please label responses according to discussion title


Discussion - Reader Response

comment on the posts of two classmates


In this week's module, how to construct a research paper was summarized. Furthermore, the sources you use to conduct your paper can make or break your essay. I learned that good sources have good creditability. Something that was a little more difficult for me to understand, or yet conduct, was trying to find a good enough topic to argue on. In more detail, there are several topics to choose from but finding something I am extremely passionate about has been challenging. Something that I thought about while going over the lectures was where I would find my topic. Where are the places you are looking for your topic? Overall, I will leave you with this- this paper is what you make it, and if it is a topic you are passionate about, you will have a good time.


After reading and watching the lectures for this week, I have taken away a great understanding of research papers. A research paper consists of looking up evidence to back up information on a topic you are strongly passionate about. Research papers argue a point or analyze a perspective. The topic for your research has to be researchable for your argumentative essay. It's important to organize your reasons. Having at least one source for each reason is something to consider. When trying to find information, using libraries, google, and the LSUS databases are very helpful. When writing your introduction, you should set a tone for your readers. Your thesis should be included in your introduction. Also your conclusion should have a strong closure. It is important not to forget to give credit to sources you use in your paper. Even if you paraphrase, you should still give credit. Lastly, you should have a separate work cited page. This gives the readers a direct idea of where your sources came from. I have done many research papers in highschool. The most I would struggle is trying not to get lost figuring out the library on the LSUS website.

Discussion - Data is a Machine

comment on the posts of two classmates


Adoption agencies should never let single parents adopt. It is known for single parents to be unstable, and it would not be beneficial for a child to grow up without another parent. National Father Initiative states, "According to the U.S. Census Bureau, 18.3 million children, 1 in 4, live without a biological, step, or adoptive father in the home. Consequently, there is a father factor in nearly all social ills facing America today," (Father Absence Statistics). With this being said, children growing up without a father figure are known to have behavioral problems and suffer poor emotional health. So why would we let single mothers adopt children when these problems are inevitable?

Although only 8% of homes are raised by single fathers, motherless children still suffer unique consequences as well. In fact, there is an increased chance that the child will experience isolation, and will most likely deal with abandonment when coming from a motherless home. So once again, I propose the question: why would we let single fathers adopt children if these children will experience abandonment?

Overall, adoption agencies should only allow people who are married, with stable jobs to adopt children. This will help prevent the child from growing up feeling as if they have been abandoned, and unloved.


National Fatherhood Initiative®, a 501c3 Non-Profit. Father Absence Statistics, 2020, www.fatherhood.org/father-absence-statistic#:~:text=There%20is%20a%20father%20absence,social%20ills%20facing%20America%20today.

SIDE NOTE: I obviously disagree with this stance. There are currently 400,000 children in the United States who are awaiting adoption. The majority of these children were already abandoned, and have already felt what it would be like to be unloved. Furthermore, yes there should be specific requirements on adoption agencies such as stability, financials, and emotional maturity. However, one parent loving a child is better than none at all.


Unless you have been living under a rock for the last year, you have certainly heard about the Coronavirus.  I don't think anyone care argue that the virus, also called Covid-19, is real.  No one can argue that our lives have been directly impacted by this global pandemic.  This deadly virus has claimed hundreds of thousands of American lives and millions worldwide.  It continues to wreck havoc and break apart families daily.  Because this virus is new and relatively unknown, the guidance from the CDC on what we can do to protect ourselves has been inconsistent and confusing.  One of the most controversial recommendations from the CDC is the issue of wearing masks.  While some argue that a mask doesn't help at all, I take a different approach.  From my research, I think science proves that wearing the proper masks properly, can slow the transmission of Covid-19.  While almost every state and city have masks mandates, just wearing a mask for the sake of wearing a mask doesn't work.  The type of mask most likely to protect us against the virus is the N95 mask.  These are in very short supply, even for medical personnel, so most of us resort to simple cloth masks.  While they may be better than nothing, they are barely better than nothing.  For example, very few people even wear their masks properly.  Just go in public and see how many people have their masks below their chin, hanging from one ear, or covering their noses but not their mouths.  What is the benefit of this?  Wearing one improperly is no different than wearing one at all.  Also, how many people actually wash their masks daily?  Most people keep them tucked away in a pocket, purse, or somewhere in the car and just put them on when going in public.  Yet they repeatedly touch unsanitary surfaces, then tough the mask without washing hands or the masks.  Again, a contaminated mask is no better than no mask at all.  So, while masks may be helpful if everyone followed the CDC recommendations strictly, so few people are doing that to the point that masks are essentially useless.  

