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Module  3  Reading  Guide   Name:  ____________________________________   Urban  Planning  and  Sustainability    

3-1a, Reconceptualizing Urban Sustainability

Step 1. Review  

1.  Refer  to  the  definition  of  sustainable  development  in  the  Module  1  Reading  Guide.   In  the  space  below,  sketch  the  Venn  diagram  that  shows  sustainable  development  at   the  intersection  of  social  equity,  environmental  protection,  and  economic  growth.  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Step 2. Prepare

Familiarize  yourself  with  the  following  glossary  terms:    

power  relationships:  The  set  of  predefined  roles  that  establish  how  citizens,   businesses,  organizations,  and  governments  make  decisions  and  control  outcomes.  

sense  of  place:  The  feelings  and  perceptions  a  person  has  to  where  the  live  or  where   they  come  from.        

hinterland:  The  rural  region  that  provides  urban  areas  with  raw  goods  and   agricultural  products.  

non-­‐governmental  organization  (NGO):  Private  organizations  that  are  typically  not-­‐ for-­‐profit  and  have  humanitarian  missions.    

Step 3. Read

This  reading  is  an  excerpt  from  a  report  by  the  Center  for  Urban  Policy  Research  at   Rutgers  University  that  developed  from  a  workshop  held  in  1998.    

As  you  read  the  document:     •   Underline  the  words  that  are  new  or  confusing  to  you.     •   In  the  margins,  write  the  definitions  of  the  glossary  terms  where  they      

appear  in  the  text.  

Module  3  Reading  Guide     Urban  Planning  and  Sustainability  

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Step 4. Check

2.  In  what  ways  are  definitions  of  urban  sustainability  “antagonistic  and  contradictory”?    __________    

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3.  Imagine  that  you  are  explaining  the  authors’  definition  of  sustainability  to  someone  who  is   unfamiliar  with  the  term  or  with  geography  concepts.  How  would  you  explain  each  component  of  the   definition:  

a.  Entails  necessarily  flexible  and  ongoing  processes  rather  than  a  fixed  and  certain  outcome.    

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b.  Transcends  the  conventional  dualisms  of  urban  versus  rural,  local  versus  global,  and  economy   versus  environment.  

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c.  Supports  the  possibility  of  diversity,  difference,  and  local  contingency  rather  than  the  imposition  of   global  homogeneity.  

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4.  True  or  False:  Planning  for  sustainability  requires  adaptability  to  changing  circumstances.  

5.  True  or  False:  The  authors  recommend  that  experts  on  urban  sustainability  should  make  decisions   that  will  impact  cities  in  the  future.  

6.  True  or  False:  The  greatest  barrier  to  urban  sustainability  are  design  problems,  aging   infrastructure,  and  failing  technologies.  

7.  True  or  False:  The  authors  put  forward  universal  recommendations  to  implement  urban   sustainability  programs.  

 

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8.  A  city  is:  

¨   A  node  in  networks  of  flows  and  interactions.   ¨   A  place—a  site  of  everyday  life.   ¨   A  political  entity  with  governing  laws  and  regulations.   ¨   An  economic  center.   ¨   all  of  the  above  

9.  True  or  False:  The  authors  recommend  an  “eco-­‐city”  approach  to  urban  sustainability.  

10.  True  or  False:  Over  long-­‐term  timescales,  the  goals  of  ecological  and  economic  sustainability  are   co-­‐dependent.  

11.  What  assumptions  about  the  interrelationships  linking  the  economy  and  the  environment  are   challenged  by  the  authors?    

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Step 4. Reflect

12.  Refer  to  Table  2  on  page  14.  Do  you  agree  or  disagree  with  the  authors’  expanded  definitions  of   economic  and  ecological  sustainability?  Why  or  why  not?  

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  3-1b, Urban Prosperity through Planning and Design

Step 1. Prepare

Familiarize  yourself  with  the  following  glossary  terms.  

urban  planning:  A  technical  and  political  process  concerned  with  the  use  of  land  and  the  design  of   the  urban  environment.    

