71-23-8

inhalation,

dermal

absorption

irritation eyes, nose, throat; dry

cracking skin; drowsiness,

headache; ataxia,

gastrointestinal pain; abdominal

cramps, nausea, vomiting,

diarrhea

Chemical used

daily;

inhalation is

likely based on

usage; skin

contact is

minimized via

use of gloves.

n-propyl acetate 109-60-4

inhalation,

dermal

absorption

irritation eyes, nose, throat;

narcosis; dermatitis

Chemical used

daily;

inhalation is

likely based on

usage; skin

contact is

minimized via

use of gloves. Source: Centers for Disease Control (2011) National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Pocket Guide.

Retrieved April, 2014 at: http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npg

To evaluate exposure potential, ACME Printing Corporation has been conducting air sampling on an

annual basis for several years. Previous year’s results have generally shown personal sampling results

at or below 50% of the applicable PEL. Several other exposure studies have been conducted on a

process-specific basis and have also documented low worker exposure potential. However, given the

variable nature of the business, ACME Printing Corporation has taken a prudent approach of

documenting worker exposures on an annual basis.

SAMPLING STRATEGY

A sampling strategy was devised in consultation with the Plant Director. In addition to the organic

constituents routinely included in past annual surveys, an area sample was collected for ozone. Ozone

is a by-product of the lamination process and has been of interest to plant personnel recently. The

following samples were collected for this year’s study:

Personal Sample – Josh, W&H 3 - n-propanol, n-propyl acetate

Personal Sample – Jake, W&H 2 - n-propanol, n-propyl acetate

Personal Sample – Percy, Vision - n-propanol, n-propyl acetate

Personal Sample – Mike, Pre-Press - n-propanol, n-propyl acetate

Personal Sample – Ronnie, W&H 3 – n-propanol, n-propyl acetate

Area Sample – Laminator Work Station - ozone

SAMPLING METHODOLOGY

A total of 5 personal air samples and 1 area sample were collected. Air sampling was conducted using

a sampling pump and appropriate filter media provided by the analytical lab contracted for the project.

Pumps were operated for as close to a full shift as possible with a flow rate that ensured collection of

the necessary air volume stated in the analytical method established by the National Institute for

Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). All pumps were pre- and post-calibrated to ensure accurate

air flow rates. Personal samples were placed in the breathing zone of the employee with the sampling

cassette being attached to the lapel; the area sample was placed in a location where employees are

expected to spend most their time. Sampling media was sent for analysis to a laboratory accredited by

the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).

SAMPLING RESULTS

Attachment A contains Tables 1-6 that summarize the sampling results. All personal monitoring results

were compared to the applicable PEL. For n-propyl alcohol and n-propyl acetate, an additive formula

method was used. Since both materials have similar potential adverse health effects (e.g. both affect

the central nervous system), it is acceptable to consider exposure to each in an additive fashion (see

data tables for specific calculations).

Table 1 shows personal air sampling results for Josh, W&H 2. This sample showed an ambient

concentration of n-propanol of 47.0 parts per million (ppm) and 14.0 ppm of n-propyl acetate. The

additive percentage of the PEL is 30.5%.

Table 2 shows personal air sampling results for Jake, W&H 2. This sample showed an ambient

concentration of n-propanol of 64.0 parts per million (ppm) and 26.0 ppm of n-propyl acetate. The

additive percentage of the PEL is 40.0%.

Table 3 shows personal air sampling results for Percy, Vision. This sample showed an ambient

concentration of n-propanol of 23.0 parts per million (ppm) and 6.5 ppm of n-propyl acetate. The

additive percentage of the PEL is 14.8%.

Table 4 shows personal air sampling results for Mike, Pre-Press. This sample showed an ambient

concentration of n-propanol of 32.0 parts per million (ppm) and 10.0 ppm of n-propyl acetate. The

additive percentage of the PEL is 21.0%.

Table 5 shows personal air sampling results for Ronnie, W&H 3. This sample showed an ambient

concentration of n-propanol of 91.0 parts per million (ppm) and 27.0 ppm of n-propyl acetate. The

additive percentage of the PEL is 59.0%.

Table 6 shows area sampling for the sample taken at the laminator work station. This sample showed

an ambient concentration of ozone of <0.013 ppm which is 2.5% of the PEL.

DISCUSSION & RECOMMENDATIONS

All personal samples are below their respective PELs and in general agreement with the range of

personal exposures measured in previous years. Although ACME Printing continues to be in

compliance with OSHA regulations, it is a best management practice to keep employee exposures

below 50% of the relevant PEL. Accordingly, ACME Printing should continue to conduct annual

sampling and periodically assess any trends associated with exposures (i.e. are exposures regularly

exceeding 50% of the PEL). Recommendations are as follows:

1) Share sampling information with employees. ACME Printing has a strong record of sharing monitoring results with affected employees. Employees are well versed in the meaning of

sampling and employee exposure results.