Discussion – Bread Battles

comment on the posts of two classmates.


Unless you've been living in an alternate universe the last several years, you've probably heard how America is dangerously divided these days.  While the news media argues that these divisions deal primarily with Democrat vs. Republican, conservative vs. liberal, and racial issues, I disagree.  I believe that one of the most divisive issues in America today is the peanut butter sandwich.  How do you make your PB&J?  There are two opposing camps in the proper construction of a proper PB&J.  While both camps argue that their chosen method is the correct way to do it, only one camp is correct.  On one hand, there are the conservatives of the peanut butter world.  They subscribe to the theory that less is more and if it was good enough for grandmother, then it's good enough for everyone.  The conservatives keep things simple.  They take two slices of bread, a jar of peanut butter and a jar of their favorite jelly.  Even this can be divisive, since the ultra-conservatives only use one flavor of jelly at a time, where the neo-cons believe that it's okay to mix flavors.  Ultra-conservative PB&J lovers distrust the liberal tendencies of their own party members.  Having a sandwich with a grape/strawberry jelly mixture borders on blasphemy, but they grudgingly accept each other's differences in the spirit of unity against a common enemy.  At least they agree in the construction.  A proper sandwich must consist of peanut butter on one slice of bread, jelly on the other slice, and a happy union at the end.

The liberals scoff at these old fashioned ideas.  They argue that the perfect peanut butter and jelly sandwich has to be mixed in a bowl first.  You take one part peanut butter and put it in a bowl, then add an equal amount of your favorite jelly, then mix it until the entire concoction changes colors and consistency.  They are less likely to care about mixing jellies as well.  They like living on the edge.  They can enrage the conservatives because the liberals actually taste their PB&J before it ever touches the bread!  If it's not exactly the way they want it, they have the option of adding more of one ingredient to reach perfection.  

Personally, I am a moderate conservative, maybe even independent.  I stand firmly in the camp of tradition.  My mom made our sandwiches by applying peanut butter to one slice, jelly to the other, and the more perfect union met in the middle.  Mixing your PB&J in a bowl is a waste of time and spits in the face of our American ideals.  If it's not broken, why fix it?  Bowls are for soup, not PB&J.  The traditional method is the most sensible.  The perfect candy is a peanut butter cup.  It's perfect because the milk chocolate is on the outside, the peanut butter is on the inside and the mixture is delicious because you can taste the unique qualities of each ingredient.  If the chocolate and peanut butter was pre-mixed in some giant vat, the taste would be boring.  It would completely ruin the peanut butter cup experience.  The same is true for PB&J.  When you put the peanut butter on one slice, the jelly on another (although I can forgive my neo-conservative friends for mixing jellies), the resulting taste is amazing.  The liberal method of pre-mixing is simply un-American and shouldn't be tolerated.  Wrong is wrong and we should stand firm on our principals of tradition.  


Have you ever wondered which way to put your toilet paper on the toilet paper holder? Or have you ever experienced putting more effort in trying to tear a piece of toilet paper than you should? I can say there is a big difference when the toilet paper is facing a certain way. There are exactly two different ways when putting your toilet paper on the holder. Having the toilet paper squares facing towards you or up against the wall. It is always important to be able to rip the right amount of toilet paper you need without losing control. I prefer having the toilet paper facing towards me. I find it allows me to have easier control when ripping off the paper. When having it placed on the toilet paper holder, facing my direction, it also gives me the advantage of the holder helping me rip my toilet paper as well. Let me explain; pulling the paper left or right of the holder and pulling down is an easy method to help you tear the paper. The holder is giving more support when ripping the paper off the roll. That way you do not have to use both hands to tear the toilet paper apart. If the paper was facing up against the wall, trying to use the method with the toilet paper would ultimately make it harder to do so.. The toilet paper will continue to spin off the roll as you are forcing a tear. In that way, you do not have control over how much toilet paper is being rolled off. You will most likely find it better when the toilet paper is facing towards you. Try placing your toilet paper in both ways and see which way you like it better.