UN-­‐Habitat:  The  United  Nations’  Human  Settlements  Programme,  established  in  1978  and   headquartered  in  Nairobi,  Kenya,  which  aims  to  support  urban  development  and  reduce  urban   inequalities.  

Global  Standard  Urbanization  Model  of  the  20th  Century  (GS20C):  The  car-­‐based,  low  density   development  that  created  sprawl.  

Commons:  The  "commons"  is  any  resource  which  is  shared  by  a  group  of  people.  Such  things  as  the   air  we  breath  and  the  water  we  drink  come  from  commons.  In  many  parts  of  the  world;  new  land  for   farming  and  grazing  land  for  stock,  fish  from  the  sea,  and  wood  for  fuel  and  housing  are  treated  as   commons  (Harding  1997,  n.p.).  

“wheel  of  prosperity”:  “Prosperity,  as  defined  by  UN-­‐Habitat,  is  a  social  construct  that  materializes  in   the  realm  of  human  actions.  It  builds  deliberately  and  conscientiously  on  the  objective  conditions   prevailing  in  a  city  at  any  time,  wherever  located  and  however  large  or  small.  It  is  a  broader,  wide-­‐ ranging  notion  that  has  to  do  with  well-­‐balanced,  harmonious  development  in  an  environment  of   fairness  and  justice…A  prosperous  city  is  one  that  provides:  

Productivity:  Contributes  to  economic  growth  and  development,  generates  income,  provides   decent  jobs  and  equal  opportunities  for  all  through  effective  economic  policies  and  reforms.  

Infrastructure  development:  Provides  adequate  infrastructure  –  water,  sanitation,  roads,   information  and  communication  technology  –in  order  to  improve  living  standards  and   enhance  productivity,  mobility  and  connectivity.  

Quality  of  life:  Enhances  the  use  of  public  spaces  for  the  sake  of  community  cohesion  and  civic   identity,  and  guarantees  individual  and  material  safety  and  security.  

Equity  and  social  inclusion:  Ensures  equitable  (re)distribution  of  the  benefits  of  prosperity,   reduces  poverty  and  the  incidence  of  slums,  protects  the  rights  of  minority  and  vulnerable   groups,  enhances  gender  equality,  and  ensures  civic  participation  in  the  social,  political  and   cultural  spheres.  

Environmental  sustainability:  Values  the  protection  of  the  urban  environment  and  natural   assets  while  ensuring  growth,  pursues  energy  efficiency,  reduces  pressure  on  surrounding   land  and  natural  resources,  reduces  environmental  losses  through  creative,  environment-­‐ enhancing  solutions.  

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UN-­‐Habitat’s  ‘wheel  of  prosperity’  symbolizes  the  well-­‐balanced  development  of  the  five  dimensions,   the  current  condition  of  which  is  graphically  represented  in  the  Wheel  of  Urban  Prosperity  (see   below).  

 

…The  ‘outer  rim’  absorbs  the  cumulative  forces  transmitted  through  the  ‘spokes’  –  the  five   dimensions  of  prosperity.  At  the  center  is  the  ‘hub’  –  the  local  urban  power  functions,  with  four   interrelated  roles:  (i)  ensuring  the  prevalence  of  public  over  any  other  kind  of  interest;  (ii)  controlling   the  direction,  pace  and  momentum  of  the  ‘wheel’;  (iii)  ensuring  the  balanced  development  of  the  five   ‘spokes’  and  associated  synergies;  and  (iv)  in  a  two-­‐way  relationship,  absorbing  and  amortising  any   ‘shocks’  transmitted  by  the  ‘spokes’.  The  ‘hub’  brings  together  the  power  functions  (e.g.,  laws,   regulations  and  institutions,  urban  planning,  civil  society,  trade  associations,  dedicated  agencies,  etc.)   associated  with  the  five  ‘spokes’.  In  this  role,  the  ‘hub’  represents  human  agency  in  all  its   embodiments.  It  holds  the  five  ‘spokes’  together  and  endeavors  to  maintain  their  balance  and   symmetry  over  time”  (UN-­‐Habitat  2013,  11-­‐12).  

