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Architecture and Interior Design: An Integrated History to the Present

First Edition

Chapter 31

Gothic Revival

1830s – 1880s

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

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1

K. Victorian Revivals

1830-1900 named for Queen Victoria of British Empire

During her reign, major transformation of life & society

Industrial Revolution alters how people live, work, play, build, & decorate.

Class structure, family & gender roles change

Unprecedented spending power creates consumer class

Explosion of goods & numerous, swiftly changing styles

Designs characterized by historicism & revivalism

Choice of style driven by fashion & associationism

Buildings & furnishings have important social & cultural messages that change quickly

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2

Gothic Revival

Deliberately revives Gothic & other styles of the Middle Ages

Begins in England c. 1700, challenges supremacy of Neoclassicism by early 19th century

At first, applies ecclesiastical architectural motifs to contemporary forms

Study & scholarship move toward greater dependence upon medieval prototypes

Eventually, unique expression indicative of its time

Elements of Gothic Revival theories foundations for later design reform movements

An international style

Begins earlier & longer sustained development in England

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3

Concepts

Stylistic development interweaves with nationalism, literary & historical associations 18th & 19th centuries

England, France, & Germany claim as their design heritage

Mainly churches & castles with little emphasis upon accuracy in design in 18th- early 19th centuries

Visual complexity, appeal to senses, image important

Study & publication of medieval structures stimulates correct use of context, form, & detail

More public interest & sources of inspiration for designers

Distinguish various styles of the Middle Ages, choose among them for preferences or associations

1850s more eclectic, less dependent upon precedents

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4

Architecture

Gothic forms & motifs adapted or copied from medieval structures in all phases & all countries

Early or Picturesque Gothic Revival: from 1750s, asymmetrical assemblages of Gothic architectural elements

Gothic Revival (1830s-1880s): accuracy in form & detail

Pugin & others promote as a moral style & antidote to problems of industrialization

American innovation: wooden Gothic churches, houses

High Victorian Gothic (1850s-1880s): bold geometric forms, simple outlines, structural polychrome, greater eclecticism

Gothic Revival & Design Reform (1850s-1920s): less overtly Gothic, designers apply principles of medieval design

Honest structure & materials, fewer medieval details

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5

31.1

Architectural Details: Wall detail, S. Giles Church, 1839-1844, Cheadle, Staffordshire, England; Augustus W. N. Pugin. Gothic Revival.

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31.2

Trinity Church and nave, 1841-1846; New York City, New York. Richard Upjohn. Gothic Revival.

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31.3

All Saints Church, Margaret Street, 1849–1859; London, England; William Butterfield. High Victorian Gothic.

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31.4a

New Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), 1835-65; London, England; Sir Charles Barry and Augustus W. N. Pugin. Gothic Revival

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31.4b

The Lords’ Chamber, House of Lords, New Palace of Westminster (Houses of Parliament), 1835-1865; London, England. Augustus W. N. Pugin. Gothic Revival.

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31.5

Midland Grand Hotel and S. Pancras Station, 1868–1874; London, England; Sir George Gilbert Scott. High Victorian Gothic.

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31.6

Royal Courts of Justice (Law Courts), 1874–1882; London, England; George Edmund Street Gothic Revival.

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31.7

Old State Capitol and stair hall, 1847–1849; Baton Rouge, Louisiana; James H. Dakin. Gothic Revival.

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31.8

Rotch House, 1846; New Bedford, Massachusetts; Alexander Jackson Davis. Gothic Revival.

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31.9a

Lyndhurst,1838–1865; Tarrytown, New York; Alexander Jackson Davis. Gothic Revival.

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31.9b

Lyndhurst, floor plan,1838–1865; Tarrytown, New York; Alexander Jackson Davis. Gothic Revival.