Lobbying and Advocacy

Respond to at least two of your classmates’ postings

Dawn’s POST:


Lobbying and Advocacy

Advocating is something that we do every day when it comes to things we care about. This is when we publicly support a cause or particular situation. As parents, we advocate for our children for their education. However, lobbying, is the process of seeking influence from the politicians or public officials. Lobbying involves opposition to a specific section and the activities that may be directly supporting of introduced legislation. When my children were in school, I solicited the assistance of the police department and the local government officials to change the security at their school due to gang violence. I wrote and called the gang task unit, the mayor, the county executive and the president of the public school system. After a long fight, I got some of what I fought for, such as removal of the principal, police presence at the bus stops, more security guards in the school. While I wouldn’t completely consider this lobbying because I didn’t change any policies or laws, I definitely advocated on a high level to ensure the safety of our children.

In recent events, I have been looking into the conduct of nursing home and the treatment of the elderly. Maybe of the elderly are treated poorly in many of the lower income providers and the more expensive providers are more well-kept. Herzberg (2015) wrote, "A study of 14,423 nursing homes found that even though public facilities had a significantly higher proportion of Medicaid patients, they, along with nonprofit providers, performed better than their for-profit counterparts" (p. 150). Some issues are about the care of the patients may have lack of training or concern in the lower paid facilities. There is no course of accountability and unfortunately, the patients are suffering. This is important to me because my family has to decide the best care for an elderly member. I asked for a room with cameras, that isn’t in the budget. I asked about meals and medication and visitation, everything is limited so we are stuck trying to care for our family member which has gotten burdensome. I was told that families that put family in nursing care homes doesn’t care about the family member and that’s simply not true. Everyone doesn’t have the ability or strength to handle this type of care giving. However, there are no facilities that has given the comfort that they will be cared for. Because I believe there are facilities that are worthy, I would lobby to ask for more government assistance in providing the facilities with the proper tools such as cameras and training.

As a human service professional, I would investigate several facilities by visiting, spending time and reviewing procedures and activities. In my non-profit organization, I offered home care and I have seen the conditions of people’s home of those elderly who lived alone and should not. Herzberg (2015) also wrote, "One provision of the Affordable Care Act of 2010 called for the creation of accountable care organizations, regional networks of providers that would provide high quality of care at lower costs by integrating services" (p. 150). There has to be away to get high quality care for the elderly. The ACA of 2010 has to be upheld because these elderly need love to regardless of their mental of physical abilities. Many of them cannot tell what happened to them or because of their status, they aren’t believed. As a professional, I would like to look into advocating for the training and facility upgrade to hold the workers accountable.


Herzberg, J. T. (2015). Foundations in human services practice: A generalist perspective on individual, agency, and community. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson.  ISBN: 9780205858255; eISBN: 9780205982233


Describe the difference between lobbying and advocacy 

        According to What is lobbying, a video presentation, advocates speak and educate, whereas lobbyists persuade and influence (Human Services Council, 2011). Advocacy acts as a platform to educate others about a social problem. It is usually more fine-tuned, like healthy food options, but not always resolution. On the other hand, lobbying is acting upon the issue often on a broader lens, like hunger, where many social determinants factor in. The standard variables are known in destitution and famine yet often are surreal to the congressional audience or affluent population. In the absence of knowledge to back measures before Legislation, an initial step in lobbying, less relevance may be presented; therefore, any imminence may be delayed. Frequently, capital gain overpowers the objective. For example, advocacy may better programs such as WIC or SNAP and attempt to rectify food deserts by holding food drives or creating community gardens. Lobbying opposingly may propose higher grocery prices or limit the accessibility of public transportation to grocers to offset WIC or SNAP taxpayer contribution and deficits.