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Step 2. Read

This  reading  is  an  excerpt  from  UN-­‐Habitat’s  State  of  the  World’s  Cities  2012-­‐2013  report.    

As  you  read  the  document:     •   Underline  the  words  that  are  new  or  confusing  to  you.     •   In  the  margins,  write  the  definitions  of  the  glossary  terms  where  they  appear  in  the  text.  

Step 3. Check

1.  What  is  the  “dark  side  of  planning”?    _________________________________________________    

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2.  The  Global  Standard  Urbanization  Model  of  the  20th  Century  (GS20C)  results  in:  

¨   sociospatial  segregation   ¨   excessive  energy  consumption   ¨   privatization  of  public  space   ¨   all  of  the  above  

3.  According  to  the  reading,  what  are  the  four  conditions  needed  to  improve  urban  planning   processes?      

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4.  The  ‘Commons’  includes:  

¨   shared  resources  such  as  air,  biodiversity,  and  knowledge   ¨   public  infrastructure  such  as  sewer  systems  and  public  transit  stations   ¨   public  security  and  safety   ¨   community  centers,  parks,  libraries,  and  public  schools   ¨   all  of  the  above  

 

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5.  Briefly  summarize  each  of  the  recommendations  to  reinvigorate  urban  planning.      

a.  Facilitating  access  to  ‘Commons’:     ___________________________________________________    

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b.  Providing  public  goods:  ____________________________________________________________    

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c.  Implementing  sustainable  solutions:  __________________________________________________    

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d.  Increase  population  density  to  sustainable  levels:  _______________________________________    

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e.  Encourage  social  diversity  and  mixed  land-­‐use:  _________________________________________    

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f.  Devise  multimodal  mobility  strategies:  ________________________________________________    

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g.  Plan  infill  development  and  guided  expansion:  __________________________________________    

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h.  Promote  liveable  public  spaces  and  vibrant  streets:   _____________________________________    

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Step 4. Reflect

6.  Do  you  think  that  it  is  possible  to  balance  individual  versus  collective  interests  in  urban  planning?   Why  or  why  not?  

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3-1c, New Urbanism as Sustainable Development?

Step 1. Prepare  

Familiarize  yourself  with  the  following  glossary  terms:  

new  urbanism:  A  broad  school  of  urban  design  that  advocates  a  return  to  ‘traditional’  human-­‐scale   neighborhood  development,  liveable  communities,  transit-­‐oriented  development  and  smart  growth   instead  of  low-­‐density  car-­‐oriented  urban  development  (Pacione  2009,  680).  

traditional  neighborhood  development  (TND):  A  comprehensive  planning  system  that  includes  a   variety  of  housing  types  and  land  uses  in  a  defined  area.  The  variety  of  uses  permits  educational   facilities,  civic  buildings  and  commercial  establishments  to  be  located  within  walking  distance  of   private  homes.  A  TND  is  served  by  a  network  of  paths,  streets  and  lanes  suitable  for  pedestrians  as   well  as  vehicles.  This  provides  residents  the  option  of  walking,  biking  or  driving  to  places  within  their   neighborhood.  Present  and  future  modes  of  transit  are  also  considered  during  the  planning  stages   (TTP  n.d.,  n.p.).  

sustainability:  The  long-­‐term,  cultural,  economic  and  environmental  health  and  vitality  with  the   emphasis  on  long-­‐term,  together  with  the  importance  of  linking  our  social,  financial,  and   environmental  well-­‐being  (EPA  2012,  n.p.).  

environmental  sustainability:  Sustainability  is  based  on  a  simple  principle:    Everything  that  we   need  for  our  survival  and  well-­‐being  depends,  either  directly  or  indirectly,  on  our  natural   environment.  Sustainability  creates  and  maintains  the  conditions  under  which  humans  and   nature  can  exist  in  productive  harmony,  that  permit  fulfilling  the  social,  economic  and  other   requirements  of  present  and  future  generations  (EPA  n.d.,  n.p.).  

technical  sustainability:  New  innovations,  particularly  in  building  design,  construction,  and   materials,  that  support  sustainable  development  principles.  

