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One traditional way of determining system requirements during analysis is
interviewing. This involves talking to with users about current or potential systems
to establish needs. These interviews can be done individually or in a group
setting. Conducting interviews in a group setting may allow you to see
requirements from multiple sides at once, since users can agree/disagree with each
other in a group setting in real time. A contemporary technique is prototyping.
Prototyping can be used to gather user requirements and present them a working
system prototype. This can allow users to test the sample system and analysts
can then adjust the prototype to properly fit the user’s needs .A radical method
of determining system requirements is business process reengineering (BPR). BPR
is the search for and implementation of radical changes. BPR can provide radical
improvements in speed, quality, and customer satisfaction. Which method of
analysis to use to determine system requirements can depend on the project size
or complexity, or the customers personal preferences. A traditional technique for
the determination of systems requirements during analysis is interviewing. When
an interview is conducted, a researcher or analyst is helped to collect information
from interviewees regarding the information systems needs of the users. This
method is useful when detailed insight into the system requirements is needed. A
drawback of the interviewing technique is that it is time-consuming and can
increase the duration of the information systems project. It can be used when the
needs of the users might vary. A contemporary technique for determining systems
requirements during analysis is called prototyping. The prototyping method can be
used for capturing user requirements and then presenting them as a working
system prototype. It is most useful when users need to get involved in the design
process and ascertain whether it is aligned with their needs or not . A drawback
of the technique is the absence of a methodical process. It is possible to ascertain
whether to use the technique or not if users find it difficult to specify their
exact requirements. Process modelling is a radical technique for determining
systems requirements during analysis. It involves a graphical representation of the
process, which can be used to get better clarity into system needs .A drawback
of the technique is the risk relating to excess analysis. The decision to use the
technique depends on the need to understand the existing system. One traditional
way of gathering and documenting requirements is through a use case. A use
case is textual description of a user (an actor) using or interacting with a system.
We establish a goal -- what the user wishes to accomplish and write out the
steps (scenario) in which the user will perform actions to accomplish the goal.
We can also document pre-conditions and post-conditions, which describe what
must happen before the scenario can begin and the conditions that follow upon
the scenario completing. This is a time-tested means for requirements as old as
system development itself. Every organization will need to determine what kind
of techniques are best suited for them. In order to pick the approbate techniques
for their new system projects, they need to factor in their key characteristics and
values that must meet with the techniques. These techniques have their advantages
and disadvantages when it comes to selecting. The advantage of using the
traditional techniques is that it gives a structured approach to development of the
project. which means it will lay out the steps in order and meet all the
requirements and all the stakeholders are involved. Most organizations are familiar
with these techniques so they can utilize more effectively and in a controlled
manner. Once an organization have a clear understanding of problem and the
requirements will be the most beneficial technique to employ. And of course, this
might take more time and lots of documentation which can be helpful for future
references. The advantage of contemporary technique is that is user cantered
focused which means this will put a strong emphasize on user requirements and
their needs. With these techniques it also fosters more collaboration between users,
stakeholders and other teams to meet all the requirements. This technique can
adapt to any situations by quickly develop prototypes and test any issues in
which they get feedback. The Radical technique is faster way for determine the
requirements with new innovation and experiments. With this approach developers
can come up with quick solutions and get quick feedback to reduce time and
cost. This technique is also emphasized on user involvement which can create
effect solutions. Based on all these techniques, I would use traditional if I know
what my problem is and I have the solution that will solve everything. This
type of method is for organizations that needs more faster functional requirements
to meet their functional requirement. For contemporary techniques is for
organizations that are more user orient system. Their goals is how to improve
the user interface for better system. The radical techniques is much faster approach
in my opinion because it allows the organization to get a quick feedback in
order to improve the system for real world. By using this method, organizations
can solve problems during the development and improve based on the feedback.
All these techniques work great in right situations depending on the organizations
goals and values. A traditional way of gathering information is by interviewing.
