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One traditional way of determining system requirements during analysis is
interviewing. This involves talking to with users about current or potential systems
to establish needs. These interviews can be done individually or in a group
setting. Conducting interviews in a group setting may allow you to see
requirements from multiple sides at once, since users can agree/disagree with each
other in a group setting in real time. A contemporary technique is prototyping.
Prototyping can be used to gather user requirements and present them a working
system prototype. This can allow users to test the sample system and analysts can
then adjust the prototype to properly fit the user’s needs .A radical method of
determining system requirements is business process reengineering (BPR). BPR is
the search for and implementation of radical changes. BPR can provide radical
improvements in speed, quality, and customer satisfaction. Which method of
analysis to use to determine system requirements can depend on the project size
or complexity, or the customers personal preferences. A traditional technique for
the determination of systems requirements during analysis is interviewing. When an
interview is conducted, a researcher or analyst is helped to collect information
from interviewees regarding the information systems needs of the users. This
method is useful when detailed insight into the system requirements is needed. A
drawback of the interviewing technique is that it is time-consuming and can
increase the duration of the information systems project. It can be used when the
needs of the users might vary. A contemporary technique for determining systems
requirements during analysis is called prototyping. The prototyping method can be
used for capturing user requirements and then presenting them as a working
system prototype. It is most useful when users need to get involved in the design
process and ascertain whether it is aligned with their needs or not . A drawback
of the technique is the absence of a methodical process. It is possible to ascertain
whether to use the technique or not if users find it difficult to specify their exact
requirements. Process modelling is a radical technique for determining systems
requirements during analysis. It involves a graphical representation of the process,
which can be used to get better clarity into system needs .A drawback of the
technique is the risk relating to excess analysis. The decision to use the technique
depends on the need to understand the existing system. One traditional way of
gathering and documenting requirements is through a use case. A use case is
textual description of a user (an actor) using or interacting with a system. We
establish a goal -- what the user wishes to accomplish and write out the steps
(scenario) in which the user will perform actions to accomplish the goal. We can
also document pre-conditions and post-conditions, which describe what must happen
before the scenario can begin and the conditions that follow upon the scenario
completing. This is a time-tested means for requirements as old as system
development itself. Every organization will need to determine what kind of
techniques are best suited for them. In order to pick the approbate techniques for
their new system projects, they need to factor in their key characteristics and
values that must meet with the techniques. These techniques have their advantages
and disadvantages when it comes to selecting. The advantage of using the
traditional techniques is that it gives a structured approach to development of the
project. which means it will lay out the steps in order and meet all the
requirements and all the stakeholders are involved. Most organizations are familiar
with these techniques so they can utilize more effectively and in a controlled
manner. Once an organization have a clear understanding of problem and the
requirements will be the most beneficial technique to employ. And of course, this
might take more time and lots of documentation which can be helpful for future
references. The advantage of contemporary technique is that is user cantered
focused which means this will put a strong emphasize on user requirements and
their needs. With these techniques it also fosters more collaboration between users,
stakeholders and other teams to meet all the requirements. This technique can
adapt to any situations by quickly develop prototypes and test any issues in which
they get feedback. The Radical technique is faster way for determine the
requirements with new innovation and experiments. With this approach developers
can come up with quick solutions and get quick feedback to reduce time and
cost. This technique is also emphasized on user involvement which can create
effect solutions. Based on all these techniques, I would use traditional if I know
what my problem is and I have the solution that will solve everything. This type
of method is for organizations that needs more faster functional requirements to
meet their functional requirement. For contemporary techniques is for organizations
that are more user orient system. Their goals is how to improve the user interface
for better system. The radical techniques is much faster approach in my opinion
because it allows the organization to get a quick feedback in order to improve the
system for real world. By using this method, organizations can solve problems
during the development and improve based on the feedback. All these techniques
work great in right situations depending on the organizations goals and values. A
traditional way of gathering information is by interviewing. It is a really common
process analysts use, but it is quite time consuming to interview large amounts of
people. Although time consuming, an advantage it is more tailored than let's say
a survey sent out to everyone. In the interview process, other questions come up
and more details are recorded. Interviews would be recommended when the topic
of the interview isn't so black and white, but maybe has a lot of gray area. A
contemporary method, Joint Development Application (JAD), is a common business
analysis technique. JAD is a process that involves the client to design and develop
computer-based systems. Some advantages include lower risks, better software with
minimal errors, accelerated process and lower costs. Some disadvantages could arise
from different opinions and time issues. JAD would be good to use when a client
is looking for something new and unique. Finally, Business process reengineering
methodology, a radical process, is defined as a process that takes areas important
to a customer and rethinks and redesigns to achieve a dramatic improvement. This
allows a business to focus on customer needs or whatever else they deem
important. It also can get rid of unnecessary activities. Disadvantages can be that
it isn't good for every business and other department could end up suffering from
the "improvements" in other areas. One tradition way is for finding the system
requirements is ask someone that has ready done a similar project before. This is
effective and can save a lot of time. A more contemporary style would be to ask
AI or some other sort of learning system to do it for you. This will eliminate
human error. A more radical process would be get a bunch of options and put
them in a hat and choose from the drawing of the hat. This obviously is the
least recommend option. The drawbacks of asking someone else is that their ideas
may not be exactly what you’re looking for and probably wouldn’t for the project.
