1 / 7100%
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 1
Thel Rolel Everydayl Spiritualityl Playsl onl Loneliness
Results
Thel currentl studyl hadl 40l participantsl withl genderl resultsl asl 60%l male,l 40%l female.l Thel
Raciall categoryl resultsl werel 40%l white,l 15%l Asian,l 40%l Hispanic/l Latino,l 5%l Black/l Africanl
American,l andl zerol otherl &l Americanl Indian/l Alaskanl Nativel (Figurel 1).l Thel racel resultsl arel thel
onlyl demographicl shownl inl Figurel 1l duel tol thel relevancel tol thel study.l Thel agel ofl thel participantsl
rangedl froml 20-48,l hadl al meanl agel ofl 23.15,l andl hadl al standardl deviationl ofl 4.406.
Figurel 1
Demographicl Datal ofl Raciall Category
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 2
.l Thel currentl studyl hypothesizedl thatl therel wasl al relationshipl betweenl spiritualityl andl
loneliness,l asl spiritualityl scoresl raise,l thenl lonelinessl scoresl willl decrease.l Al Pearson’sl rl
correlationl didl notl reveall al significantl correlationl betweenl spiritualityl andl loneliness,l rl (40)l =l
0.75,l pl =l 0.324l (one-tailed).l Tablel 1l showsl thel SPSSl outputl froml thel Pearson’sl rl testl ranl inl IBMl
SPSSl Statisticsl (versionl 28)l predictivel analyticsl software.
Tablel 1
SPSSl Correlationl Output
Discussion
Duel tol thel lackl ofl consistentl researchl findingsl onl thel relationshipl betweenl spiritualityl andl
loneliness,l thel goall ofl thel currentl studyl wasl tol explorel thel fieldl byl includingl relevantl
demographicsl tol understandl al potentiall culturall factorl tol thel results.l Itl wasl expectedl thatl sincel
lonelinessl canl leadl tol mentall healthl issues,l andl spiritualityl couldl pointl tol anl increasel inl mentall
health,l inl variousl raciall culturel groups,l thenl increasedl lonelinessl correlatesl tol decreasedl
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 3
spiritualityl (Hackneyl &l Sanders,l 2003;l Rasicl etl al.,l 2011;l Gallegosl &l Segrin,l 2019;l Martins,l
2022).l Thel nulll hypothesisl failedl tol bel rejected,l andl therel wasl notl al significantl correlationl
betweenl thel lonelinessl andl spiritualityl scores,l thereforel therel wasl alsol nol culturall factorl atl playl
onl thel findings.l Thisl isl becausel sincel thel initiall hypothesisl wasl notl significant,l thenl itl cannotl bel
saidl thatl thel raciall culturel groupl hadl anl effectl onl thel correlationl thatl wasl nol present.
Onel limitationl tol thel currentl studyl wasl thel limitedl agel rangel ofl thel participants.l Althoughl
thel rangel isl froml 20-48,l thel meanl isl muchl closerl tol 20l thanl 48.l Thel resultsl ofl thel demographicsl
showl thatl thel agel 48l isl anl outlierl ofl froml thel restl ofl thel participants,l whereasl thel agel rangedl
focusedl mostlyl nearl thel meanl ofl 23.15.l Onel potentiall reasoning,l orl confound,l forl thel studyl couldl
bel thatl thatl thel averagel participantsl werel classifiedl asl generationl zl (10-25l yearsl old),l andl thel
overalll spiritualityl andl religiousl affiliationl inl generationl zl isl decreasing,l asl theyl attemptl tol findl
self-empoweringl solutionsl (Camargol etl al.,l 2019).l Thisl pointsl tol thel ideal thatl al largerl agel rangel
couldl havel offeredl al biggerl rangel ofl spiritualityl affiliationl andl al morel accuratel populationl
representation,l thereforel receivingl differentl results.l Anotherl limitationl ofl thel currentl studyl wasl
thatl thel surveyl wasl givenl throughl al sociall medial platforml (Instagram),l andl sociall medial hasl beenl
previouslyl shownl tol leadl tol anl increasel inl mentall healthl issuesl thatl leadl tol lonelinessl (Abi-Jaudel
etl al.,l 2020;l Gallegosl &l Segrin,l 2019).l Sincel al sociall medial platforml wasl usedl tol distributel thel
survey,l itl showsl thel participantsl arel alll usersl ofl sociall medial and,l andl therefore,l therel isl al
possibilityl ofl anl increasel inl mentall healthl amongl thel participantsl leadingl tol anl increasel inl
feelingsl ofl loneliness.l Usingl al differentl sourcel tol distributel thel surveysl mightl havel providedl al
morel representativel sample.