It is a really common process analysts use, but it is quite time consuming to
interview large amounts of people. Although time consuming, an advantage it is
more tailored than let's say a survey sent out to everyone. In the interview
process, other questions come up and more details are recorded. Interviews would
be recommended when the topic of the interview isn't so black and white, but
maybe has a lot of gray area. A contemporary method, Joint Development
Application (JAD), is a common business analysis technique. JAD is a process
that involves the client to design and develop computer-based systems. Some
advantages include lower risks, better software with minimal errors, accelerated
process and lower costs. Some disadvantages could arise from different opinions
and time issues. JAD would be good to use when a client is looking for
something new and unique. Finally, Business process reengineering methodology, a
radical process, is defined as a process that takes areas important to a customer
and rethinks and redesigns to achieve a dramatic improvement. This allows a
business to focus on customer needs or whatever else they deem important. It
also can get rid of unnecessary activities. Disadvantages can be that it isn't good
for every business and other department could end up suffering from the
"improvements" in other areas. One tradition way is for finding the system
requirements is ask someone that has ready done a similar project before. This
is effective and can save a lot of time. A more contemporary style would be
to ask AI or some other sort of learning system to do it for you. This will
eliminate human error. A more radical process would be get a bunch of options
and put them in a hat and choose from the drawing of the hat. This obviously
is the least recommend option. The drawbacks of asking someone else is that
their ideas may not be exactly what you’re looking for and probably wouldn’t
for the project. The drawback of using AI is that although you wouldn’t have
human error, you would just take on computer error. Lastly, the hat idea isn’t
good because you would have to come up with the ideas first, and then add
them to the hat. I think the AI choice is the best one. Modern times require
modern solutions and thinking outside the box seems to have been the best
method for all human history. Analysts use system requirements determination to
understand current problems and opportunities and what is needed and desired in
future systems. Typically, the current way of doing things greatly impacts the
new system. In some organizations, though, management seeks new ways to
perform everyday tasks. These ways may be radically different from how things
are done now, but the payoffs may be enormous: Fewer people may be needed
to do the same work; relationships with customers may improve dramatically; and
processes may become much more efficient and effective, all of which can result
in increased profits. The overall process by which current methods are replaced
with radically new methods is referred to as business process reengineering (BPR).
To better understand BPR, consider the following analogy. Suppose you are a
successful European golfer who has tuned your game to fit the style of golf
courses and weather in Europe. You have learned how to control the ball's flight
in heavy winds, roll the ball on wide-open greens, put on large and undulating
greens, and aim at a target without the aid of the landscaping common on North
American courses. However,BPR advocates suggest that radical increases in the
quality of business processes can be achieved through creatively applying
information technologies. BPR advocates also suggest that radical improvement
cannot be achieved by making minor changes in existing processes but by using
a clean sheet of paper and asking, "If we were a new organization, how would
we accomplish this activity?" Changing how work is performed also changes how
information is shared and stored, which means that the results of many BPR
efforts are the development of information system maintenance requests or requests
for system replacement. Interviewing is one of the traditional ways analysts can
gather information about an IS project. The advantages are that an interview is
flexible, it can offer a better opportunity to evaluate the validity of the
information that is gathered, and it can be an effective technique for eliciting
information about a complex subject. Some disadvantages are that it can have a
long preparation time and take a lot of time and money to conduct.Joint
Development Application (JAD), a contemporary method, is a very common
technique in the business analysis world. It brings system developers and users
together in a productive and creative environment through a structured approach
that involves discussion groups with the goal of obtaining requirements and
specifications. The advantages are that it allows you to resolve difficulties simply
and produce better, joint collaboration between the company and clients lower
risks, reduces costs and time needed for project development, and has well-defined
requirements to improve system requirements. Some disadvantages are that different
opinions within the team can make it difficult and depending on the size of the
project it may require a large time commitment.Business process reengineering
methodology, a radical methodology, involves the radical redesign of core business
processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity, cycle times, and
quality. The advantages are that it gives an appropriate focus to business as it
revolves around customer needs, it helps in building a strategic view of operational