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Long Description:

The boundary walls have a geometrical pattern. The building has a drawing room on its left. A saloon and a hall are next to the drawing room. The vestibule and carriage porch is at the bottom. A dining room, a library, a passage, an office, and a stair lobby are in the middle. A cabinet, Entry and postern, dining room, Butler’s pantry, and storage are on the right.

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31.9c

Dining room, Lyndhurst, 1838–1865; Tarrytown, New York; Alexander Jackson Davis. Gothic Revival.

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Interiors

Relate to exterior by Gothic elements & motifs

May be architectural, as in fan vaulting, or finishes, such as wallpaper

Do not emulate originals & rely on fixed elements instead of movable ones like originals

Early or Picturesque Gothic: Gothic motifs in classical arrangements or combined with Rococo, lighthearted

Gothic Revival: more correct use of Gothic elements, polychrome, many patterns that are two-dimensional & stylized with no shading

High Victorian Gothic: structural polychrome, bold details

Gothic Revival & Design Reform: less literal use of Gothic, simpler, less ornament

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18

31.10

Main entry hall, Kingscote, 1841; Newport, Rhode Island; Richard Upjohn. Gothic Revival.

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31.11

Dining Room, Cardiff Castle, c. 1870-1875; Cardiff, Wales; William Burges. Gothic Revival.

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31.12

Tile floors, 1860s-1880s. Augustus W. N. Pugin and William Butterfield.

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31.13

Wallpapers: Various patterns and motifs related to the period, mid- to late 19th century; England and the United States. Gothic Revival.

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31.14

Lighting: Candlesticks, and wall sconce. 1840s-1880s; England and United States. Gothic Revival.

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Long Description:

The first candlestick has a concave bottom with four short legs and a stick rises from the bottom. A heart symbol shape with floral patterns is in the middle and terminates with a candle holder. The second candlestick has a hexagonal bottom with six legs and a stick rises from the bottom. A flat floral design plate extends from the middle of the stick and the top is terminated with a candle holder.

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Furnishings & Decorative Arts

Gothic & other medieval architectural details applied to contemporary furniture forms

Early Gothic: combines Gothic & Rococo, Rococo disappears in early 19th century

1830s, Pugin designs in Gothic manner based upon precedent studies

Medieval forms, details; honest, visible construction; truth to materials

Few followers

1850s Reform Gothic simpler, less obviously Gothic

Simplicity, chamfering or low relief carving, spindles, naturalistic or geometric decoration

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24

31.15

Side chairs published in Ackermann’s Repository of the Arts, July 1823; England. Gothic Revival.

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Long Description:

The first chair has curved legs, a polygonal cushion sheet, lower armrests that decline from the back frame, and a decorated back. The second chair without armrests has vertical front legs and curved back legs, and a floral back has a cross sign on its top. The third chair has curved legs, a circular cushion seat, and a back with a geometrical pattern.

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31.16

Carver chair and armchair, c. 1820s–1870s; England. Gothic Revival.

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Long Description:

The chair has an oak leaf on the top, a Heraldic motif with a lion, a Pointer arch on the back frame, a Heraldic motif, and tracery on the splat. The frame has clustered columns, straight lines, and rectangle emphasis. The chair has low relief carved decoration, carving of foliage, and a pointed arch.

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31.17

Bookcases and chest, c. 1850s–1870s; England and the United States; Andrew Jackson Downing and Augustus W. N. Pugin. Gothic Revival.

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31.18

Washstand, c. 1880; London, England. William Burges. Gothic Revival.

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31.19

Bed and wardrobe, c. 1870s; England; Bruce Talbot. Reformed Gothic.

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31.20

Bed, c. mid-19th century; United States. Gothic Revival.

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Copyright

This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching their courses and assessing student learning. Dissemination or sale of any part of this work (including on the World Wide Web) will destroy the integrity of the work and is not permitted. The work and materials from it should never be made available to students except by instructors using the accompanying text in their classes. All recipients of this work are expected to abide by these restrictions and to honor the intended pedagogical purposes and the needs of other instructors who rely on these materials.

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31

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