Rasicl andl colleaguesl (2011)l foundl al correlationl betweenl spiritualityl andl lessl suicidall
ideations,l signifyingl higherl ratesl ofl sociall supportl pointingl towardsl lowerl ratesl ofl loneliness.l
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 4
Thisl contradictsl thel currentl studyl whichl showedl nol significantl correlationl betweenl spiritualityl
andl loneliness,l yetl thel currentl studyl didl notl observel specificallyl suicidall ideations,l yetl itl
measuredl lonelinessl withl thel UCLAl Lonelinessl Scalel (Wongpakaranl etl al.,l 2020).l Therel wasl alsol
al similarityl betweenl thel studiesl whereasl inl Rasicl andl colleagues’l (2011)l study,l therel wasl nol
significantl correlationl betweenl religiousl attendancel andl anxietyl andl depression,l andl religionl andl
spiritualityl arel sometimesl usedl interchangeably,l thereforel thisl couldl bel seenl asl al similarl
comparisonl tol thel onel inl thel currentl study.l Tol determinel whetherl thel multiplel comparisonsl inl thel
studyl contrastedl orl comparedl tol thel currentl study,l onel wouldl havel tol explorel thel operationall
definitionsl ofl eachl variablel atl hand.l Gallegosl andl Segrin’sl (2019)l studyl wasl comparablel tol thel
currentl studyl sincel itl focusedl onl Latinosl andl 41%l ofl thel participantsl inl thel currentl studyl werel
Latino,l yetl thel study’sl showedl differingl results.l Itl wasl foundl thatl spiritualityl ledl tol al protectionl ofl
lonelinessl leadingl tol betterl mentall health,l whereasl thel currentl studyl foundl nol correlationl betweenl
spiritualityl andl loneliness,l yetl thel currentl studyl foundl al limitationl inl agel rangel ofl surveyl
distributionl sourcel thatl Gallegosl andl Segrin’sl (2019)l studyl didl notl have.l Thel morel accuratel
populationl representativel samplel couldl bel al reasonl forl thel contradictingl results.l Asl shownl inl thel
numerousl studies,l therel isl varyingl resultsl onl whetherl spiritualityl andl religionl relatel tol mentall
health,l yetl Hackneyl &l Sandersl (2003)l conductedl al meta-analysisl ofl thel differingl studiesl thatl
showl howl importantl operationalizingl thel definitionsl arel tol comparingl results.
Althoughl therel wasl nol significantl correlationl betweenl spiritualityl andl lonelinessl amongl
thel participantsl inl thel currentl study,l thisl showsl thel variabilityl andl uniquenessl ofl humankind.l Pastl
studiesl havel shownl positivel correlationsl regardingl olderl agel groupsl andl lonelinessl and/orl
spirituality,l yetl thel currentl studyl wasl limitedl tol thosel aroundl thel agel ofl 23l whol usel sociall media.l
(Martinsl etl al.,l 2020).l Thel youngerl generationsl experiencel spiritualityl inl diversel ways,l andl somel
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 5
feell lonelinessl inl diversel ways,l yetl thel studyl presentsl howl uniquel eachl personl isl thatl therel isl nol
specificl relationshipl betweenl thesel twol variables.
Futurel researchl couldl bel conductedl withl al widerl agel rangel andl throughl al differentl sourcel
ofl distributionl tol receivel al samplel morel representativel ofl thel population.l Althoughl thel currentl
studyl showsl variabilityl withinl thosel ofl youngerl generations,l futurel researchl couldl helpl indicatel
whatl rolesl spiritualityl andl lonelinessl playl inl thosel ofl differentl agel groups,l inl differentl walksl ofl
life.l Sincel differentl raciall culturesl werel prettyl welll representedl inl thel currentl study,l therel isl
alwaysl waysl tol createl researchl aroundl differingl cultures,l suchl asl differentl religiousl cultures.l
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 6
References
Abi-Jaoude,l E.,l Naylor,l K.l T.,l &l Pignatiello,l A.l (2020).l Smartphones,l sociall medial usel andl youthl
mentall health.l Canadianl Medicall Associationl Journall (CMAJ),l 192(6),l E136-E141.l
https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.190434
Camargo,l S.l A.,l McClellan,l M.l J.,l Creech,l C.l B.,l Osbaldiston,l R.,l Adair,l C.,l &l Stanton,l A.l R.l
(2020).l Thel impactl ofl religiousl affiliationl onl collegel students'l 12-stepl modell preferences.l
Mentall Health,l Religionl &l Culture,l 23(3-4),l 317-330.l
https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2020.1767553
Gallegos,l &l Segrin,l C.l (2019).l Exploringl thel mediatingl rolel ofl lonelinessl inl thel relationshipl
betweenl spiritualityl andl health:l Implicationsl forl thel Latinol healthl paradox.l Psychologyl ofl
Religionl andl Spirituality.,l 11(3),l 308318.l https://doi.org/10.1037/rel0000180
Hackney,l C.l H.,l &l Sanders,l G.l S.l (2003).l Religiosityl andl mentall health:l Al meta-analysisl ofl
recentl studies.l Journall forl thel Scientificl Studyl ofl Religion,l 42(1),l 43-55.l
https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00160
Martins,l E.l L.l M.,l Salamene,l L.l C.,l Lucchetti,l A.l L.l G.,l &l Lucchetti,l G.l (2022).l Thel associationl
ofl mentall healthl withl positivel behaviours,l attitudesl andl virtuesl inl community-dwellingl
SPRITUALITYl ANDl LONELINESS 7
olderl adults:l Resultsl ofl al population-basedl study.l Internationall Journall ofl Sociall
Psychiatry,l 68(2),l 392-402.l https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764021999690
Rasic,l D.,l Robinson,l J.l A.,l Bolton,l J.,l Bienvenu,l O.l J.,l &l Sareen,l J.l (2010;2011;).l Longitudinall
relationshipsl ofl religiousl worshipl attendancel andl spiritualityl withl majorl depression,l
anxietyl disorders,l andl suicidall ideationl andl attempts:l Findingsl froml thel Baltimorel
epidemiologicl catchmentl areal study.l Journall ofl Psychiatricl Research,l 45(6),l 848-854.l
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2010.11.014
Wongpakaran,l N.,l Wongpakaran,l T.,l Pinyopornpanish,l M.,l Simcharoen,l S.,l Suradom,l C,l
Varnado,l P.,l Kuntawong,l P.l (2020).l Developmentl andl validationl ofl al 6-iteml Revisedl
UCLAl Lonelinessl Scalel (RULS-6)l usingl Raschl analysis.l Britishl Journall ofl Healthl
Psychology,l 25(2),l 233-256.l https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12404
Students also viewed