procedures by making radical inquiries about how processes are improved and
how things could be done, it eliminates unnecessary activities and thereby helps
in reducing organizational complexity. Some disadvantages are that it doesn't suit
every business need as it depends on factors like size and availability of
resources, and in some cases, the efficiency of one department is improved at
the expense of the overall process. There are some pros and cons when it comes
to a traditional, contemporary, and radical technique when determining systems
requirements during analysis. For a traditional approach, I think interviewing is
great to collect data about an information frameworks project. In the beginning
stages in a project, an interviewer would use a lot of time and effort talking to
individuals about their work. A disadvantage is that it would take a lot of time
and planning. However, interviewing can be an advantage because it is an
adaptable tool. It could be used to find key issues by looking for opinions
individuals like being met. This technique would be great to use when you are
looking for feedback and direct interaction with an interviewee. A contemporary
technique could be use is the Joint Development Application (JAD). This is a
typical method in business examination environment. This brings clients and system
developers together in an organized methodology that includes discussion groups
with the objective to acquire necessities and determinations. A disadvantage is that
various beliefs inside the group make it hard to adjust objectives. However, JAD
permits you to resolve difficulties more simply and produce better software. I
would use this technique when the organizational culture underpins joint critical
thinking practices among various degrees of employees.As for the radical technique,
I would consider the Business process re-engineering (BPR) methodology. An
advantage of this is that it gives proper concentration to a business as it rotates
around client needs. A disadvantage is that it does not exactly suit each business
need as it relies upon factors like size and accessibility of assets. I would use
this technique when companies need to break the mold and turn the tables in
order to accomplish ambitious goals. There are several factors to consider for
each IS project to consider which technique(s) to employ during the determination
of systems requirements for the analysis phase. One may use a more traditional
approach such as interviewing everyone from the users on up to the stakeholders
to determine system requirements, but the drawback is the time and need for
interpersonal skills and organizational meetings. The more contemporary approach
is the e-JAD or electric joint application development method in which the client
and developers along with a facilitator iron out the system requirements in a
streamlined and organized format. This does leave out room for add-on
requirements in some cases though. As a more radical route, there is the business
process reengineering method, however this tends to be better utilized by larger
enterprises as the cost of investment in the required IT and the ability to
withstand the length of time for the project to complete. While it is more
consumer-focused and overcomes some of the more shorter sighted approaches,
again, it's likely out of the scope of smaller businesses. The week's lesson focuses
on the analysis phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). During
the analysis phase, determining the requirements of the system that is being
developed is integral to the success. The different techniques that can be used
during this phase include: traditional, contemporary, and radical. Traditional methods
include interviews, document analysis, and observations. Interviews can be
conducted using a top-down approach, which can be a more effective when it
comes to gathering information. Contemporary techniques are based on a bottom-
up approach and allow for more collaborative, for example the Joint application
development, or JAD, brings stakeholders together in a group workshop setting to
identify the system requirements. The downside of this can be reluctance or
resistance to change, as well as lack of participation. Radical techniques allow
the stakeholders to be more directly involved in designing, via active participation.
In this way, stakeholders can confirm that the system is satisfactory. I believe
the approach an analyst decides to take will depend on the system that needs to
be designed. I do however, tend to lean more towards the interview method,
because it seems to offer more well-rounded insight. On the traditional route, I
would have to say that observing workers is a good technique. It gets you to
the ground level where things really happen. As a supervisor at my job, there
have been plenty of times that something comes from home office and is not
feasible in real-world applications. A drawback would be they do become kind
of timid and may not come out with the best info or work the old process
correctly in front of you.
With the contemporary route, I feel that the joint application design would be
a good way to go. I feel placing all the key people in an off-site location and
having them brainstorm could bring out a lot of good info and possibly get it
all agreed upon at the same time. It could also be a bad thing, in my experience
having that many higher-ups in the same place could turn into a tug-of-war
situation IF they do not understand they are working towards the same goal at
the start. It is also hard to try to schedule everyone at the same time.
