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I can honestly say that this discussion this week has threw me for a loop because I am so
confused. I don't know much about space maritime but after doing some long extensive
research I still didnt get an understanding but what I do know is that there are satellites in
space. These satellites help with communications across the world. Satellites also provide
information about clouds, oceans, land, and ice. They also measure gases in the
atmosphere, such as ozone and carbon dioxide, and the amount of energy that Earth
absorbs and emits, and these satellites monitor wildfires, volcanoes, and their smoke.
Which is why I think they are very important to the world, but I also think that they be
watching and listening to everything that people do through the internet, cellular service,
and cameras. So it makes you wonder how much privacy you really have. I also read that
NASA just sent some people to the space station that they have. To me this is very
interesting like what does it look like, well you can go to NASA.gov and watch the live
feed from space. What I understand from physical assets that are controlled from space Is
all through satellite. Everything that we use including GPS, Cell phones and laptops runs
off the satellite. Business use space satellite as well for gas pumps and Authorization for
card transactions which can be a problem .If I’m not mistaken a lot of underwater vehicles
uses satellite which comes from space. With the physical assets it’s easy for hackers to get
information if people are careless. People will leave their laptops open and unlocked and
somebody can steal their information. Things that can be accessed are card information,
address and social security numbers. Virginia Medicaid protected their physical assets with
IDs and also passwords for the computers. A lot of things that people don’t realize is that
when you connect to a unsecured network all of your information could be shared and that
it’s very easy hackers to gain your information. It’s still a lot of information to learn about
with the space cyber domain hopefully you guys can help give a little more insight.
Physical asset controls for space, maritime, and physical domains can share many of the
same safety measures. For instance, satellites are in space but controlled from earth, and
are used by a wide range of companies. The US Navy uses satellites for communications,
navigation or GPS for ships, GPS for aircraft, and GPS for weapons like missiles. The US
Navy would interact with all three domains, and therefore need to be concerned about how
to keep these assets secure. All these domains would require basic asset controls like door
locks, guards, CCTV, control of who has access to what, fire suppression systems,
contingency plans, ways to monitor what is being accessed and how, etc. Maritime laws
apply to everyone once you are a certain distance from land, and each individual ship also
has their own countries rules and regulations to follow. In the example of the US Navy a
breach into any of the systems would result in a threat to national security. As far as I
know most technology starts in the military and eventually makes its way out to the
civilian population. Satellites were not as widely used when they were a new technology,
and now there are satellites in use by everyone. cyber defense of space assets is considered
high in demand by the United States military. Space assets has to me to be a very extent
and ordinary. It has made an statement that it clear that space will be the next target or the
next threat area within. I hope everyone can remember when President Bush came up with
the Homeland Security and we feel as if since the 911 that the United States has now all
of a sudden became proactive. I think by this time when they get everything together that
there will be mainly satellites. We can also say that today technology exists to weaponize
space. With the increase in the cybersecurity threats, having physical asset controls in
space, maritime, as well as physical domains has become important. The spacecraft and
satellites are the main physical assets in the space domain. The computer systems in the
satellite are being attacked in order to gain unauthorized access to the satellite instruments
and data. Development of cybersecurity regime and flexible international space is essential
to protect the cyberattacks on the physical assets in space. Nations like China, Russia,
Japan, Europe, and the United States have established space security policies to ensure the
peaceful use of outer space. The various physical assets used in the maritime domain that
face cybersecurity threats include GPS, security monitoring systems, fire detection systems,
stability decision support systems, and more. Cybersecurity risks may lead to the deletion
of vital data, GPS jamming, controlled navigation, and more. Different nations have
established different global maritime cyber security regulations in order to ensure better
maritime cybersecurity. The physical domain is more prone to cyberattacks in comparison
to different domains. Physical assets in the physical domain include different systems such
as computer systems, home control equipment, mobile devices, and others. Developing
resilient information infrastructure and developing cybersecurity capabilities can help in
preventing the attacks on the crucial cyber infrastructure in the different nations. Physical
access controls attempt to control entry and exits, and organizations commonly implement
different controls at different boundaries. One of the controls that interested me was space
control. Most of the operations either in civil or military space, are being carried out
through the assistance of satellites. These include monitoring of rivers, forests, agriculture,
navigational, or communication applications. This strategic importance of satellites has
made them vulnerable to enemy attacks in recent times. Activities are fundamentally
intended to deny the advantage of space to an enemy.