Discuss an issue that you strongly believe should be advocated for in your field or by your discipline or community

        As a Social Services Worker at DHHS, poverty is the main issue of public assistance or federally funded aid. Although criteria must be met, the long term road is neglected. The public, private and professional levels need more education to further assist in ongoing issues, especially with families in poverty with children going to bed hungry at night. The social determinations correlate closely, but educational resourcing is a powerful instrument to lower poverty factors - an intergenerational social dilemma. Foundations in human services practice: A generalist perspective on individual, agency, and community discusses child welfare was one of the first social reform areas dating to the late 19th century (Herzberg, 2015). Child Social Welfare bases children being protected and provided necessities are vital to their quality of living and education – even sufficient food. Since food is fuel for the body and mind, a child cannot progress developmentally while starving or malnourished. By reducing poverty among adults through educational measures, fewer children will experience hunger or diet-related illness as adults. Common knowledge is that behaviors and life patterns become cycles. Children resemble what they live, including the age-old saying, “You are what you eat.”

Data or evidence submission Congressperson, Senator, or Community representative in the event of lobbying or advocating on behalf of that issue

        Testimony, unlike grassroots, is not short-lived. People tend to talk and seem to prefer their troubles and the woes of the world. Testimony allows emotions to be evoked. When emotion is added to an audience, small or big, issues resonate with another person enduring or having lived similar deficiencies. When voices come together in masses, there is a strength that supersedes research, reason, theory, and statistics. Testimony is real and raw. Others’ account allows a story to be heard and recognize the missing link that kept or keeps the person or family in an impoverished state; for some, this may be health insurance for a medical condition or minimal groceries. What needs to be known is (a) reason(s) people cannot afford food, eat healthy, or find a way to the store. By this point in our studies, we know the answer but it is up to us to get all levels that represent our families in the library, then genre, next book, and page to reduce and eventually eradicate historical issues that are inhumane. It is not just about one factor, but a pattern of low-wages, high cost of living, broken homes, lack of education and more. So think of a full lobby, not a mere act.

Analyzing Federal, State, and local level roles of a Human Service provider and their influence on decision making policy

        A human service provider role can become a slippery slope of professionalism since each government level approaches its policy differently. Human Services professionals work to bridge the gaps for those in need of services. A Social Worker will provide a list to food pantries, refer clients to 211-United Way, and (if eligible) expedite a SNAP application. The process appears effective on these levels for a bare minimum. Local areas can fine-tune the problems of how small or large a problem is based on their population. The cost of living, as common knowledge, varies drastically from one state or city to another, which affects the ability to purchase wholesome foods. SNAP benefits are rarely sufficient. If the federal government lacks insight into demographic needs, a state can open the eyes and ears to the issues at hand.

        If disparity fails to be spoken or heard, children are shamed in the lunch line. Does this not contradict Child Social Welfare? The variation among government levels can often conflict among different parties and types of agencies or organizations. The concern for each of these policy levels is independence. For private and community sectors, interdependence, and networks are valued over monetary value, whereas for-profit and governmental agencies focus on funding and taxation objectives, thus hindering historical, social problems. Although intended to mediate, collective bargaining is thought to strip away independence levels, such as with unions. The idea of a two-prong method answers what worked, how, and why. According to Karger & Stoesz (2018, p.133), over 284.9 billion dollars was spent on education in 2014; however, how adequate was the educational funding if children were refused nutrients? When a learning institution provides past and current statistical analysis backed by change testimonies, proof becomes substantiated. The bottom line is that every role must speak and act in order to be heard.


Herzberg, J. T. (2015). Foundations in human services practice: A generalist perspective on individual, agency, and community. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson. 

Human Services Council. (2011, December 15). What is lobbying? [Video File]. Retrieved fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncmmmso3FLw

Karger, H. J. & Stoesz, D. (2018). American social welfare policy: A pluralist approach (8th ed).


Language Construction

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts, and compare the information to what you wrote. What information surprises you? What is new information? What is something you had not considered before? Respond to at least two of your classmates, and provide recommendations to extend their thinking. You might consider responding to one person who chose to write about Children or Students in a K-12 Learning Context and one person who chose to write about Adult Learning Context. For distinguished peer responses, respond with a minimum of five sentences that add to the conversation, and refrain from evaluative posts (i.e., You did a good job.).


Language Construction

You might have heard colleagues, friends, or acquaintances proclaim that “they just need to learn English” when referring to those who do not speak English as a first language. Propose some of the complications with this statement.

When having conversations with others about the many different cultures we have here in the United States, I often hear people say, “they live in our country now, so they need to learn and speak English.” My response to them is that they need to be patient with the non-English learner and understand the complexities non-English learners have with learning the English language. It is not as simple as sitting down and reading “a how-to book on English” to learn and speak English as one might think. Many challenges go into moving into a new country or going into the public school system’s unique culture that the children are unaware of.