The drawback of using AI is that although you wouldn’t have human error, you
would just take on computer error. Lastly, the hat idea isn’t good because you
would have to come up with the ideas first, and then add them to the hat. I
think the AI choice is the best one. Modern times require modern solutions and
thinking outside the box seems to have been the best method for all human
history. Analysts use system requirements determination to understand current
problems and opportunities and what is needed and desired in future systems.
Typically, the current way of doing things greatly impacts the new system. In
some organizations, though, management seeks new ways to perform everyday
tasks. These ways may be radically different from how things are done now, but
the payoffs may be enormous: Fewer people may be needed to do the same work;
relationships with customers may improve dramatically; and processes may become
much more efficient and effective, all of which can result in increased profits. The
overall process by which current methods are replaced with radically new methods
is referred to as business process reengineering (BPR). To better understand BPR,
consider the following analogy. Suppose you are a successful European golfer who
has tuned your game to fit the style of golf courses and weather in Europe. You
have learned how to control the ball's flight in heavy winds, roll the ball on wide-
open greens, put on large and undulating greens, and aim at a target without the
aid of the landscaping common on North American courses. However,BPR
advocates suggest that radical increases in the quality of business processes can be
achieved through creatively applying information technologies. BPR advocates also
suggest that radical improvement cannot be achieved by making minor changes in
existing processes but by using a clean sheet of paper and asking, "If we were a
new organization, how would we accomplish this activity?" Changing how work is
performed also changes how information is shared and stored, which means that
the results of many BPR efforts are the development of information system
maintenance requests or requests for system replacement. Interviewing is one of the
traditional ways analysts can gather information about an IS project. The
advantages are that an interview is flexible, it can offer a better opportunity to
evaluate the validity of the information that is gathered, and it can be an effective
technique for eliciting information about a complex subject. Some disadvantages are
that it can have a long preparation time and take a lot of time and money to
conduct.Joint Development Application (JAD), a contemporary method, is a very
common technique in the business analysis world. It brings system developers and
users together in a productive and creative environment through a structured
approach that involves discussion groups with the goal of obtaining requirements
and specifications. The advantages are that it allows you to resolve difficulties
simply and produce better, joint collaboration between the company and clients
lower risks, reduces costs and time needed for project development, and has well-
defined requirements to improve system requirements. Some disadvantages are that
different opinions within the team can make it difficult and depending on the size
of the project it may require a large time commitment.Business process
reengineering methodology, a radical methodology, involves the radical redesign of
core business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in productivity, cycle
times, and quality. The advantages are that it gives an appropriate focus to
business as it revolves around customer needs, it helps in building a strategic view
of operational procedures by making radical inquiries about how processes are
improved and how things could be done, it eliminates unnecessary activities and
thereby helps in reducing organizational complexity. Some disadvantages are that it
doesn't suit every business need as it depends on factors like size and availability
of resources, and in some cases, the efficiency of one department is improved at
the expense of the overall process. There are some pros and cons when it comes
to a traditional, contemporary, and radical technique when determining systems
requirements during analysis. For a traditional approach, I think interviewing is
great to collect data about an information frameworks project. In the beginning
stages in a project, an interviewer would use a lot of time and effort talking to
individuals about their work. A disadvantage is that it would take a lot of time
and planning. However, interviewing can be an advantage because it is an
adaptable tool. It could be used to find key issues by looking for opinions
individuals like being met. This technique would be great to use when you are
looking for feedback and direct interaction with an interviewee. A contemporary
technique could be use is the Joint Development Application (JAD). This is a
typical method in business examination environment. This brings clients and system
developers together in an organized methodology that includes discussion groups
with the objective to acquire necessities and determinations. A disadvantage is that
various beliefs inside the group make it hard to adjust objectives. However, JAD
permits you to resolve difficulties more simply and produce better software. I
would use this technique when the organizational culture underpins joint critical
thinking practices among various degrees of employees.As for the radical technique,
I would consider the Business process re-engineering (BPR) methodology. An
advantage of this is that it gives proper concentration to a business as it rotates