For the military, space satellites such as Leo and Geo satellites can be perceived as
weapons due to their controls on weapons with lasers or masers . I’ll give an example of a
Leo satellite. A threat to a Leo satellite can result in any medium range ballistic missile,
with a ground range of 500-2,500 km can be stated as direct-ascent ASATs posing a
serious challenge to photographic intelligence (PHOTINT), electro-optical (EO), synthetic
aperture radar (SAR), and electronic intelligence (ELINT) satellites that operate in low-
earth orbit (LEO).There are many different physical asset controls depending on the
location that is being secured. First we should define physical asset controls. A physical
asset control is a means or method of securing a physical asset from access. An example of
this would be a sever room withing a financial company securing the door with access
only allowed by employee specific key card. This measure would secure the physical
access to the company’s assets in the server room.Some physical asset controls in space
would include collision detection and avoidance for satellites. There are many satellites in
space and there is actually a lot of debris orbiting earth to. On example of how a satellite
is protect in space is during the launch. The team launching the satellite does a Collision
on Launch Assessment (Arif, 2017). This ensures that as the satellite is launched and
deployed into space it doesn’t collide with any debris or other satellites already in earths
orbit. In addition to the satellites may need to move to avoid collision during their standard
orbit. If they do it’s called a Debris Avoidance Maneuver. These are two examples of how
physical assets are protected in space with physical asset controls. The physical assets of
most states are satellites and ground antenna that link the two providing capabilities such
as GPS along with many others that benefit military and society. The network capabilities
of satellites put them in the cyber domain making them a desired asset to threats looking to
exploit these capabilities. Being military, I benefit from satellites in my day to day job and
also my personal life as I use GPS to navigate to places, I am going to as well as track my
fitness. I never really think of these just being gone one day being controlled by another
government through the war in the cyber domain to individuals attacking the countries
Maritime assets help the military and other with communication where radio frequency
environments where they are extremely limited satellite communications are much more
reliable and cover many more environments with ease. Other threats seek to exploit or
disrupt these capabilities of their enemies which make the cyber domain much more
challenging in the 21st century. The more our technology advance widens the physical and
cyber domain demanding evolving physical and cyber defenses from threats.
Physical asset controls in space and maritime are quite interesting and something I hadn’t
really put much thought into before. The asset controls of maritime are more complicated
than I would have thought. I learned that there are many different communication tools
used there. You have radios, radars, navigation systems, shipping logs and more! With
these they all communicate with different vessels and companies. I would imagine it is
imperative to keep these secure at all times. There are also military submarines and ships
that are heavily guarded. There have been stories about ships being held hostage somewhat
recently in Iran. Maritime also relies on asset controls in space, as they use satellites as
well for communication and surveillance.
Space physical assets are satellites. Technology has allowed for people to hack into
satellites. Satellites provide a lot of information for the military, government, and various
organizations. In recent years a NOAA satellite was hacked. Other countries have been
known to hack into our satellites as well. Satellites are controlled from somewhere on the
ground. I used to live on an Air Force Base and there were buildings with no windows,
and they had their own little guard stations. The rumor was that in the buildings they
controlled missiles and satellites, but I have no idea if that was true or not. They seemed to
be very secure though, I’m sure for good reason as a lot of information could be gathered
For space it would be the satellites because you can control just about a lot of things now
from how the weather is looking and also connections with cellular devices and more. Its a
big venerability because if someone was able to get ahold of controlling the satellite then
it can be a pandemic. People have used the satellite in a few hackings but end up getting
caught sooner or later. I found some interesting things in this article about how satellites
are the biggest target for hackers.