What are some challenges and issues involved with learning English?

The most significant challenge right from the start is the culture shock that the children are experiencing. Think for a moment how you would feel if they left your gas engage car you have had for years in the garage one night and woke up to a totally electric car the next day. This car has no key to open the door, no button to push to start the car, no gas to pump into the car, and no engine. Could you jump in and drive that new electric car? No, you would have to learn how to drive the care, but first, you would have to get over the stress and anxiety of the culture shock that just took place. Well, this is how our Non-English learners feel on a much larger scale. Everything has changed for them, their home, their community, their schooling system, their friends, their family, the new country's infrastructure, everything!

Another challenge is that the children are often scared and afraid to communicate. They watch and observe what is happening around them to get a grasp of their new way of life. When the children are scared and afraid their active filter is very high, their learning opportunities and /or comprehensible input are low. These children cannot learn with the amount of stress and anxiety they are going through.

Additionally, the public school system culture itself is not always an easy one to come into if you are different, come from another country or culture. Children need to form positive relationships with their peers to start to feel comfortable in their new environment. However, this is not an easy task. Unfortunately, our school systems have seen bullying on the rise over the past decade, and their number one target is the different child. Suppose these children do not form positive relationships with their peers early on. In that case, they will start to be disengaged, silent, and unapproachable, which is what a bully prey on and what will hinder this child from learning the English language.  

How might you use the information above to explain these complications? 

            Knowing that Language acquisition is very complex and differs from student to student, we must understand how each child in our classroom learns. We need to ask ourselves questions like, what are the complications that the students experience individually? For Example, One ELL student may have been born in the United States but lives in a non-English speaking home. In contrast, another student may have just come from another country entirely and has never heard the English language. Both students will be English Language Learners, but the one born in the United States has some comfort with the culture in which he lives, whereas the child that just moved here has no comfort or knowledge of the culture. Both these children will have to have a different approach to learning the English language.

Compare your ideas about learning English as a second language now to what they were when you started in Week 1.

When I compare my ideas about learning English to what I knew before I started this class, I would first have to say that I am a little embarrassed about how I sometimes felt. I have thought before that adult people living in the United States should have to learn the English Language without even thinking about how that happens for them. I did not consider all that they have to go through or all that they must learn and how hard it is to learn the English Language. Now, just in this past week, my whole focus has changed. I see the challenges for what they are and all the obstacles they must go through and have a lot more empathy for them. I have always had more compassion and empathy for the ELL children because they did not choose the culture they were born into or raised in. Nevertheless, I did not realize until I started this class how difficult it is for them to be an English Language Learner. 

Describe some ideas you did not previously consider for those who need to learn English as an additional language. 

1. The significant differences in how the monolingual and bilingual students learn.

2. The importance of the ELLs forming positive relationships very early on to avoid the children becoming withdrawn and disengaged.

3. That the brain’s structure and function is affected differently between monolingual and bilingual learners


Films Media Group (Producer). (2004). Differentiated instruction and the English language learner [Video file]. Differentiated instruction and the English Language. https://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=100753&xtid=60329 (Links to an external site.)

Pinker, S. (2005, July). What our language habits reveal (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_on_language_and_thought (Links to an external site.)

Piper, T. (2015). Language, learning, and culture: English language learning in today’s schools. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

· Chapter 3: The English Language Learner

· Chapter 5: Teaching English Language Learners

Rymniak, M. (2011). Adult ESL classroom strategies and lesson ideas (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). In A toolkit for ESL practitioners: Supporting skilled immigrants. Retrieved from http://www.globaltalentbridge.org/toolkit/pdf/CH3_ESLStrategies.pdf (Links to an external site.)