The last would be the radical route and to me, this one seems as it is what
the name implies. it would be fast-paced and you may beat the time crunch but
I feel there may be some missed thongs that could cause some headaches if not
seem early enough. Traditional techniques involve gathering information from
stakeholders, user and SME’s to identify their needs and requirements. A
traditional method would be interviewing & listening but a few drawbacks are
that its time consuming and can be costly. Contemporary techniques include
methods like user stories, prototyping and design thinking which are more flexible.
I took a SAFe class and I think that would be a good example of a
contemporary technique. Especially the way a PI increment planning session is
conducted with everyone in on location working off of visual aides like kanban
boards. Radical techniques involve a more deep immersion into users environment
and understanding the needs through observation. One that found very interesting
was Ethnographic research, which involves living and working with the user
population for extended periods of time to understand their values and beliefs. It
basically observing the users in their natural settings. A drawback of this is that
its also time consuming and can probably become very expensive. This one was
the most interesting and possibly the most effective in my opinion. rr
Techniques for determining systems requirements during analyses:
Traditional: interviewing and listening, questionnaires, direct observation.
Contemporary: case tools, group support systems, joint application design
(JAD), prototyping.
Radical: rapid application technique (RAD), object-oriented analysis, business
process reengineering (BPR), disruptive technologies.
Interviewing and Listening (traditional):
rr rr rr Advantages:
A flexible tool.
Provides a better opportunity to evaluate the validity of the information
gathered than that of a questionnaire.
Easier to discover key issues by hearing opinions.
Effective for gathering information on a complex topic.
Disadvantages:
A long preparation time.
Requires lots of time and money to conduct.
Recommended Use:
Complex topics.
Requires a lengthy explanation.
Topic and/or questions are not clear to participants.
Joint Development Application (JAD) (contemporary):
rr rr Advantages:
Collaboration lowers all risks.
Close communication allows for faster progress.
Reduces costs and time needed for project development.
Disadvantages:
Differing opinions can make it difficult to align goals and maintain focus.
Can require a large time commitment.
Recommendation for Use:
Organizational culture supports joint team problem-solving.
Workflow allows for the absence of key personnel for days at a time.
Business Process Reengineering (radical):
rr rr rr Advantages:
Focuses on customer needs.
Eliminates unnecessary activities.
Overcomes short-sighted approaches.
Disadvantages:
Usually only benefits large organizations.
Does not provide immediate resolution.
Can require substantial investment in IT.
Recommendation for Use:
If the goal is to reduce costs and cycle times regardless of job impact.
Goal is to improve quality.
. One traditional technique for determining systems requirements during analysis is
the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM). This technique is
a waterfall methodology that involves breaking down a system into smaller
components to understand its requirements. It is a well-established approach that
can be useful when working with large, complex systems. However, its rigidity
can make it difficult to adapt to changing requirements. A contemporary technique
for determining systems requirements is Agile development. This approach involves
iterative development and continuous feedback from stakeholders. It is useful when
dealing with uncertain or rapidly-changing requirements, but can be challenging for
larger, more complex systems that require a more structured approach. A radical
technique for determining systems requirements is Design Thinking. This approach
involves empathizing with users, defining their needs, ideating possible solutions,
prototyping, and testing. It is useful when working with complex systems that
require a deep understanding of user needs. However, it can be time-consuming
and may not be appropriate for all types of systems. Each technique has its own
drawbacks. SSADM can be inflexible and slow to adapt to changing requirements.
Agile development can be challenging to manage and may not be appropriate for
all types of systems. Design Thinking can be time-consuming and may not be
feasible for all projects. To decide which technique to use, it is important to
consider the specific requirements of the project and the stakeholders involved.
Factors such as project size, complexity, and timeline should also be taken into
account. Ultimately, the chosen technique should be one that aligns with the
project goals and can effectively