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DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 1
Method
Introduction
Theq followingq studyq involvesq aq surveyq beingq completedq byq participantsq whoq mayq orq
mayq notq experienceq highq levelsq ofq spiritualityq despiteq theirq attendanceq atq aq religiousq service.q
Theq hypothesisq revealsq thatq churchq attendanceq doesq notq influenceq anq individual’sq spirituality.q .q
Itq isq predictedq thatq religionq orq spiritualityq canq improveq stressq levelsq andq decreaseq negativeq
impactsq onq anq individual’sq mentalq health.q Theq dataq collectionq methodq isq discussedq inq theq
followingq paragraphs.
Theq Dailyq Spiritualq Experienceq Scaleq (DSES)q isq aq self-reportq instrumentq designedq toq
assessq ordinaryq experiencesq ofq transcendentq connectionq inq anq individual’sq dailyq lifeq
(Underwood,q 2011).q Studiesq haveq foundq thatq womenq reportedq higherq regardingq theq dailyq
spiritualq experienceq scaleq thanq menq inq theq Unitedq States.q Itq isq notq uncommonq toq seeq menq reportq
lowq dueq toq culturalq differencesq andq theq lackq ofq beingq openq regardingq theirq emotionsq andq
spiritualq experiences.q However,q itq isq crucialq toq understandq variousq variablesq whenq surveyingq
bothq menq andq womenq basedq onq culture,q religion,q careers,q andq currentq destination.q Therefore,q itq
isq notq uncommonq toq findq thatq womenq testq higherq inq spiritualityq levelsq especiallyq whenq itq isq
predictiveq thatq womenq areq moreq likelyq toq attendq aq religiousq serviceq toq improveq theirq well-beingq
andq healthq (Underwood,q 2011).q Therefore,q itq isq commonq toq seeq menq focusq onq theirq careerq andq
neverq attendq aq religiousq serviceq toq feelq thatq theirq well-beingq isq successful.
Recentq studiesq wereq ableq toq investigateq dailyq spiritualq experiencesq andq potentialq mentalq
healthq benefitsq basedq onq religionq andq spiritualityq (Ken,q Henderson,q Bradshaw,q Ellison,q &q
Wright,q 2021).q Therefore,q religiousq andq spiritualq phenomenaq haveq ledq toq positiveq outcomesq byq
loweringq stressq andq depression.q Individualsq whoq areq religiousq orq spiritualq oftenq attendq aq
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 2
religiousq service,q volunteer,q andq areq openq toq publiclyq expressq theirq religionq orq spirituality.q
However,q recentq studiesq measuredq theq attachmentq theoryq regardingq individualsq whoq
experiencedq aq negativeq experienceq withq Christianityq orq aq beliefq inq Jesusq Christq whenq theyq
experiencedq anyq hurtfulq feelingsq andq emotionsq whetherq itq wasq hurtq byq theq church,q aq
miscarriage,q death,q orq personalq offenses.q However,q researchq foundq thatq stressq andq mentalq healthq
haveq promotedq individualsq toq increaseq theirq religiousq practicesq inq orderq toq manageq anyq negativeq
emotionsq andq symptomsq thatq anq individualq mayq feelq orq experience.
Manyq researchersq haveq linkedq theq measureq ofq dailyq spiritualq experiencesq inq orderq toq
studyq mentalq healthq outcomesq includingq allq otherq issuesq thatq mayq ariseq inq anq individual’sq lifeq
(Ellisonq &q Fan,q 2008).q Individualsq mayq seekq toq findq closenessq andq aq relationshipq withq anq
invisibleq beingq becauseq theyq findq peaceq inq whatq theyq believe.q Theq feelingq andq senseq ofq
closenessq withq anq invisibleq beingq isq moreq likelyq toq encourageq highq levelsq ofq spiritualityq (Prusakq
&q Wasiewicz,q 2021).q q Therefore,q religionq andq spiritualityq isq likelyq toq improveq anq individual’sq
well-beingq andq mentalq health.q Dailyq spiritualq experiencesq haveq beenq foundq toq beq aq helpfulq toolq
andq factorq forq individualsq whoq struggleq withq dailyq stressors,q depression,q anxiety,q andq otherq
chronicq medicalq illnessesq (Koenig,q Pearce,q Nelson,q &q Erkanli,q 2016).q Althoughq individualsq
mayq notq alwaysq beq ableq toq avoidq stressq andq mentalq healthq issues,q itq isq crucialq thatq anq individualq
isq ableq toq findq peaceq andq comfort,q whetherq itq isq throughq theirq religion,q spirituality,q orq anythingq
thatq providesq comfortq forq theirq personalq well-being.
