Question 1 

  1. David Hume was a:

  


Unmitigated skeptic

 


Methodological skeptic

 


Local skeptic

 


Global skeptic

3 points   

Question 2 

  1. By "high accessibility      requirements" the internalist means: 

  


The evidence level   is so high I do not have access to it

 


I know, or through   introspection can attain, my reasons for my beliefs

 


externalists do   not highly cherish their epistemic obligations

 


all of the above

3 points   

Question 3 

  1. Christopher Columbus was convinced      that he discovered a route to the East Indies because it lined up with his      maps and the current beliefs of his day. However, he was wrong. This      example demonstrates a problem with:

  


A reliabilist form of justification

 


An evidentialist form of   justification

 


A foundationalist form of   justification

 


A coherentist form of justification.

3 points   

Question 4 

  1. According to the      presentation on skepticism, Descartes’ systematic doubt:

  


questioned the   senses

 


questioned reason

 


both of the above

 


none of the above

3 points   

Question 5 

  1. Rene Descartes was a:

  


Local skeptic

 


Metaphysical skeptic

 


Unmitigated skeptic

 


Global Skeptic

3 points   

Question 6 

  1. The virtue of studiousness does      not take into account the proper kinds of motives for seeking knowledge.

  


True.

 


False.

3 points   

Question 7 

  1. Which is not one of the ways that      Wood says moral and intellectual virtues parallel each other?

  


Each are developed throughout life.

 


We do not grow in either of them   automatically.

 


Each is best developed in the context   of community.

 


They yield the same kinds of results.

3 points   

Question 8 

  1. Thomas Aquinas thought that moral      and intellectual virtues were closely related.

  


True.

 


False.

3 points   

Question 9 

  1. Aristotle thought that the virtues      are present naturally in all people.

  


True.

 


False.

3 points   

Question 10 

  1. For Aristotle, the “Golden Mean”      points to fixed and universal ethical norms for all people to follow.

  


True.

 


False.

3 points   

Question 11 

  1. When the used car salesman tells      Steve that the particular car he is considering purchasing has less than      fifteen thousand actual miles on it, Steve is, quite naturally, a bit      skeptical about this claim, particularly since the car is over ten years      old and looks a little worse for wear.  In exhibiting this level of      doubt, Steve is expressing:

  


Global skepticism

 


Methodological skepticism.

 


Common sense skepticism.

 


Metaphysical skepticism.

3 points   

Question 12 

  1. To suggest that we should suspend      all judgments about any claim to knowledge,
         is to suggest a softer and mitigated form of skepticism in contrast to its      more unmitigated expressions.

True 

False 

3 points   

Question 13 

  1. Rather than having certainty about      our beliefs, it is more likely that we have varying degrees of rational      support for our beliefs.

True 

False 

3 points   

Question 14 

  1. Hume thinks that, while we may      assume connections of causality (i.e., every event has a cause), we never      actually perceive a necessary connection of causality and therefore we      cannot know a causal connection has actually occurred.

True 

False 

3 points   

Question 15 

  1. When Descartes employs systematic      doubt against the beliefs he holds, he discovers that:

  


He must be a thinking thing in order   to be deceived by an evil demon, and a thinking thing can at least be certain   that it is an existing thing.

 


In order to have doubt about anything   one believes, one would at least have to be an existing thing in order to doubt,   and a doubting thing can at least be certain that it is an existing thing.

 


He can be certain about some claims   to knowledge.

 


All of the above.

3 points   

Question 16 

  1. When we consider the way that our      beliefs relate to each other, we are making a reference to

  


Our noetic structure.

 


The method of abduction.

 


The sensus divinitatus.

 


The notion of concurrence.

3 points   

Question 17 

  1. Those holding to some form of      externalism in rationality tend to argue that, since it is impossible for      persons to have any cognitive access to the reasons and evidence that      support some of a person’s beliefs, internalists cannot be right with      respect to their account of justification for all beliefs.

True 

False 

3 points   

Question 18 

  1. Select the one below that does NOT      belong : The justification of one’s beliefs is a matter that deals with

  


Epistemic issues relating to the   rationality of one’s beliefs.

 


A person having reasons or evidence   for one’s beliefs.

 


Theological issues about the process   of salvation.

 


How a person goes about formulating   the evidence for a belief.

3 points   

Question 19 

  1. Ginger believes that the dog she      sees in her neighbor’s back yard is her own
         Labrador Retriever named Sam.  Since there are no other Labrador      Retrievers in the neighborhood fitting the same description as Sam, and      since the dog Ginger sees in her neighbor’s yard seems to recognize      Ginger’s voice when she calls out to it, Ginger quite naturally believes      the dog in her neighbor’s back yard is her dog Sam.  It turns out,      however, that the dog in her neighbor’s back yard is in fact not Ginger’s      dog but the Labrador of a visiting relative of her neighbor.  On an      internalist account of justification, since it turns out not to be true      that Ginger saw her dog Sam in her neighbor’s back yard, Ginger was not      justified in believing it was her own dog in the first place.

True 

False 

3 points   

Question 20 

  1. The problem with W. K. Clifford’s      statement “It is wrong always, everywhere and
         for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence” is that:

  


Most contemporary epistemologist   agree that there are no objective moral duties.

 


The statement is a disguised form of   externalism in justification.

 


As a matter of fact, we simply don’t   hold beliefs based on insufficient evidence.

 


Many contemporary epistemologists   think the statement is self-defeating.

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