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INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 1
Results
Thei totali samplei sizei ofi thisi studyi wasi 78,i withi individualsi rangingi ini agei fromi 19i toi 73i
(M=41.91;i S=11.61972);i 91%i ofi thei participantsi identifiedi asi female;i 9%i identifiedi asi male;i 0%i ofi thei
samplei identifiedi asi other,i althoughi thati wasi ani optioni oni thei survey.i Thei majorityi ofi thei participantsi
werei marriedi (79.5%),i followedi byi neveri marriedi (11.5%),i widowedi (3%),i and,i finally,i separatedi ori
divorcedi (2.6%i each).i i i
Thei purposei ofi thisi studyi wasi toi examinei whetheri ori noti ani inversei relationshipi existsi betweeni
intrinsici spiritualityi andi perceivedi stress.i Asi showni ini Tablei 1,i ai Pearson’si ri correlationi revealedi ai non-
significanti relationshipi ri (76)i =i -0.122,i pi =i 0.144,i R
2
i =i 0.01i (one-tailed).i Thei nulli hypothesisi isi retained.i
Higheri degreesi ofi intrinsici spiritualityi arei noti associatedi withi loweri levelsi ofi perceivedi stressi (seei Figurei
1).i i i
Tablei 1
Correlationi ofi Intrinsici Spiritualityi andi Perceivedi Stress
Intrinsici
Spirituality
Perceivedi
Stress
Intrinsici
Spirituality
1
-.122
.144
78
78
Perceivedi Stress
-.122
1
.144
78
78
Figurei 1
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 2
Scatterploti Depictingi thei Correlationi Betweeni Intrinsici Spiritualityi andi Perceivedi Stress
Note.i Intrinsici spiritualityi (M=7.4060,i S=2.25896)i wasi scoredi 0-10i andi perceivedi stressi (M=26.5769,i
S=8.77647)i wasi scoredi 0-56,i withi higheri scoresi indicatingi ai greateri degreei ofi eachi variable.i i
Discussion
Thei goali ofi thisi studyi wasi toi examinei thei relationshipi betweeni intrinsici spiritualityi andi
perceivedi stress.i Byi operationallyi definingi intrinsici spiritualityi asi ai uniquei construct,i thei objectivei wasi
toi distinguishi spiritualityi fromi religiosity,i assessingi iti asi ani isolatedi variable.i Thei samplei populationi wasi
intendedi toi bei representativei ofi thei generali Americani public.i Iti wasi proposedi thati intrinsici spiritualityi
andi perceivedi stressi arei negativelyi correlated,i whichi wouldi supporti thei ideai ofi intrinsici spiritualityi asi ai
possiblei protectivei factori againsti highi levelsi ofi perceivedi stress.i However,i thei findingsi didi noti supporti
thei hypothesis.i Higheri intrinsici spiritualityi scoresi werei noti associatedi withi loweri perceivedi stressi
scores.i
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 3
Therei werei numerousi limitationsi ini thisi study,i includingi thei samplingi method,i characteristicsi ofi
thei sample,i andi thei testingi instrumentsi used.i Thei samplingi methodi precludedi certaini peoplei fromi
participatingi ini thei study.i Thei surveyi wasi distributedi viai sociali media,i limitingi participationi toi thosei
withi bothi interneti accessi andi sociali mediai accountsi (Facebooki ori Instagram).i Furthermore,i thei surveyi
linki wasi onlyi activei fori onei weekday,i fromi thei hoursi ofi 10:00ami toi 10:00pm,i excludingi participationi byi
thosei whosei weekdayi obligationsi (e.g.,i work,i family,i ori school)i preventedi themi fromi accessingi ori
completingi thei surveyi duringi thati timei period.i Althoughi thei surveyi wasi madei availablei toi thei publici
throughi thei adjustmenti ofi privacyi settings,i becausei iti wasi postedi oni ai personali sociali mediai account,i iti
isi likelyi thati thei majorityi ofi participantsi werei friendsi ori followersi ofi thei researcher,i possiblyi resultingi ini
ani overrepresentationi ofi certaini demographicsi (i.e.,i residentsi ofi thei southeasterni Unitedi States,i
Caucasians,i ori Christians)i andi ani underrepresentationi ofi othersi (i.e.,i residentsi ofi northerni andi westerni