Participants
Theq studyq hadq aq totalq ofq 20q participants.q Thereq wereq 18q femaleq participantsq andq 2q maleq
participants.q Allq ofq theq participantsq wereq volunteersq inq theq study.q Allq ofq theq participantsq
completedq theq surveyq onlineq throughq aq linkq thatq wasq providedq byq e-mail.
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 3
Materials
Theq surveyq wasq administeredq onlineq withq aq privacyq disclosureq whichq explainedq thatq allq
answersq wereq anonymousq andq thatq theirq informationq wouldq notq beq sharedq publiclyq becauseq theq
surveyq isq forq educationalq purposesq only.q Theq surveyq isq createdq withq twoq demographicq
questions,q sixq dailyq spiritualq experienceq questions,q andq threeq churchq attendanceq questions.q Theq
twoq demographicq questionsq inquiredq theq ageq ofq theq participantq andq theirq biologicalq genderq ofq
eachq individual.q Theq threeq churchq attendanceq questionsq inquiredq howq oftenq theyq attendq aq
religiousq service,q howq oftenq theyq pray,q andq whetherq theyq feelq religionq playsq anq importantq roleq
inq handlingq stressfulq situations.q
Procedure
Theq researchq methodq wasq correlational.q Theq participantsq tookq theq surveyq online.q Theq
participantsq hadq toq confirmq thatq theyq wereq 15q yearsq ofq ageq orq olderq toq participantq beforeq beingq
allowedq accessq toq theq survey.q Theq participantsq wereq givenq accessq toq theq surveyq throughq anq
internetq linkq byq e-mail.q Theq participantsq wereq givenq asq muchq timeq asq theyq neededq toq completeq
eachq questionq andq wereq notq allowedq toq completeq theq surveyq moreq thanq once.q
Analysis
Aq Spearman'sq correlationq willq beq usedq toq determineq whetherq thereq isq aq linkq betweenq anq
individual'sq spiritualityq and/orq religionq andq theirq reportedq stressq levelsq inq theirq dailyq lives.q Eachq
questionq thatq isq affiliatedq withq spiritualityq areq averagedq rangingq fromq 1-5,q withq higherq numbersq
whichq indicatedq greaterq spiritualityq levels.q Byq analyzingq eachq individual’sq answers,q thisq willq
revealq whetherq churchq attendanceq isq anq importantq factorq forq anq individualq toq experienceq
spirituality.q Byq analyzingq eachq individual’sq answersq willq alsoq revealq whetherq prayerq enhancesq
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 4
theirq spiritualityq andq ifq theirq spiritualityq improvesq theirq dailyq lifestyleq includingq stressq levels,q
anxiety,q andq depression.q
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 5
References
Ellison,q C.q G.,q &q Fan,q D.q (2008).q Dailyq spiritualq experiencesq andq psychologicalq well-beingq
amongq USq adults.q Socialq Indicatorsq Research,q 88(2),q 247-271.
Kent,q B.q V.,q Henderson,q W.q M.,q Bradshaw,q M.,q Ellison,q C.q G.,q &q Wright,q B.q R.q E.q (2021).q Doq
dailyq spiritualq experiencesq moderateq theq effectq ofq stressorsq onq psychologicalq well-
being?q Aq smartphone-basedq experienceq samplingq studyq ofq depressiveq symptomsq andq
flourishing.q Theq Internationalq Journalq forq theq Psychologyq ofq Religion,q 31(2),q 57-78.