For Physical domains it is a vulnerability when your company uses key cards to get into
the building to minimize potential threats coming in. It does not always work especially
when all employees don't know each other and also they hold the door knowing your
supposed to badge in and out the building. Doing so will help maintain a flow of who is
going in and out of the building and time stamps for work as well. There has been a few
threats that have been able to gain access to the work place all because employees don't
follow the protocols on shutting the door behind them to make sure that other employees
badge in. I think working at home would be the safer way to minimize people coming into
the work place and just use a secure network. Cyber defense of space assets is considered
a top priority by the United States military. Space assets have, perhaps even to a greater
extent than ordinary, consumer electronics, been left bereft of security measures against
cyber-attack. This equipment would probably mainly be satellites. Satellites control a lot of
things. I am sure the military uses satellites to control where drome's fly and where
missiles are dispatched to. Maritime has been around a lot longer, so one would anticipate
the US to be better prepared for an attack. The US has battleships, submarines, and a
whole lot of other maritime assets globally. All of these assets must be secured and ready
for either an offensive or defensive attack at any time. The physical domain is the
information environment consisting of the network of technology infrastructures and data,
including the Internet, telecommunications networks, computer systems, etc.According to
techtarget.com "In computer science, cryptography refers to secure information and
communication techniques derived from mathematical concepts and a set of rule-based
calculations called algorithms to transform messages in ways that are hard to decipher.
These deterministic algorithms are used for cryptographic key generation and digital
signing and verification to protect data privacy, web browsing on the internet and
confidential communications such as credit card transactions and email. The United State
Coast Guard is one of five armed forces in the United States and the only military
organization within the DHS “Department of Homeland Security” . The Coast Guard
protects the maritime economy, and the environment, and defends maritime boarders. Ships
are increasingly using systems that rely on digitalization, integration, and automation,
which call for cyber risk management on board. As technology continues to develop, the
convergence of information technology (IT) and operational technology (OT) on board
ships and their connection to the internet creates an increased attack surface that needs to
be addressed.
Small satellites are one of the primary focuses in cyber security for space assets at present.
Satellite, computer, and network systems are used to notify people in the pacific rim about
tsunami events. These satellites help us communicate to one another, it also allows us to
send information from one place to another.
A physical domain in the U.S would be like a military base, It protected by a fence and
guards at the gate checking ID's of anyone entering. Asset controls in space have became a
significant force when integrated into civilian and government operations such as the
military, NASA, and global communications. With space assets such as satellites we have
been able to expand on global communication, global positioning systems and surveillance.
These assets or satellites are attacked through physical attack or cyber due to their
vulnerabilities. Attacks can involve transmitting signals mimicking ground control’s signal
sending invalid information. Physical attacks can come from collision to meteors, anti-
satellite missiles, or even collision with another satellite losing its orbiting pattern.
Maritime domain consists of anything dealing with a body of water such as oceans, bays,
and coastal areas, it is constricted by land boundaries but does include on, under or above
the body of water. Attacks are conceivable in many ways through a port, varying from the
operating system failure, hazardous material, cyber-attacks, or even security vulnerabilities.
Although they may be targeted more than civilians, military is not the only one prone to
attacks, an attack to a civilian may be used as a decoy to target other vessels. For example,
a civilian cruise ship may be taken over with hostages to have national guards deployed for
the chance to overtake their vessel. There's so much that I don't know about the physical
asset controls in space, maritime, and physical domains. After researching the space
domain, one of the most important asset are the satellites in space which connects to the
satellite stations on the ground. They serve as the main form of communication to identify
any problems that occur. The physical asset in the maritime domain are vessel networks,
communication systems, and navigation systems. The major vulnerabilities that I learned
about maritime domains are malware which can be inserted in the vessel and can cause
major issues in the ship. One of the articles that I read about mentioned a malware being
inserted into a ship which caused navigation issues and led a ship a different direction
overnight without changing the display screen. When I researched physical domains, the
main physical asset that was brought up consisted of physical access that one has into an
organization and preventing outsiders from gaining access. By doing this, it prevents
outsiders from stealing important information that can tarnish the reputation of an
organization. A great way to keep people who don't have authorization into an organization
is to provide everyone who has access to an organization a photo badge with encryption on
it and physical security guards as a back up security check. Physical assets is physical
control/ security in the designated environment. Things like physical security prevents
things like trespassing physical assets might include security officer with counter measures
this is used in most domains even upon vessels some in the oceans to prevent unauthorized
personal upon it. Most are used to prevent smuggling and transporting illegal goods.
Vulnerabilities for space domain is information and satellites, networking provide
communication. Maritime has many vessels used for communication it has critical
information and many computer assets. Vulnerabilities include terrorists that target these
ships and commit theft. Often they are known as pirates who threaten and blow up ships as
well as compromise large vessels with authorized personal. Military's national security is
vital most armed with jets, carriers. The jets will transport off the landing strip to carry
cargo to other vessels or on land bases. There are communications between vessels and
bases they carry out missions on safely transporting. These are usually encrypted for them
to safely talk but radio interception is a vulnerability and targeted, this can compromise
their location as well. After researching physical asset controls in maritime there was a lot
that I found out that I didn’t know. I learned that there are several challenges such as:
Operational Technology (OT) systems are responsible for real-time performance,
and that the response to any incidents is time-critical to guarantee the high
reliability and availability of the systems.