social  sustainability:  A  positive  condition  marked  by  a  strong  sense  of  social  cohesion,  and   equity  of  access  to  key  services  (including  health,  education,  transport,  housing  and   recreation)  (McKenzie  2004,  30).  

grayfield:  A  term  used  in  the  United  States  and  Canada  to  describe  economically  obsolescent,   outdated,  failing,  moribund  and/or  underused  real  estate  assets  or  land.  The  term  was  coined  in  the   early  2000s  as  a  way  to  describe  the  sea  of  empty  asphalt  that  often  accompanied  these  sites...The   term  has  historically  been  applied  to  formerly  viable  retail  and  commercial  shopping  sites  (such  as   regional  malls  and  strip  centers)  that  suffer  from  lack  of  reinvestment  and  have  been  "outclassed"  by   larger,  better  designed,  better  anchored  malls  or  shopping  sites  (WHE  n.d.,  n.p.).  

brownfield:  Real  property,  the  expansion,  redevelopment,  or  reuse  of  which  may  be  complicated  by   the  presence  or  potential  presence  of  a  hazardous  substance,  pollutant,  or  contaminant.  Cleaning  up   and  reinvesting  in  these  properties  protects  the  environment,  reduces  blight,  and  takes  development   pressures  off  greenspaces  and  working  lands  (EPA  2015,  n.p.).  

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greenfield:  A  master-­‐planned  city,  usually  by  one  developer  on  wooded  or  farmland  acres  (Macionis   and  Parrillo  2013,  417).  

garden  cities:  Based  on  [English  town  planner  Ebenezer]  Howard’s  vision,  eco-­‐friendly  pedestrian   villages  that  attempt  to  blend  the  best  of  the  city  and  the  country  by  utilizing  shared  public  space   (Macionis  and  Parrillo  2009,  417).  

impervious  surface:  Impervious  surfaces  are  hard  surfaces  such  as  asphalt,  concrete,  rooftops,  and   highly  compacted  soils.  Unlike  pervious  areas  where  soil  and  vegetation  absorb  rainwater,  impervious   surfaces  are  areas  that  water  cannot  go  through.  Land  cover  that  is  impervious  prevents  rainwater   from  entering  into  the  soil  and  forces  it  to  run  off  the  land  until  it  finds  a  place  where  it  can  enter  the   soil  or  is  incorporated  into  man-­‐made  drainage  systems  that  carry  it  directly  to  a  stream,  lake,  or   estuary.  In  urban  areas,  land  that  once  absorbed  rainfall  is  now  covered  with  buildings  and   pavement,  thus  more  rainfall  than  ever  is  entering  our  drainage  systems  and  local  streams…   Impervious  cover  is  an  unavoidable  result  of  urban  development.  It  makes  more  water  flow  over  the   land  as  runoff  and  starts  a  chain  of  events  that  begins  with  changes  in  the  water  cycle,  impacts   riparian  areas,  adds  water  pollution,  and  eventually  decreases  water  quality  (Ambrosio,  Lawrence,   and  Brown  2004,  n.p.).  

Step 2. Read

As  you  read  the  document:     •   Underline  the  words  that  are  new  or  confusing  to  you.    

•   In  the  margins,  write  the  definitions  of  the  glossary  terms  where  they  appear  in  the  text.  

Step 3. Check

1.  List  the  characteristics  of  new  urbanism  developments.  

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2.  True  or  False:  There  is  a  clear  definition  of  New  Urbanism  neighborhoods  in  the  United  States.  

3.  True  or  False:  The  majority  of  New  Urbanism  neighborhoods  are  clustered  in  the  metropolitan   areas  of  California,  Colorado,  Florida,  Georgia,  North  Carolina,  and  Texas.  

4.  True  or  False:  Most  New  Urbanism  neighborhoods  are  located  within  a  few  miles  of  the  CBD.  

5.  Are  New  Urbanism  neighborhoods  examples  of  sustainable  development?  Why  or  why  not?    

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Step 4. Reflect

1.  Would  you  want  to  live  in  a  new  urbanism  housing  development?  Why  or  why  not?  

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Module  3  Reading  Guide     Urban  Planning  and  Sustainability  

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3-2a, Sustainable Urban Transportation: Concepts, Policies, and Methodologies  

Step 1. Read  

Step 2. Check

1.  True  or  False:  There  is  a  universally  accepted  definition  of  sustainability.  

2.  Sustainability  is        

¨   meeting  the  needs  of  the  present  without  compromising  the  ability  of  future  generations  to   meet  their  own  needs.  