Koenig,q H.q G.,q Pearce,q M.q J.,q Nelson,q B.,q &q Erkanli,q A.q (2016).q Effectsq onq dailyq spiritualq
experiencesq ofq religiousq versusq conventionalq cognitiveq behavioralq therapyq forq
depression.q Journalq ofq Religionq andq Health,q 55(5),q 1763-1777.
Prusak,q J.,q &q Wasiewicz,q J.q (2021).q Theq experienceq andq correlatesq ofq God’sq silenceq amongq
christians.q Religionsq (Basel,q Switzerlandq ),q 12(7),q 532.
Underwood,q L.q G.q (2011).q Theq dailyq spiritualq experienceq scale:q Overviewq andq results.q
Religions,q 2(1),q 29-50.q
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 6
Appendix
Disclosure:
I'mq requestingq thatq youq completeq thisq surveyq asq partq ofq theq requirementsq forq myq statisticsq
projectq inq aq graduateq levelq psychologyq courseq atq Libertyq Universityq Online.q Yourq responsesq
willq beq keptq completelyq confidential.q Thisq surveyq willq notq collectq anyq personalq informationq
aboutq you.q Pleaseq doq notq fillq outq theq surveyq withq yourq nameq orq anyq otherq identifyingq
information.q Theq surveyq resultsq willq beq usedq solelyq forq educationalq purposesq andq willq notq beq
publishedq orq madeq availableq toq theq generalq public.q Toq participateq inq thisq survey,q youq mustq beq atq
leastq 15q yearsq old.
Directions:q
Pleaseq selectq theq optionq thatq appliesq toq youq forq theq "demographicq questions."q Whenq answeringq
theq "dailyq spiritualq experience"q questions,q considerq howq frequentlyq youq haveq eachq ofq theseq
examplesq andq circleq theq oneq thatq mostq resonatesq withq youq onq aq scaleq ofq 1q toq 6,q withq 1q beingq
"manyq timesq aq day"q andq 6q beingq "neverq orq almostq never."q Finally,q pleaseq fillq inq yourq responseq
toq theq "churchq attendance"q question.q Makeq sureq toq onlyq respondq toq oneq questionq atq aq time.
Example:
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
6
Manyq timesq aq
day
Everyq day
Mostq Days
Someq Days
Onceq inq aq
while
Neverq orq
almostq
never
Demographicq Questions
1. Whatq isq yourq gender?q (Male/Female)q
2. Howq oldq areq you?q
Dailyq Spiritualq Experienceq Questions
1. Iq feelq orq experienceq God’sq presence:
One
Three
Five
Six
Never
Fewq times
aq year
Onceq aq week
Moreq thanq
onceq aq week
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 7
2. Iq feelq comfortq regardingq myq religionq orq spirituality:
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Stronglyq
Disagree
Disagree
Uncertain
Agree
Stronglyq Agree
3. Iq experienceq aq senseq ofq strengthq inq myq religionq orq spirituality:
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Stronglyq
Disagree
Disagree
Uncertain
Agree
Stronglyq Agree
4. Iq feelq orq experienceq aq deepq innerq peaceq orq harmonyq basedq onq myq spiritualityq orq
religion:q
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Stronglyq
Disagree
Disagree
Uncertain
Agree
Stronglyq Agree
5. Iq feelq orq experienceq God’sq loveq forq meq throughq theq comfortq ofq others:
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Stronglyq
Disagree
Disagree
Uncertain
Agree
Stronglyq Agree
6. Iq feelq orq experienceq God’sq loveq forq meq directly:
One
Two
Three
Four
Five
Stronglyq
Disagree
Disagree
Uncertain
Agree
Stronglyq Agree
DAILYq SPIRITUALq EXPERIENCE 8
Churchq Attendanceq Questions:
7. Basedq onq averageq visits,q Iq attendq aq religiousq serviceq eachq monthq (excludingq
holidays):
8. Howq oftenq doq youq prayq privatelyq orq prayq atq aq religiousq service?
9. Howq involvedq isq yourq religiousq orq spiritualq traditionq inq understandingq orq dealingq
withq stressfulq situations?
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