Access to operational technology systems should not be strictly controlled by
disrupting the required human-machine interaction.
Safety of these systems is critical, and fault tolerance is essential. Even the smallest
downtime may not be acceptable.
OT systems present expanded diversity with proprietary protocols and operating
systems, often lacking embedded security capabilities.
They have extended lifecycles, and any updates or patches to these systems must be
meticulously designed and executed to avoid disrupting reliability and availability.
The OT systems are created to aid the calculated operational process and may not
have enough memory and computing resources to support the addition of security
Challenges to the operation of OT systems may inflict significant risk to the security of
onboard personnel and cargo. While it is not as well known and prevalent as ground based
systems, there are a numerous amounts of transport methods for data in the sea and in
space. Satellite uplinks that allow us to have network in any place that is not blocked from
the sky is one part of the internet that is overlooked. Also that there are under sea cables
that span the length of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The use of this technology is
crucial to becoming more connected across the world. Without them, especially the
underwater cables, we would not be able to communicate with the other side of the world.
This makes it necessary to have security that it keeping these cables and satellite uplinks
safe. One example of this is that there is plenty of security where the cable returns to land
on both ends. There are also walls that were built in the ocean to try and keep sea
creatures from breaking or damaging the cables in the ocean. Protection of data and
information assets relies very heavily on physical security. This is because if you have
access to touch the equipment that it is stored on you have near unlimited options to access
and read its contents. This is why many companies take physical security very seriously
and only allow very specific people access to physically manage it. And even with this
type of access they are still watched by people either in person or on security cameras. It
incredible to be at a point in time to be alive for sure. We are at a point of monumental
achievement as a species. No longer just conquering the land beneath our feet but also
adventuring into space. While our journey is still just beginning, and there are still so
many unknowns, we have tried and true measures to help with security. Space
organizations have to address the same threats to their intellectual property, assets and
personnel as other organizations. Preparation on the ground is crucial to make sure that
space missions end in success.
The protecting of earthbound assets to help boost security is a must. Through monitoring
of Login access, cac cards, and Surveillance videos, are just some of the ways security can
make sure that people aren’t gaining access to information they aren’t allowed to and
helping to maintain a secure and safe work environment. The open lobby- This could allow
someone into the organization with a little distraction of the receptionist. To be safe
companies should have a locked door between the lobby and inside of a facility is very
important. This also leads into an unlocked data center. Someone with physical access to a
system can do many things that a network intruder could not. If you have a data center of
any size, it needs to be securely locked, with access restricted to those with a need to be
there. Another issue is poorly secured doors. Doors that do no required keyed access to
doors and different levels of security to different keyed doors. The keyed doors also will
provide a log of all those who have entered. However, they are not the answer to tight
access control that many think, given the ease with which access information can be
captured and used by bad people. Cameras should be installed at all entry points to a
facility, and in key areas such as data centers and telecom closets. The video should be
recorded and retained, with a live monitor placed on the desk of someone who can keep an
eye on it. From the badge issue above, you will realize just how easy it can be for
someone to get into a building. These offices often share a common wall with other
tenants. You need an intrusion system, and you need one supporting unique codes for
everyone for audit trail purposes. Another concern related to physical security is the insider
threat an employee or contractor helping themselves to your information for financial
Space The types of attack to which satellites are vulnerable fall into two primary
categories: physical attacks and computer-system attacks. Physical attacks are those
directed either directly against the satellite’s physical bus or transmitted signals. The
vectors for physical attacks vary greatly. For example, the act of transmitting signals that
mimic a satellite’s or ground control station’s signals but contain false information, or
“spoofing,” is a physical attack, as is jamming. But physical attacks also include anything
from anti-satellite missiles to a “spray-paint attack, wherein” one satellite gets close
enough to another satellite to spray paint its optics, rendering them blind. As these physical
attack vectors are widely varied, many diverse security measures are required to counteract
them. While researching physical asset controls in space and maritime, I read an article on
how space plays an important role in maritime security. The article was written in 2015
during the Crimea crisis in which the US and the European Union declared sanctions on
Russia which would impact their economy severely. In response Russia threatened that
they would stop shuttling Astronauts to and from the International Space Station (ISS) and
cut off supplies to the ISS as well. Prior to this in 2007, the Chinese military carried out a
successful test of its first antisatellite missile test in which they destroyed one of their
aging satellites that was 500 miles above the ground site from where the missile was
launched. These events were very alarming to the US since they threaten our space
intelligence and reconnaissance capabilities in space. Either of these threats could cripple
our communication in a time of war so the US knew that we had to come up with some
countermeasures. The US Navy started looking into laser weapon technologies that could
not only punch a hole through the steel walls of other vessels but it would also provide a
countermeasure to any ballistic missile attack that would threaten our satellites or the ISS.
