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Pharmacotherapy for Cardiovascular Disorders
Walden University
NURS 6521: Advanced Pharmacology
Date
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Introduction
With the turn of the century, cardiovascular diseases have become the leading cause of mortality
in the world. Globally, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. In an estimated 17
million people are killed by cardiovascular disease yearly, accounting for 30% of global deaths.
7.2 million of these deaths have been due to heart attacks and 5.7 million have been caused by
stroke. Some 80% of such deaths occurred in countries with lower and middle incomes. When
current trends continue, an estimated 23.6 million people (mostly from heart attacks and strokes)
will die from cardiovascular disease by 2030. Cardiovascular diseases affect a large number of
middle-aged people, which very often drastically reduce the savings and investments of the
individuals and families affected. Lost profits and out - of-pocket health care payments
undermine community and nation socioeconomic development.
Among young adult in the high-income countries the prevalence of predisposing factors to
cardiovascular disease has steadily increased. Weak cardiovascular health habits have shown
higher rates of middle-aged adults with reported hyper, critical hypertension and coronary
disease (Pool et al. 2019).
A4transient4ischaemic4attack4is4just4like4a4stroke,4except4that4symptoms4lasts4a4short4period4of4tim
eTIA4(also4identified4as4mini-stroke). Treatment plans need to take into considerations not only
of cardiac therapy treatment, but of transient4ischaemic4attack. Psychological aspects may lead to
poor nutrition and/or sedentary lifestyles. Moreover, cardiovascular disease is common with
patients who have depression. This project aims to investigate appropriate treatment options in
the transient4ischaemic4attack as stated in case 2.
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Case Study: 2
Patient HM has a history of atrial fibrillation and a transient ischemic attack (TIA). The patient
has been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and ischemic heart
disease. Drugs currently prescribed include the following:
Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun
Aspirin 81 mg daily
Metformin 1000 mg po bid
Glyburide 10 mg bid
Atenolol 100 mg po daily
Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets every 6 hours as needed for pain
Patient Related Factors
Behavioral causes are the patient's most objectively recognizable factors; hypertension requiring
three or more antihypertensive medication points towards hypertensive secondary care
contributors, such as metabolic, and the sleep apnea. Although continued high blood pressure
without a drug response may affect the form and kinetics of the heart (Falcon, 2019).
Congestive cardiac failure could lead to an increase in weight of 9 pounds. Evaluation of
Warfarin 5 mg daily MWF and 2.5 mg daily T, TH, Sat, Sun, Aspirin 81 mg daily, Metformin
1000 mg po bid, Glyburide 10 mg bid, Atenolol 100 mg po daily and Motrin 200 mg 1–3 tablets
every 6 hours as needed for pain and transient ischemic attack (TIA) behavioral factors will
involve review of drug interactions and efficacy in individualistic transient ischemic attack (TIA)
care for day to day pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics.
Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics
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Temporary ischemic attack (TIA) is not fully compliant with drugs. Temporary ischemical
assault (TIA) takes several pills all day long. Hypertension patients that take two and sometimes
more medications for HTN, the American Heart Association recommends this monotherapy
(Carey & Wheaton 2018). Transient ischemic attack (TIA), which occurs in about 2⁄4 of the
patients, is dangerous in establishing Systemic Lupus Erythroses. The synergetic effects of
atenolol and doxazosin include cardioselectivity in the locking of beta1 receptors at low doses
and the blockage of alpha1 receptors by the doxazosin which cause arteriol and venous
constriction and reduce minor opposition (Rosenthal & Burchum 2018).
Conclusion
The factors resulting to4TIA and ischemic stroke are similar contributing to focal hypoperfusion,
oligemia and subsequent loss of brain oxygen and glucose metabolism. The ability of an
individual to tolerate short periods of cerebral hypoperfusion seems variable and depends on
several factors such as the collateral flow and ability to deliver oxygen.
References
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Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding Pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis:
Mosby.
Pool, L. R., Ning, H., Huffman, M. D., Reis, J. P., Lloyd-Jones, D. M., & Allen, N. B. (2019).
Association of cardiovascular health through early adulthood and health-related quality of
life in middle age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)
Study. Preventive Medicine, 126. Retrieved from
https://doi-org.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.105772
Rosenthal, L. D., & Burchum, J. R. (2018). In Lehne’s pharmatherapeutics for advanced
practice providers. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
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