Everything you write must be stated in your own words.  Thus, direct quotes are not allowed.

 If you use

support from the literature to answer your questions, you must cite your sources (properly).  Personal web

pages or organizational web pages are not considered valid sources of information.  All answers are limited to

one page, each, that is single-spaced, has size 12 type and one inch margins all around.  Your goal is to be

complete and concise.  You are encouraged to contact me with questions if something is not clear.  All work

must be done individually at all times.   This exam covers all material relating to plant structure and earlier. 

Each question is worth 10 points 

1.   Read the paper titled: Leaf Form and Photosynthesis (posted on Canvas).

a.   How does leaf structure enhance light distribution in leaves? Be complete and support your


b.   What role does the environment play in altering leaf structure? Be complete and support your


c.    What role does leaf angle play? Be complete and support your answer.

d.   What kind of leaf structure (from epidermis to epidermis) and angle and shape would you

expect to find in a leaf on a plant that is exposed to medium light concentrations in a moist

environment?  Use data from the paper to justify your answer.

2.   a. Describe the basic structure of a root (angiosperm or gymnosperm) from tip to mature root (about

the last 50cm of the root). Be complete.

b. What role does the endodermis play? Be complete.

c. What role(s) do(es) mycorrhizae play in root and plant function? Be complete.

d. What role can the environment play in determining root distribution in the soil? This includes

competition. Be complete.

e. Describe what the roots might look like for an herbaceous plant growing in dry, nutrient poor soil. Be


3.   a. How do the stems of a conifer and an angiosperm tree compare? Describe similarities and

differences. Be complete.

b. How do the stems of dicots and monocots differ and what are the ramifications of those

differences? Be complete.

c. In what ways are stems involved in sexual and asexual reproduction?

d. Why is lignin so critical in stem anatomy?

4.   a. How do sexual reproductive structures vary depending on how pollination varies?

b. What does having an enclosed ovary allow a plant to do with regard to reproduction? Be complete.

c. What does having an enclosed ovary allow a plant to do with regard to seed dispersal? Be complete.

d. Design a flower for a plant that grows in the shade and is short in height. Explain your reasoning

behind your design.

5.   Design a plant that could successfully grow in the following conditions: dry, exposed hill side, poor

nutrients, woody stem, sandy soil, frequent fires. Explain your design considerations. All plant parts

must be described: roots, stems, leaves, reproductive structures. All of the parts must work together.

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