This capability would play a significant role in defending US airspace as well as our
satellite systems. This article just brings to light that the future of the Navy’s role will not
only be at sea but also space as well. Before opening this assignment and reading the
discussion, I really had never thought about assets that are in space or maritime
technology. Any time there are assets out in the world, there is a chance they can be
hacked. Since there are assets in space and maritime technology, there is a risk of cyber
attacks at these locations. The safety and economic security of the United States depends
upon the secure use of the world's oceans. Since the attacks of September 11, 2001, the
Federal government has reviewed and strengthened all of its strategies to combat the
evolving threat in the War on Terrorism. Maritime security is best achieved by blending
public and private maritime security activities on a global scale into an integrated effort
that addresses all maritime threats. In addition to this Strategy, the United States have
developed eight supporting plans to address the specific threats and challenges of the
maritime environment. The supporting plans include:
1. National Plan to Achieve Domain Awareness
2. Global Maritime Intelligence Integration Plan
3. Interim Maritime Operational Threat ResponsePlan
4. International Outreach and Coordination Strategy
5. Maritime Infrastructure Recovery Plan
6. Maritime Transportation System Security Plan
7. Maritime Commerce Security Plan
8. Domestic Outreach Plan
I noticed there seem to be more information regarding maritime security than space
security, but I found a little bit of information on space security. NASA has a Space Asset
Protection Program which captures and denies and foreign intelligence from gaining access
to our information Because of the threats from space the United States created the National
Space Policies, PPD-4, and PPD-21. These policies require the protection of all critical
space systems and supporting infrastructure. NASA began working to protect its space
vehicles and critical infrastructure prior to the recent National Space Policy as good
stewards of the nation’s resources. I found a presentation form the European Defense
Agency, and as most every other organization their defense strategy is daily monitoring,
continuously. Maritime the challenges they face are vessel integrated navigation system,
global positioning systems, automatic identifications system and radar systems. They share
an asset with space which are satellites, NASA states that today is is fundamental changes
that led to congested, contested, and competitive. The newly formed Space Force is or will
be incharge of monitoring the assets in space. The solutions are similar to terrestrial
solutions, and encrypting information is a way to secure transmission. A number of
physical access controls are uniquely suited to governing the movement of people within
an organization’s facilities specifically, controlling their physical access to company
resources. While logical access to systems in the Internet age is a very important subject,
the control of physical access to an organization’s assets is also of critical importance.
Some of the technology used to control physical access is also used to control logical
access, including biometrics, smart cards, and wireless-enabled keycards.
Any individual part of a space system as follows: Equipment that is or can be placed in
space (e.g., a satellite or a launch vehicle). Terrestrially-based equipment that directly
supports space activity (e.g., a satellite ground station). Apply existing cybersecurity
standards and best practices to space assets and where necessary, develop new, tailored
standards for unique components of space assets:
Assign security experts with distinguished expertise based on the function of each space
asset and enable this resourcing by establishing cybersecurity as a mission line-item in
budgets. For example, do not assign a server security expert to work on the security of a
satellite endpoint. Instead, designate security experts with satellite endpoint knowledge to
secure these systems
Develop and incentivize a cybersecurity culture that prioritizes security across the teams
working on space assets. For example, gamify good security behavior, such as running an
internal phishing program where top performers are rewarded
Use appropriate cybersecurity tools such as encryption or threat intelligence. Encrypt
communications even if the data transmitted from satellites will ultimately be public and
open source to better protect the integrity of that information (such as weather data).
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