¨   achievement  of  continued  economic  development  without  detriment  to  environmental  and   natural  resources.  

¨   a  guide  for  the  decision-­‐making  process.   ¨   all  of  the  above  

3.  True  or  False:  The  goal  of  sustainable  transportation  is  to  ensure  that  environmental,  social,  and   economic  considerations  are  factored  into  decisions  affecting  transportation  activity.  

Fill  in  the  Blank.  

4.  Most  measures  of  sustainable  transportation  focus  on  ___________________________  measures   such  as  vehicle  emissions,  particulates  emissions,  energy  consumption,  and  noise  level.    

5.  Due  to  variations  across  time  and  space,  it  is  difficult  to  determine  the  ____________________  at   which  transportation  can  be  considered  sustainable.  

6.  The  ________________________  aspects  of  sustainable  transportation  development—such  as  the   distribution  of  benefits  among  users  and  nonusers,  between  the  rich  and  the  poor,  or  between  the   able-­‐bodied  and  disabled—are  highly  subjective  and  more  difficult  to  measure.  

7.  Externalities  refers  to  the  outside  or  _______________________  factors  that  influence  sustainable   transportation  decision-­‐making.  

8.  __________________________  and  ____________________________  analyses  are  needed  to   understand  the  sustainability  of  urban  transportation  systems.  

Step 3. Reflect

9.  How  does  this  reading  inform  our  campus  transportation  study?  ___________________________      

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3-2b, Toward Socially Sustainable Urban Transportation: Progress and Potentials

Step 1. Read  

Step 2. Check

1.  True  or  False:  Socially  sustainable  urban  transportation  includes  the  consideration  of  social  equity,   social  exclusion,  and  quality  of  life.    

2.  True  or  False:  Inequitable  access  to  employment  exists  in  U.S.  cities  as  low-­‐skilled,  low-­‐wage,  and   minority  workers  are  often  more  likely  to  experience  problems  of  inadequate  transportation  to   overcome  the  spatial  separations  between  their  residential  location  and  places  of  work   opportunities,  resulting  in  higher  levels  of  unemployment,  more  costly  commutes,  or  compromised   wages.  

Fill  in  the  Blank.  

3.  If  ____________________________  seeks  to  balance  three  interlinked  objectives,  to                           protect  the  environment  while  promoting  economic  vitality  and  social  equity,  then  more  __________   is  needed  to  understand  the  social  dimensions  of  sustainability.  

4.  The  literature  suggests  that  socially  sustainable  urban  transportation  is  most  appropriately   examined  at  __________________  scales,  the  level  at  which  activities  of  individual  livelihoods  occur.  

5.  _______________________  refers  to  fairness  of  distribution,  not  equality.  Everyone  in  society   does  not  have  equal  need;  thus,  with  equity,  the  distribution  of  resources  is  based  upon  need.  

6.  _________________________________  means  that  all  persons  are  created  equal  and  should  be   treated  as  such.  

7.  _________________________________  means  that  there  should  be  equal  treatment  for  people   in  unequal  positions.  

8.  _________________________________  means  that  the  distribution  of  benefits  across   socioeconomic  classes  should  provide  the  greatest  benefit  (at  the  least  cost)  to  the  most   disadvantaged.  

9.  Growing  at  the  edges  of  central  cities,  ______________________________  is  characterized  as   scattered  low-­‐density  residential,  commercial,  and  retail  development,  with  poor  accessibility.  

10.  This  growing  dependence  upon  ________________________________  creates  geographies  of   social  inequities  and  polarization  in  metropolitan  areas  along  socioeconomic  lines.  