Westergaard, C. [Chris Westergaard]. (2015, March 14). ESL beginner lesson demo (Chris Westergaard)  (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.)[Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/2_38JfVFQoU


Children or Students in a K-12 Learning Context

         First of all this a very rude comment to make. Personally I would address the situation and explain to my co-workers why this is not professional. In reality we don't know why people are where they are, so that gives no one the right to judge another person/persons off their inability to speak the English language. They should maybe put themselves in those individuals shoes. What if they were in another environment from what they are used to and someone made a statement such as this one, how would they feel? Not that they would know anyway since the only language they know is English. My opinion on this is be mindful of individuals and their situations, because you never know when it will be your situation. Learning English is not an easy task. It can be very challenging for an individual who has never spoken English before. Some things they might experience are how to pronounce words, learning to read and understand the content. Some ways you can help is clearly communicate(use shorter sentences), use more visuals, and introduce new vocabulary.

          Culture shock is the anxiety one may experience when placed in an unfamiliar environment. Culture shock can affect learning because it may cause the individual to be less attentive. It causes fear of making too many mistakes. It is also very difficult to concentrate.

             In the beginning my perception about this class was what exactly is an ELL? What is the purpose for ELL in this class? Why is ELL needed? As I progressed throughout the discussions and assignments I realized that this is something that has been around but I just did not notice it ,  because it did not affect me and yes my idea about ELL has changed. Some other ideas to consider when learning English as an additional language is helping another individual that is  struggling, improving memory and problem solving.


Comprehensible Input and Sheltered Instruction

Guided Response: Review several of your classmates’ posts, and respond to at least two. Compare the answers your classmates gave to your own. Distinguish any differences between age of the students and information conveyed, activities chosen, and/or proficiency levels or competencies addressed in the post. You might choose to respond to one person who is writing about the adult content and one who is writing about the K-12 context. For distinguished peer responses, respond with a minimum of five sentences that add to the conversation, and refrain from evaluative posts (i.e., You did a good job.).


Good afternoon class,

· For working with ELLs, summarize two to three themes/common ideas that you are seeing in the resources and why these are important to understand?

In order to teach the English language one must be able to read, speak and understand the language themselves. This is the most part in the ell learning process. Also making the learner feel as comfortable as possible so that they are able to partake in the learning process.  Anything that will assist in the learning will be helpful as well. 

· Examine how the affective filter can impact language learning.

An affective filter can be used in a good or bad this can have a negative affect or a positive affect it depends on the learner and how they receive the information.  if a person is negative about the the information that their getting they will not learn anything a positive mind will have a positive outcome. 

· Explain how affective filter and culture shock are related.

These two are related because culture shock can cause the learner to not want to learn because they are not familiar. An affective filter can also cause a person not to learn what is being taught. 


Piper, T. (2015). Language, learning, and culture: English language learning in today’s schools. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

· Chapter 3: The English Language Learner

· Chapter 5: Teaching English Language Learners

Rymniak, M. (2011). Adult ESL classroom strategies and lesson ideas (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.). In A toolkit for ESL practitioners: Supporting skilled immigrants. Retrieved from http://www.globaltalentbridge.org/toolkit/pdf/CH3_ESLStrategies.pdf


Some themes/common ideas that I am seeing in the resources and why these are important to understand?

After reading chapter 5 in the textbook the Comprehensive hypothesis theme stood out to me the most. The comprehensive input is what children? students receive from those around them. This theme is really what the child sees and hears every day. Being as though and I'm a mother and I have seen this type of behavior in real life it is very important to understand.  children learn to talk by listening to us and the same goes for those that are learning the English language in time they will catch on to the language as well as the culture that surrounds them. it is important the child feel comfortable in their new environment and was as safe ensuring this accomplished as a teacher I would make my environment a home away from home by making the lighting not too bright and implementing comfortable seating. 

Examine how the affective filter can impact language learning.

A learner's attitude is important. in order to achieve success, a positive mindset must be present some students may often get overwhelmed when trying to learn a new language as well as a culture. When a student becomes overwhelmed they simply may not want to continue with the actions of learning a new language. The drive to want to learn a new language is needed to get through the process.

Explain how affective filter and culture shock are related.

I have spoken about culture-related things earlier in my post. Some children will experience the culture and react by becoming withdrawn and may experience anxiety and again become withdrawn from learning the English language. Often they grow upset because they are away from family and the only culture they have known.

Pinker, S. (2005, July). What our language habits reveal (Links to an external site.) (Links to an external site.) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.ted.com/talks/steven_pinker_on_language_and_thought (Links to an external site.)

Piper, T. (2015). Language, learning, and culture: English language learning in today’s schools. Retrieved from https://content.ashford.edu

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