- 1st Link - What we are basing our project on 2nd Link - The simulation we will be using to conduct the experiment 3rd Link - Our Lab Report
- [11:28 PM]What we planned: Lab Report finish by Dec 8, 9PM - We are basically rewriting the lab report sent on 1st link. Remember not to plagiarize LOL. You can conduct the experiment yourself to get your own data and you can use the lab report (1st link) as a reference. There are 7 topics and 7 ppl in our group so we will EACH be doing a topic. PowerPoint finish by Dec 9, 10:30PM - There are 7 topics so we’ll have slides according to those topics. Your assigned topic is what you will be discussing in your slides. You can simply put bullet points of what you typed on our lab report. Include pics!! (: After you finish your slides, you will be making audio clips based off what you typed on our lab report. Pls send audio clips (voice memos) to me so I can finish the presentation sooner. PowerPoint Presentation finish by Dec 10 9PM (latest) - If you need more time w audio clips, pls send me them before 1PM on Dec 9 so I have time to edit and put all the audio and ppt together. If you need more time to send in audio clips pls let us know!! (: PowerPoint Comments finish by Dec 12 11:59PM - Professor says we have to comment on 2 other groups presentation. We all do this individually.
- December 10, 2021
Force and motion is a universal concept that applies to all matter in the universe. Motion is the changing of position or location which requires a force to cause that change. Forces influence objects that are at rest or that are already in motion. In the three laws of motion proposed by Isaac Newton, it involves the notion of inertia, mass, velocity, and momentum. These laws and factors contribute to the driving force that helps apply the concept of force and motion that we experience everyday. Using the online simulation provided by the Phet website, we will be conducting experiments involving force and motion.
In lecture as well as additional readings from our textbook, we have been introduced to the different aspects and rules that apply to the world of physics. There are three important notions that Isaac Newton proposed when he first studied and introduced the motion of objects. He stated that (1) a stationary object will remain stationary unless an external force acts on it, (2) the change in an object’s motion is proportional to the force acting on it, and (3) every force has an equal and opposite force.
By using the online simulation, we aim to demonstrate the concept of force and motion with the provided resource. The simulation should be able to provide results that would mimic the experiment if we were to do it in person. The data and calculations taken from the experiment will be able to showcase the theory behind force and motion and give us a better understanding behind it. With both concepts, we will learn all the factors that play a part in force and motion and it will give us a deeper understanding behind what is needed to put something into motion as well as what type of force and how much force is needed to create that motion.
With respect to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, we can understand the significance of the relation between force, mass, and acceleration. Under the circumstances of the experiment and in real life situations, force is simply a push or pull that acts upon an object. Furthermore, force is a vector quantity, in which it accounts for magnitude and direction. Newton’s Second Law regards the function of such objects for which all prevailing forces are not balanced.
As forces become unbalanced - another vector quantity - acceleration emerges. Acceleration directly depends on the net force which is the sum of all forces acting upon an object. As the net force increases, so does the acceleration. As the net forces decrease, so does the acceleration. On the other hand, acceleration inversely depends on an object’s mass in which the acceleration decreases as the mass increases. If the mass were to decrease, then acceleration would decrease.
As Newton’s Second Law may be expressed verbally, it can also be explained mathematically. As force has direction we may find different forces along the experiment, the first equation will be used to find the net force:
FNet = F1 + F2 + F3
The second equation will be used to find the weight of such object:
Fw = mg
The magnitude of the weight is equivalent to the magnitude of the normal force, this can be expressed in the equation:
Fn = Fw
We will not only be calculating with equations but also graphs, in the case of using the equation below, the slope will identify the coefficient of friction (μ):
(Static Friction) Fs = μsN
(Kinetic Friction) Fk = μkN
Experimental Apparatus & Setup:
For this experiment, our experimental apparatus and setup will consist of using an online simulation from the Phet Colorado website. This online simulation will allow us to experiment and collect data for our Forces and Motion experiment. The equipment needed to perform the experiment is all provided in the simulation.
Within the simulation setup, there are four selections to choose from:
There is a Net Force, in which the simulation consists of a “tug of war” between four blue figures, four red figures, both teams having different sizes of figures.
The second selection is Motion, where the figure model will be exerting force on a crate that’s mounted on a skateboard. The purpose of this simulation is to calculate the time it takes for the crate to be in motion, with or without applied mass(s) from the objects and figures provided.
The third simulation focusses on friction. It’s similar to the Motion simulation
Finally, there’s an Acceleration simulation, where we can calculate the
For all four selections of the simulations, we can insert various inputs to each simulation, such as a figure(s), a box, a trash bin, a gift box, a refrigerator, and a bucket of water, all providing different quantities in mass, speed, direction, and force.
This part concludes Newton’s Second Law of Motion in which the concerning object will remain stationary unless external forces act on it. In this case we add force to the right and left side of the cart to make it move so it does not remain stationary. We will find out the magnitude, the velocity, and the direction of the resultant force as well as the object (a cart).
Start the simulation by clicking on “Net Force”
Click on all the checkboxes on the upper righthand corner that indicate “Sum of Forces, Values, and Speed”
There are eight stick figures on the bottom; four blue figures and four red figures, drag the figures to the left and right side of the cart
After dragging the figures, make sure that the left rope has a force of 200N and the right rope has a force of 150N
Click on “Go” to start the simulation
Note the magnitude and the direction of resultant force
Note the direction where the car moved
Observe the velocity of the car, this can be found on the speedometer
This part concludes Newton’s Second Law of Motion in which the change in an object’s motion is proportional to the force acting on it.
Start the simulation by clicking on “Motion”
Click on the checkboxes located on the upper righthand corner that indicate “Forces, Values, Masses, and Speed”
Drag such objects on top of the skateboard (in this case we will be using a 50kg crate
Set the “Applied Force” to 500N as it will start to push the crate on the skateboard
Click on “Go” to start the simulation
Click on “Friction”
Select the checkboxes located on the upper righthand corner that indicate “Forces, Sum of Forces, Values, Masses, and Speed”
Push the box while slowly increasing the force
Record what you find the force needed for the box to start moving
Add more mass at the bottom right corner as needed.
Gather information and repeat procedures to put on the table.
Data: (Include data tables, formulas along with calculations)
Analysis: (Explain how we got the data)
In our lab experiment, there was definitely room for error. We used a website to conduct our experiment. Therefore, some of the things that may have gone wrong may occur due to technical, human, and instrumental error. An example of technical error would be how sometimes the object would move on its own without any force applied to it. A human error is not being able to read the results that we got or puting the right units. An instrumental source of error was that we could not see what speed our object was going. If this experiment was conducted in real life, an error would be how environmental factors such as the wind changes the direction or speed of the object.
In this experiment we explored the notions of Newton’s Second Law of Motion. The law formally states that acceleration occurs when a force acts on a mass and the greater amount of force on an object is needed when that mass of an object is greater. In our lab we conducted it into three parts; net force, motion, and friction. In terms of force, the experiment simply shows that if we move an object with force it will move. In terms of motion, the experiment explains with graphs, that if we put force over time the velocity would increase rapidly over the time. In terms of friction, the experiment illustrates in the graphs that friction increases when the object has motion; we can conclude that the opposing force is the friction force. Overall the results of the lab experiment exemplified the principles of Newton’s Second Law of Motion.
Phet Colorado simulation - Forces and Motion: Basics