around client needs. A disadvantage is that it does not exactly suit each business
need as it relies upon factors like size and accessibility of assets. I would use
this technique when companies need to break the mold and turn the tables in
order to accomplish ambitious goals. There are several factors to consider for each
IS project to consider which technique(s) to employ during the determination of
systems requirements for the analysis phase. One may use a more traditional
approach such as interviewing everyone from the users on up to the stakeholders
to determine system requirements, but the drawback is the time and need for
interpersonal skills and organizational meetings. The more contemporary approach is
the e-JAD or electric joint application development method in which the client and
developers along with a facilitator iron out the system requirements in a
streamlined and organized format. This does leave out room for add-on
requirements in some cases though. As a more radical route, there is the business
process reengineering method, however this tends to be better utilized by larger
enterprises as the cost of investment in the required IT and the ability to
withstand the length of time for the project to complete. While it is more
consumer-focused and overcomes some of the more shorter sighted approaches,
again, it's likely out of the scope of smaller businesses. The week's lesson focuses
on the analysis phase of the Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC). During the
analysis phase, determining the requirements of the system that is being developed
is integral to the success. The different techniques that can be used during this
phase include: traditional, contemporary, and radical. Traditional methods include
interviews, document analysis, and observations. Interviews can be conducted using
a top-down approach, which can be a more effective when it comes to gathering
information. Contemporary techniques are based on a bottom-up approach and allow
for more collaborative, for example the Joint application development, or JAD,
brings stakeholders together in a group workshop setting to identify the system
requirements. The downside of this can be reluctance or resistance to change, as
well as lack of participation. Radical techniques allow the stakeholders to be more
directly involved in designing, via active participation. In this way, stakeholders
can confirm that the system is satisfactory. I believe the approach an analyst
decides to take will depend on the system that needs to be designed. I do
however, tend to lean more towards the interview method, because it seems to
offer more well-rounded insight. On the traditional route, I would have to say that
observing workers is a good technique. It gets you to the ground level where
things really happen. As a supervisor at my job, there have been plenty of times
that something comes from home office and is not feasible in real-world
applications. A drawback would be they do become kind of timid and may not
come out with the best info or work the old process correctly in front of you.
With the contemporary route, I feel that the joint application design would be a
good way to go. I feel placing all the key people in an off-site location and
having them brainstorm could bring out a lot of good info and possibly get it all
agreed upon at the same time. It could also be a bad thing, in my experience
having that many higher-ups in the same place could turn into a tug-of-war
situation IF they do not understand they are working towards the same goal at
the start. It is also hard to try to schedule everyone at the same time.
The last would be the radical route and to me, this one seems as it is what
the name implies. it would be fast-paced and you may beat the time crunch but
I feel there may be some missed thongs that could cause some headaches if not
seem early enough. Traditional techniques involve gathering information from
stakeholders, user and SME’s to identify their needs and requirements. A traditional
method would be interviewing & listening but a few drawbacks are that its time
consuming and can be costly. Contemporary techniques include methods like user
stories, prototyping and design thinking which are more flexible. I took a SAFe
class and I think that would be a good example of a contemporary technique.
Especially the way a PI increment planning session is conducted with everyone in
on location working off of visual aides like kanban boards. Radical techniques
involve a more deep immersion into users environment and understanding the
needs through observation. One that found very interesting was Ethnographic
research, which involves living and working with the user population for extended
periods of time to understand their values and beliefs. It basically observing the
users in their natural settings. A drawback of this is that its also time consuming
and can probably become very expensive. This one was the most interesting and
possibly the most effective in my opinion. qq
Techniques for determining systems requirements during analyses:
Traditional: interviewing and listening, questionnaires, direct observation.
Contemporary: case tools, group support systems, joint application design
(JAD), prototyping.
Radical: rapid application technique (RAD), object-oriented analysis, business
process reengineering (BPR), disruptive technologies.
Interviewing and Listening (traditional):
qq qq qq qq Advantages:
A flexible tool.
Provides a better opportunity to evaluate the validity of the information
gathered than that of a questionnaire.
Easier to discover key issues by hearing opinions.
Effective for gathering information on a complex topic.
A long preparation time.