2) Continue the annual air sampling program. Day to day operations can change and may impact exposure potential to employees. It is prudent to conduct regular air sampling even though

ACME Printing is full compliance with OSHA regulations.

3) Conduct a separate study to evaluate ozone concentrations. It is unfortunate that the lamination unit did not end up running on the day of sampling. A separate study should be

conducted to fully evaluate ambient ozone concentrations.

ATTACHMENT A

PERSONAL & AREA SAMPLE DATA

TABLES 1-6

TABLE 1 - PERSONAL AIR SAMPLING RESULTS

Josh

W&H 3

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Date: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; concentrations below OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in

the majority of workers.

3) Additive Formula Calculation:

“*” = % PEL calculated using OSHA additive formula: (concentration of contaminant 1

divided by OSHA PEL for contaminant 1) + (concentration of contaminant 2 divided by OSHA

PEL for contaminant 2):

(n-propanol: 47.0/200) + (n-propyl acetate: 14.0/200) = 23.5 + 7.0 = 30.5

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)*

>PEL?

Josh

W&H 2 Personal

n-Propanol 47.0 200 (30.5)

No n-Propyl Acetate 14.0 200

TABLE 2 - PERSONAL AIR SAMPLING RESULTS

Jake

W&H 2

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Date: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; concentrations below OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in

the majority of workers.

3) Additive Formula Calculation:

“*” = % PEL calculated using OSHA additive formula: (concentration of contaminant 1

divided by OSHA PEL for contaminant 1) + (concentration of contaminant 2 divided by OSHA

PEL for contaminant 2):

(n-propanol: 64.0/200) + (n-propyl acetate: 16.0/200) = 32.0 + 8.0 = 40.0

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)*

>PEL?

Jake

W&H 2 Personal

n-Propanol 64.0 200 (40.0)

No n-Propyl Acetate 16.0 200

TABLE 3 - PERSONAL AIR SAMPLING RESULTS

Percy

Vision

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Date: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; concentrations below OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in

the majority of workers.

3) Additive Formula Calculation:

“*” = % PEL calculated using OSHA additive formula: (concentration of contaminant 1

divided by OSHA PEL for contaminant 1) + (concentration of contaminant 2 divided by OSHA

PEL for contaminant 2):

(n-propanol: 23.0/200) + (n-propyl acetate: 6.5/200) = 11.5 + 3.3 = 14.8

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)*

>PEL?

Percy

Vision Personal

n-Propanol 23.0 200 (35.7)

No n-Propyl Acetate 6.5 200

TABLE 4 - PERSONAL AIR SAMPLING RESULTS

Mike

Pre-Press

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Dates: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; concentrations below OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in

the majority of workers.

3) Additive Formula Calculation:

“*” = % PEL calculated using OSHA additive formula: (concentration of contaminant 1

divided by OSHA PEL for contaminant 1) + (concentration of contaminant 2 divided by OSHA

PEL for contaminant 2):

(n-propanol: 32.0/200) + (n-propyl acetate: 10.0/200) = 16.0 + 5.0 = 21.0

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)*

>PEL?

Mike

Pre-Press Personal

n-Propanol 32.0 200 (21.0)

No n-Propyl Acetate 10.0 200

TABLE 5. PERSONAL AIR SAMPLING RESULTS

Ronnie

W&H 3

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Date: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; concentrations below OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in

the majority of workers.

3) Additive Formula Calculation:

“*” = % PEL calculated using OSHA additive formula: (concentration of contaminant 1

divided by OSHA PEL for contaminant 1) + (concentration of contaminant 2 divided by OSHA

PEL for contaminant 2):

(n-propanol: 91.0/200) + (n-propyl acetate: 27.0/200) = 45.5 + 13.5 = 59.0

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)*

>PEL?

Ronnie

W&H 3 Personal

n-Propanol 91.0 200 (59.0)

Yes n-Propyl Acetate 27.0 200

TABLE 6. AREA SAMPLING RESULTS

Area Sample

Laminator Work Station

ACME Printing Corporation, Inc.

Sampling Date: December 13, 2012

Sampling Conducted by: Sam “IH” Sampler

NOTES:

1) Abbreviations:

ppm = part of analyte per million parts of air

OSHA = Occupational Safety & Health Administration

PEL = Permissible Exposure Limit

% PEL = what percent the measured concentration is of the PEL

2) Definitions:

PEL - legally enforceable, 8-hour, time-weighted average concentrations allowed during a

work shift; OSHA PEL are not expected to cause adverse health effects in the majority of

workers.

3) NOTE: It was determined after sampling that the laminator unit was not operational on the day

of sampling. Accordingly, the above data is of no significance from an exposure perspective.

LOCATION SAMPLE

TYPE

ANALYTE RESULT

(ppm)

OSHA PEL

(ppm)

(% PEL)

>PEL?

Laminator

Work Station Area Ozone <0.013 0.1

(<1.25)

No