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11.  The  planning  strategy  of  __________________________________  believes  more  concentrated   environments  create  better  access  to  facilities  and  opportunities;  increase  the  overall  equity  in   access;  reduce  commute  time=  length  and  the  need  to  travel;  provide  greater  opportunities  for  social   interaction  and  social  contact  leading  to  social  cohesion;  and  increase  capacity  to  meet  the  housing   needs  of  the  population.  

12.  Characteristics  of  individual  identity,  personal  constraints,  or  household  structure  can  greatly   influence  _________________________________________  of  individuals.  

Step 3. Reflect

13.  How  does  this  reading  inform  our  campus  transportation  study?  __________________________      

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3-2c, Urban Form, Air Pollution, and CO 2 Emissions in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas

Step 1. Read  

Step 2. Check

1.  True  or  False:  There  is  a  positive  correlation  between  urban  sprawl  and  air  pollution.    

2.  True  or  False:  Cities  account  for  less  than  3%  of  the  Earth’s  land  surface,  yet  they  produce  78%  of   the  anthropogenic  carbon  emissions.  (Anthropogenic  means  human-­‐caused).  

Fill  in  the  Blank.  

3.  _______________________________  refers  to  the  ambient  concentration  of  air  pollution  as   measured  using  air  quality  monitors,  whereas  ___________________________  could  refer  to  both   the  anthropogenic  emission  of  air  pollutants  and  their  ambient  concentrations.  

4.  As  urban  areas  become  less  dense  and  urban  land  use  becomes  more  segregated,  residents  use   __________________________________________  more  often  and  tend  to  drive  further  to  reach   work  and  other  destinations.  

5.  As  residents  rely  less  on  walking,  biking,  or  transit,  the  per  capita  emission  of  tailpipe  pollutants   such  as  CO2,  nitrogen  oxides  (NOx),  particulate  matter  (PM),  and  carbon  monoxide  (CO)   __________________.  

Module  3  Reading  Guide     Urban  Planning  and  Sustainability  

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6.  _______________________________  can  also  affect  air  quality  by  influencing  local  meteorology,   including  the  urban  heat  island  (UHI)  effect,  and  the  energy  efficiency  of  buildings.  

7.  A  metropolitan  statistical  area  (_________)  contains  at  least  one  urbanized  area  of  50,000  or  more   population,  plus  adjacent  territory  that  has  a  high  degree  of  social  and  economic  integration  with  the   core  as  measured  by  commuting  ties.  

8.  A  combined  statistical  area  (_________)  are  generally  larger  than  MSAs  both  in  population  and  in   area  and  include  any  combination  of  multiple  adjacent  metropolitan  and  micropolitan  statistical   areas  with  an  employment  interchange  of  at  least  15  percent.  

Step 3. Reflect

9.  How  does  this  reading  inform  our  campus  transportation  study?  ___________________________      

_________________________________________________________________________________    

_________________________________________________________________________________    

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3-3a, San Diego General Plan Strategic Framework

Step 1. Read    

Step 2. Analyze

1.  How  effective  is  the  document  in  communicating  information?  Cite  specific  examples.    _________    

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2.  What  are  the  strengths  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    __________________________    

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3.  What  are  the  weaknesses  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    ________________________    

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3-3b, Dallas Policy Plan Introduction

Step 1. Read    

Step 2. Analyze

1.  How  effective  is  the  document  in  communicating  information?  Cite  specific  examples.    _________    

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2.  What  are  the  strengths  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    __________________________    

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3.  What  are  the  weaknesses  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    ________________________    

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3-3c, Glasgow City Development Plan (excerpt)

Step 1. Read    

Step 2. Analyze

1.  How  effective  is  the  document  in  communicating  information?  Cite  specific  examples.    _________    

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2.  What  are  the  strengths  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    __________________________    

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3.  What  are  the  weaknesses  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    ________________________    

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3-3d, Adelaide Strategic Plan (excerpt)

Step 1. Read    

Step 2. Analyze

1.  How  effective  is  the  document  in  communicating  information?  Cite  specific  examples.    _________    

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2.  What  are  the  strengths  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    __________________________    

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3.  What  are  the  weaknesses  of  this  document?  Cite  specific  examples.    ________________________    

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