Requires lots of time and money to conduct.
Recommended Use:
Complex topics.
Requires a lengthy explanation.
Topic and/or questions are not clear to participants.
Joint Development Application (JAD) (contemporary):
qq qq Advantages:
Collaboration lowers all risks.
Close communication allows for faster progress.
Reduces costs and time needed for project development.
Differing opinions can make it difficult to align goals and maintain focus.
Can require a large time commitment.
Recommendation for Use:
Organizational culture supports joint team problem-solving.
Workflow allows for the absence of key personnel for days at a time.
Business Process Reengineering (radical):
qq qq qq Advantages:
Focuses on customer needs.
Eliminates unnecessary activities.
Overcomes short-sighted approaches.
Usually only benefits large organizations.
Does not provide immediate resolution.
Can require substantial investment in IT.
Recommendation for Use:
If the goal is to reduce costs and cycle times regardless of job impact.
Goal is to improve quality.
. One traditional technique for determining systems requirements during analysis is
the Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM). This technique is
a waterfall methodology that involves breaking down a system into smaller
components to understand its requirements. It is a well-established approach that
can be useful when working with large, complex systems. However, its rigidity
can make it difficult to adapt to changing requirements. A contemporary technique
for determining systems requirements is Agile development. This approach involves
iterative development and continuous feedback from stakeholders. It is useful when
dealing with uncertain or rapidly-changing requirements, but can be challenging for
larger, more complex systems that require a more structured approach. A radical
technique for determining systems requirements is Design Thinking. This approach
involves empathizing with users, defining their needs, ideating possible solutions,
prototyping, and testing. It is useful when working with complex systems that
require a deep understanding of user needs. However, it can be time-consuming
and may not be appropriate for all types of systems. Each technique has its own
drawbacks. SSADM can be inflexible and slow to adapt to changing requirements.
Agile development can be challenging to manage and may not be appropriate for
all types of systems. Design Thinking can be time-consuming and may not be
feasible for all projects. To decide which technique to use, it is important to
consider the specific requirements of the project and the stakeholders involved.
Factors such as project size, complexity, and timeline should also be taken into
account. Ultimately, the chosen technique should be one that aligns with the
project goals and can effectively meet the needs of stakeholders. There are
different ways to determine system requirements during the analysis phase of
SDLC. One traditional ways is the interview. You can schedule interviews with
people within the company that may have information you need to determine
system requirements. During the interview you will ask closed ended questions
(questions where you need simple facts), open ended questions (questions that may
require an explanation or longer response), and probing questions (questions that
come up while the interviewee is talking to get more clarification). After the
interview the analysts will prepare an interview report. This is a useful tool that
sums up the information collected in the interviews. Another information gathering
technique is JAD (Joint Application Development) this allows the project team,
users, and management o work together in creating the requirements of a system.
This technique could be beneficial having everyone conversing in one room in a
perfect world. However, there will be people who will not take other people's
opinions seriously and there will be those who are afraid to speak up when
people who out rank them are in the room. JAD also offers a nontraditional way
of determining requirements called e-JAD. E-JAD uses software on a computer in
the company's network to allow ideas to be submitted anonymously. If I were the
analyst and had to choose I would choose e-JAD because people tend to speak
more freely when it's anonymous and it can also help free you up from your own
biased that may make you hear more of what one person has to say over the
other. A traditional technique for determining system requirements is collecting
information about the current system and what is needed for improvements. For
example, does it need to be improved for currency or organization? The best way
is to talk to the directly or indirectly involved in different parts of the
organizations. The only downfall will be the time it would take to interview each
person about the concerns.
A contemporary technique would be the Joint Application Design to collect system
requirements from key people involved with the system in one place. This process
could take from 4 hours to a week. It needs to be in a separate location from
the company. It could get costly.
A radical technique would be Business Process Reengineering, a process where a
current method is replaced with radically new ways. Not only improving the
business process but reorganizing the complete data flow in significant sections by
eliminating unnecessary steps. The disadvantages of Business Process Reengineering
are that the process is lengthy and costly, and many companies need more
patience and money to go that route.
The technique I suggest is the Joint Application Design because it is teamwork
between the company and client and makes the process go by faster. During
system analysis, various techniques can be used to determine the requirements of
a system. Three common techniques are traditional, contemporary, and radical
approaches.The traditional approach to determining system requirements involves
gathering information through questionnaires, interviews, and surveys. This technique
relies on the experience of stakeholders and experts in the field to identify system
requirements. The contemporary approach involves gathering requirements through
user observation and user feedback. This technique relies on user experience and
direct feedback to identify system requirements. Finally, the radical approach
involves challenging traditional assumptions and questioning the status quo. This
technique encourages creativity and innovation in identifying system requirements.
