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Southern New Hampshire University
CJ-210 The U.S. Correctional System
Module 6 Notes
Gender Diversity in Prisons
Corrections Today
Chapter 6, “Inmate Populations” Section
Chapter 7 Following Sections:
o Women in Prison
o Trends in Women’s Imprisonment
o Gender Differences in Classification
o Doing Time
o Special Issues in the Incarceration of Women
o Professionalism in Women’s Prisons
Chapter 11, “Corrections and Transgender Inmates” Section
Chapter 12, “Women on Death Row” Section
What are the demographics of gender in the inmate population? On death row?
Males make up about 93 percent of sentenced prisoners and females make up about 7
What is the main reason for female incarceration?
In addition to women now committing more serious crimes, sentencing changes have
helped put more women behind bars. Mandatory minimum sentences provide the same
punishment for conspiracy to commit crimes, such as driving the getaway car, as for the
instigator of the crime itself. Accordingly, almost half of women in prison today under
these mandatory sentencing laws have been convicted of conspiracy.
What are the impacts of incarcerating transgender inmates?
Transgender people have a difficult time in prison, as they are usually sent to male
institutions, and unless they are placed in protective custody will experience repeated
victimization. LGBT inmates are more likely to be placed in isolation in prison because
24 percent of transgender inmates report being assaulted by another inmate, which is
nearly 12 times the rate of inmate assault experienced by the overall prison population.
Special Needs Offenders in Correctional Institutions
What is the social constructionism and how it is used to explain gender diversity?
Social constructionism examines how societies, individuals, and groups create or
“construct” their perceived social reality. For example, it assumes that concepts,
including things like sexual identity and gender (the behavior that is often associated with
them) are not inherent. We create these concepts, in part, because of socialization, but
also because of the ways we interact, think, and reproduce social relationships.
Individuals participate in an ongoing process whereby people create social relationships
on an ongoing basis, often without thinking about the process itself.
What is the male sexual hierarchy in prison?
The first category contains inmates who play an active, aggressive role (masculine) in
homosexual relations. Inmates referred to these men as wolves, voluntary aggressors,
jockers, studs, or daddies. The second and third categories of inmates played more
passive and submissive roles. These men were known as punks or fags.
What is the female sexual hierarchy in prison?
Inmates define the true homosexual as a woman who was homosexual before being
incarcerated. These women typically participated in homosexual activity in prison and
remained homosexual upon their release. The jailhouse turnout was introduced to
homosexual behavior while in prison. Whether a female represents a true homosexual, or
a jailhouse turnout, other distinctions in argot roles exist as well. One such role is known
as the butch, stud, stud broad, or drag butch. The butch maintains the dominant role in
the homosexual relationship by being the aggressive sexual partner. The complementary
role to the butch is known as the femme. The femme maintains her feminine
characteristics while taking a passive and submissive role in the homosexual relationship.
Federal Policies in Corrections
Corrections Today
Chapter 5, “Fourth-Generation Jails: Total Supervision” Section
Chapter 7, “Sex in Prison” Section (including the “Evidence-Based Corrections” box)
Chapter 8, “Evidence-Based Corrections” Section
What is PREA?
PREA stands for the Prison Rape Elimination Act. It establishes a zero-tolerance standard
for the incidence of prison rape in U.S. prisons.
What was PREA designed to accomplish?
The PREA is a program dedicated to collecting national prison rape statistics, data, and
conducting research; disseminating information and procedures for combating prison
rape; and assisting in funding state programs.
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