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Peer Responses Week 5

HSE 470: Modern Terrorism

Response #1 (Timothy): Nigeria has been facing a lot of political problems because the government has been very weak. This has led to a lot of corruption, a decline in democracy, a lack of legitimacy, and violations of people's rights. Extremist groups like Boko Haram and ISIS-West Africa have taken advantage of this and have been attacking the government, security forces, and civilians (Oyawale).

Boko Haram is a group in Nigeria that has killed over 15,000 people and has caused a lot of problems in Nigeria and nearby countries. The group doesn't believe in democracy or Western education, and it also doesn't accept other religions, including different types of Islam. Boko Haram started because of disagreements within the Muslim community and because some people were unhappy with the government (Montclos).

The political problems in Nigeria and the surrounding area have gotten worse because there have been several coups and attempts to overthrow the government in countries like Niger. This has made the region very unstable and has made it harder to fight against terrorism. For example, when there was a successful coup in Niger in 2023, it made it much harder to deal with these problems (Oyawale).

The traditional ways of fighting terrorism in Nigeria have not been working well for a few reasons. The government has been very weak and corrupt, which has made it easy for terrorist groups to grow. Also, the country is not developing evenly, so some areas are not safe. Because of these problems, the usual methods of fighting terrorism are not enough. This shows that different ways of dealing with the causes of terrorism and making the government stronger are needed (Congress) (Solomon).

 

Work Cited

Congress, House Hearing 112. "U.S Policy Toward Nigeria West Africa's Troubled Titan." n.d. https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CHRG-112hhrg74961/html/CHRG-112hhrg74961.htm.

Montclos, Marc-Antoine Pérouse de. "Boko Haram and politics: From insurgency to terrorism." Montclos, Marc-Antoine Pérouse de.  BOKO HARAM: ISLAMISM, POLITICS, SECURITY AND THE STATE IN NIGERIA. n.d. p. 135-157.

Oyawale, Akinyemi. "The impact of (counter-)terrorism on public (in)security in Nigeria: A vernacular analysis."  Sage Journals (2022). https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/09670106211063796?icid=int.sj-full-text.citing-articles.4.

Solomon, H. "Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Africa." n.d. CPT 5. book.

 

Response #2 (Juan): For many years Nigeria has struggled with corrupt government leaders. To make matters worse Nigeria seems to have an identity crisis. Its population has over 360 ethnic groups that are divided into Muslims and Christians. These factors have caused Nigeria to constantly be in a state of violence. As mentioned in other discussions terrorism thrives in regions with little political control. Northern Nigeria is one of the poorest parts of Nigeria and this is why Boko Haram has established its base of operations there. 

Nigeria’s counter-terrorism measures need to be reassessed as they are very counter-intuitive. Their current counter-terrorism measures have significant gaps that include a lack of intelligence, poor interrogation skills, and corruption. Military and security forces need to get trained on how to properly conduct counter terrorist operations.

Solomon, H. Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism in Africa. Available from: VitalSource Bookshelf, Springer Nature, 2015.

HSE 460: European Union

Response #1 (Murray): Define the two legal traditions in Europe. Compare and contrast the European judicial system of the United States

 Code laws are diverse legal codes that allocate rights, commitment, and course of action. Common laws depend on judicial decisions for legal rules.

Compare and contrast the European judicial system of the United States

The European judicial system is civil law, and the United States is common law. Common laws are coded. They are precedent which refers to the legal decision. Civil laws are decided by the legislator in which judges abide by. The United States sternly depends on precedent. The judges have to acclaim the court's decision, which has the highest authority.   

                                                                                                 Reference

Kubicek, P. (2020). European Politics (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781000281910

Response #2 (Hudson): Define the two legal traditions in Europe. Compare and contrast the European judicial system of the United States

 Code laws are diverse legal codes that allocate rights, commitment, and course of action. Common laws depend on judicial decisions for legal rules.

Compare and contrast the European judicial system of the United States

The European judicial system is civil law, and the United States is common law. Common laws are coded. They are precedent which refers to the legal decision. Civil laws are decided by the legislator in which judges abide by. The United States sternly depends on precedent. The judges have to acclaim the court's decision, which has the highest authority.   

                                                                                                 Reference

Kubicek, P. (2020). European Politics (3rd ed.). Taylor & Francis. https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9781000281910

HSE 450: Individual and Cultural Perspectives of Terrorism Radicalization

Response #1 (Andrew):  The four waves of terrorism is defined by types of terror as well as the time frames in which they were the predominant form of terrorism. Our text lists these waves of terrorism as anarchy, colonialism, the new left, and the religious wave. The anarchist wave was dominant in the last two decades of the nineteenth and first two decades of the twentieth centuries. Anarchists desired no central government (Taylor, 2019, p.181). Colonialism was seen as nations saw a rise in their military power. From 1500 to 1800, nations with military power often used that power to inflict control and influence over other regions.  The anti-colonial wave seen after 1920 was a response to years of suppressed people opposing generations of authority imposed upon them (Taylor, 2019, p.182). The new left wave has been seen since the 1960s, especially in opposition to the Vietnam war. The new left wave saw terrorist activities as a means to attempt to reform government. These left-wing movements involve socialists who believe they are helping the poor or underclass (Taylor, 2019, p 182). The fourth identified wave is the religious wave. This fourth wave was identified in 1979 during the Islamic revolution in Iran and we continue to see the impacts of this wave of terror. This current wave of terror is marked by Islamic religious violence from those who wish to install Islamic state structure (Taylor, 2019, p. 183).

            There are three markers for differentiating religious and secular radicalization from each other.  These three goals found within religious radicalization have different aims including the desire to start a world changing event that will allow for the establishment of a new global authority. A second radical religious goal is the establishment of a religious state where everyone practices the same religion. An example of this is ISIL and their attempt to establish and maintain a caliphate. Like the establishment of a nation on the sole basis of one religion is the third goal identified in our text, the establishment of a theocracy. In a theocracy, the government is based on religious texts. The Islamic state is also an example of a theocracy, in that the government of that organization was based on the texts of the Qur’an (Taylor, 2019, p. 184-185).

 

Resource:

Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2019).  Terrorism, Intelligence, and Homeland Security (2nd ed.). Pearson

Response #2 (Patrick): The four waves of terrorism include the anarchist wave, the anti-colonial wave, the new left wave, and the religious wave. The anarchist wave would be described as a terrorist group that emerged from negative social and economic conditions that are the result of a failed government. An example of this in today's society is Somalia. The anti-colonial wave would be described as a colony that wanted independence but when they did not get it, they might have turned to terrorism. An example of this would be when the Philippines separated from the United States. The new left wave would be described as terrorism as a tactic to reform governments. An example of this is in the United States when a group of violent leftists robbed banks to fund their operations. The religious wave would be described as acts of terrorism derived from religious disagreements. An example of this would be from 1979 with Iran's Islamic Revolution. The three goals that differentiate religious and secular radicalization are 'to violently initiate an apocalyptic event that will save (destroy) the world, to create a theocracy based on the words, laws, and commandments of God, and to create a pure religious state where everyone practices the same religion' (Taylor & Swanson, 2018). 

References

Taylor, R. W., & Swanson, C. R. (2018). Terrorism, Intelligence and Homeland Security (2nd ed.). Pearson Education (US).  https://bookshelf.vitalsource.com/books/9780134818245