Each technique has its strengths and weaknesses. The traditional approach is useful
when stakeholders have a clear idea of their needs, but it can be limiting when
it comes to discovering new or unexpected requirements. The contemporary
approach is useful when trying to identify requirements that will improve the user
experience, but it may not capture the full scope of system requirements. The
radical approach is useful when there is a need to challenge existing assumptions
and think outside the box, but it can be difficult to implement and may not be
suitable for all types of projects.
When deciding which technique to use, it is important to consider the project's
goals, resources, and stakeholders. A project that requires quick implementation
may benefit from the traditional approach, while a project with a focus on user
experience may benefit from the contemporary approach. A project that requires
innovation and new ideas may benefit from the radical approach. Ultimately, the
chosen technique should align with the project's goals and objectives. I think
interviewing is most useful when you hardly have any other way to gather
information about the functions of the business system.
Interviewee can respond freely and openly to questions.
Interviewee can be asked for more feedback.
Questions can be adapted or reworded for each individual.
Interviewee's nonverbal communication can be observed.
Very time-consuming, and therefore costly, fact-finding approach.
Success is highly dependent on the systems analyst's human relations skills.
May be impractical due to the location of interviewees.
JAD Joint application development (Contemporary)
Joint Application Development is most likely the best option when you are
working on system that requires you to work as a team and involve others.
Understand multiple perspectives at once.
Have user feedback while documentation is being made.
Facilitator required.
Can take valuable time from other work.
Coordination required and group issues arise.
Business Process Reengineering (Radical)
BPR should be used when the business system is no longer meeting requirements
or found to be inefficient.
Business performance, making processes more efficient boosting productivity, and
employee morale.
Motivation in employees, which then results in job satisfaction.
Costly Process.
Long-Term process.
Requires proper training.
How would I decide which technique to use:
I enjoy working with people. Due to the nature of work that I do, I believe that
involving others makes them feel as though their opinion matters and that ideas
should be challenged and voted on esp. when money and time and so many
things are a factor in creating a successful process.
Therefore, JAD is probably the route I would go.
The first technique I will talk about is a traditional technique. This technique is
called Interviewing and listening. This technique requires one to talk to users,
mainly, individually and sometimes as a group to discover their views about the
current systems. It also involves preparing an interview outline and guide before
said interviews. This technique is most useful when very few people are involved
or when a more personal method is needed. While there are are some advantages
there are also some disadvantages. Those being long preparation times and the
amount of time and money it takes to conduct each interview. The second
technique is a radical technique called business process reengineering. This
technique involves the extreme redesign of core processes to achieve improvements
in productivity and quality. It coordinates and integrates several functions
immediately, reduces the number of checks and reconciliation processes and
eliminates unnecessary activities and in return helps in reducing organizational
complexity. However the advantages also come with disadvantages of course. The
first being that the efficiency of one department may be improved at the expense
of the overall process, the second is that it may require a very large investment
in IT along with almost perfect planning, amazing teamwork and flawless
If one wanted to use the interviewing and listening technique they would have to
be prepared to spend a lot of time doing interviews about the systems . They
should also use this technique if the system they are studying requires a lengthy
explanation to the participants. They would want to use the BPR technique if they
already have stable systems but wish to lower the costs and cycle times and/or
Improve the quality of said systems.
When it comes to traditional technique its a process that is taken step by step,
which in most cases is good, as it allows for thorough planning and analysing but
its downfall is it may take a little longer to complete the same goal. Where as
other methods may be a little more fast paced as it makes it easier to complete
the goal but with a better product, but the downfall of the other methods may be
something could get missed, even though it is constantly evolving. Thinking about
it like the Cyberpunk game, it came out not ready, people thought it was a
terrible game, because it was not finished and they decided to go through with it,
after a few updates and patches everything got fixed that was an issue, but was
a big game then lost its interest, so it may be a risky move.Radical techniques
are similar to what I had described above about the Cyberpunk game, as it is a
game that was underdeveloped before it reached the consumer, then when it had
gotten fixed, all interest was lost in the game, radical development techniques are
just a risky move sometimes, which is because if something does get "hyped up"
per say, you are looking at a group of people that were so happy to recieve the
game and then it destroys the whole value of the game at the time. Same thing
for any apps. A company could have a good reputation for producing good apps,
but it could have flaws as the company plans to