Depending on the type of investment product you choose, there is generally a level of

risk associated with it. There are some risk-free products available such as government

bonds. A risk premium is the higher rate of return you could receive from riskier

products such as stocks. When you invest, there is a chance the product can perform

badly, and you could lose a great deal. Understanding the risk premium of the product

will help you choose how much you are willing to put into risker things. For example,

in our 20s our financial advisor guided us to more risky products as we were young

and had time to recover from a loss should we incur one. Now that we are reaching

our 50s, our advisor is more conservative with the selections he makes as our time to

recover is less. While meeting with out financial advisor, he references the constant-

growth model, briefly to inform us, of the stocks we are invested in are growing. He

also mentions how he anticipate further growth based on past performance again the

current market trends. Together we determine if a stock price will provide value should

we purchase same day, and what projected dividend potential they have. As stated

earlier, we don’t do as much from a risky standpoint, as we take less risk as we age.

However, with the funds we’ve set up for our children, we are able to make bigger

moves. Capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is a formula that is used to evaluate

whether a stock is fairly valued when its risk and the time value of money are

compared with its expected return. By knowing the individual parts of the CAPM, it is

possible to gauge whether the current price of a stock is consistent with its likely

return.

Investors use CAPM when they want to assess the fair value of a stock. So that when

the level of risk changes, or other factors in the market make an investment riskier,

they will use the formula to help determine new pricing and forecasting for expected

returns.The model is based on the relationship between an asset's beta, the risk-free rate

and the equity risk premium, or the expected return on the market minus the risk-free

rate. CAPM evolved to measure systematic risk. Risk premiums come into play when

an investor take on the risk of losing money when he/she invest in riskier assets like

stocks. The riskier the investments, the greater the potential for higher returns, which

compensate investors for taking a greater risk of losing money.Investors can become

doubtful about a company's ability to repay its debts if the risk premium rises. When

the interest rate goes up it makes it more expensive for a company’ to raise money, as

it pays a higher interest on its debt. With the CAPM model we use a beta to calculate

risk. A beta is described as a measure of the sensitivity of a stock / portfolio to market

risk. A better is represented by a value between 1&-1 with the higher the value the

higher the risk or the lower the value the lower the risk. The CAPM model was

created by William Sharpe and John lintner to provide individuals a strategy to

maximize returns for the level of risk they are willing to take. This theory is a great

way to create efficient frontier portfolios, however this may not be the most accurate

measure for predicting future returns. Another model are in this week is the constant

growth model. When using this model to compute required returns we assume stocks

are efficiently priced. Using the constant growth model we can find the interest needed

for the required return on an investment. The interest is equal to the dividend yield

plus the constant growth rate. This model can be more accurate since it since it uses

current firm data rather than historic data used in the CAPM model. The Capital Asset

Pricing Model, also known as CAPM, is a model that describes the relationship

between the expected return and risk of capital investments. Using the CAPM model

helps an investor figure out whether the current price of a stock is consistent or

inconsistent with its expected return on equity. The constant-growth model, is used to

determine the intrinsic value of a stock based on a future series of dividends that grow

at a constant rate. It is a popular and straightforward variant of the dividend discount

model or DDM. This model is ideal for companies with steady growth rates given its

assumption of constant dividend growth. Investors always need to know about the

overall risk they are taking and the overall or return they are expecting to make

because it will help them in understanding the nature of overall risk associated with

investment and they will be trying to make a risk adjusted rate of return.Capital Asset

pricing model will be helping the investor's to know about their expected rate of return

out of investment which they are making into the market because Capital Asset pricing

model is a risk adjusted index which will be trying to estimate the overall rate of

return after determination of the risk return along with the risk premium and the

systematic risk which will be represented through beta.

Constant growth model will be helping to find out the overall valuation in respect to a

particular there and it will help the investor in order to find out the rate of dividend

will be paid out by the company and it will also help in determination of the overall

intrinsic valuation after ascertainment of the gross weight from a required rate of return.

Forward-looking expected return and risk along with the risk premium are important

concepts while understanding the level of risk associated with the investment as forward

looking expected return will be trying to discount the forward cash flows associated

with the investment and it will try to also ascertain the overall risk premium which is

in excess of return over the risk-free rate so it must be understanding all the important

concept in order to know about the risk adjusted rate of return from the market. The

capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is an idealized portrayal of how financial markets

price securities and thereby determine expected returns on capital investments. Investors

use CAPM when they want to assess the fair value of stock. By knowing the individual

parts of CAPM it is possible to gauge whether the current price of a stock is consistent

with its likely return. The CAPM model provides a methodology for quantifying risk

and translating that risk into estimates of expected return on equity. A risk premium is

a measure of excess return that is required by an individual to compensate being

subjected to an increased level of risk. It is used greatly in finance and economics. It is

comprised of five main risks such as business risk, financial risk, liquidity risk,

exchange-rate risk, and country-specific risk. It is the higher rate of return you can

expect to earn from riskier assets like stocks, instead of investing in a risk-free assets

like government bonds. These are the two topics of my choice and how they influence

financial decisions. As an investor myself I always need to know about the risk and

return, plus the overall risk associated with the investment in order to even consider the

investment at all.

The capital Asset pricing model is a risk-adjusted index that tries to estimate the

overall rate of return after understanding the risk return along with the risk premium

and the systematic risk. This model is ideal for estimating the cost of a company's

equity. Financial decision-makers can use the model in conjunction with traditional

techniques and sound judgment to develop realistic, useful estimates of the costs of

equity capital.

A risk premium is the investment return an asset is expected to yield in excess of the

risk-free rate of return. The additional returns are above what investors can earn risk-

free from investments such as U.S. government security for example. Investors expect

to be compensated for the risk they undertake when making an investment. This comes

in the form of a risk premium. The equity risk premium is the premium investors

expect to make for taking on the relatively higher risk of buying stocks. The constant

growth model is an assumption placed on a company's stock that the dividends will

'constantly' grow in value. In regards to financial decisions, this means that anyone

watching the monetary growth of a company can continue assuming a steady level of

growth over time in their stocks. The assumption placed on this model is also that a

company will continue to exist essentially forever and will never go out of business or

bankrupt. When thinking about risk, this model places a lot of faith on one organization

to forever be profitable and running. While there are always new players entering

markets this assumption can be one of the most risky.

Expected return and risk can be calculated based off previous returns from stocks.

When working through this type of math you take 2 separate returns and formulate

them out in order to determine a weighted average outcome. The following formula can

be used in computing this information; "Expected return = (Return A x probability

A) + (Return B x probability B)". Using this is helpful since it takes past

information and offers a return possibility that is more likely than simply by trying to

assume an outcome.