regionsi ofi thei Unitedi States,i peoplei ofi color,i ori individualsi fromi diversei religiousi backgrounds).i Thisi
demographici informationi wasi noti collectedi and,i therefore,i representsi ai potentiali limitationi ini thei
samplingi method.i However,i thei demographici datai thati wasi collectedi suggestsi ai limitationi ini thei
characteristicsi ofi thei samplei population.i
Womeni representedi ani overwhelmingi majorityi ofi thei samplei (91%),i asi didi marriedi participantsi
(79.5%).i Fori thei purposesi ofi ouri study,i marriedi includedi commoni lawi marriage.i Thei Unitedi Statesi
Censusi Bureaui (USCB)i estimatesi thati 50%i ofi Americansi arei married,i withi ani additionali 8%i cohabitatingi
withi ai partner;i datai indicatesi thati 50.8%i ofi Americansi identifyi asi femalei (USCB,i 2022).i Chii Squarei
Goodnessi ofi Fiti testsi werei usedi toi examinei whetheri thei genderi andi maritali statusi ofi participantsi ini thisi
studyi werei similari toi nationallyi reportedi rates.i Theyi differedi significantlyi x
2
(1,i N=78)=50.843,i pi <.001,i
𝜙=0.81i (gender)i andi x
2
(1,i N=78)=14.783,i p<.001,i 𝜙=0.44i (maritali status).i Asi showni ini Figurei 2i andi
Figurei 3,i thei samplei consistedi ofi significantlyi morei womeni andi morei marriedi individualsi thani thei
nationallyi reportedi rates,i suggestingi thati thei samplei isi noti ani accuratei representationi ofi thei generali
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 4
Americani public.i Ini addition,i thei scoresi fori intrinsici spiritualityi arei skewedi (-1.374).i Withi ai meani ofi 7.40,i
ai mediani ofi 8,i andi ai modei ofi 9,i individualsi withi littlei toi noi intrinsici spiritualityi arei noti adequatelyi
representedi ini thisi sample.i Likewise,i althoughi thei perceivedi stressi scoresi arei relativelyi symmetricali
(0.043),i individualsi withi highi levelsi andi lowi levelsi ofi perceivedi stressi arei underrepresentedi (M=26.58,i
MED=26,i MODE=19).i i i i i i i i i i
Figurei 2
Bari Graphi Depictingi Genderi ofi Participantsi
Figurei 3
Bari Graphi Depictingi Maritali Statusi ofi Participantsi i
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 5
Finally,i therei arei limitationsi relatedi toi thei testingi instrumentsi themselves.i Bothi thei Intrinsici
Spiritualityi Scalei (Hodge,i 2003)i andi thei Perceivedi Stressi Scalei (Coheni &i Mermelstein,i 1983)i arei
instrumentsi thati relyi oni thei subjectivityi ofi self-assessment,i asi welli asi participants’i interpretationi ofi
abstracti constructsi andi questions.i Furthermore,i theyi eachi utilizei Likerti scalei responses,i whichi havei
beeni challengedi ini termsi ofi reliabilityi andi validityi (Louangrath,i 2018).i
Thei findingsi ofi thisi studyi partiallyi contradicti thosei ofi Reutteri andi Bigattii (2014),i whoi foundi thati
higheri levelsi ofi intrinsici spiritualityi werei associatedi withi loweri levelsi ofi perceivedi stress,i asi welli asi morei
favorablei psychologicali outcomes.i Thoughi thei Perceivedi Stressi Scalei (Hodge,i 2003)i wasi usedi ini thei
aforementionedi study,i ai differenti instrumenti wasi usedi toi evaluatei intrinsici spirituality,i thei Dailyi
Spirituali Experiencesi Scalei (Underwood,i 2011),i whichi couldi accounti fori thei incongruousi results.i Whilei
thei currenti studyi didi noti explorei thei relationshipi betweeni intrinsici spiritualityi andi psychologicali
outcomes,i ai similari studyi ofi 348i psychiatrici patientsi suggestsi thati intrinsici spiritualityi servesi asi ai
moderatingi factori overi thei coursei ofi time,i asi opposedi toi beingi associatedi withi one’si perceptioni ofi
stressi ati thei onseti ofi thei stressori (Lorenz,i Doherty,i &i Casey,i 2019).i Althoughi thesei resultsi werei
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i 6
obtainedi ini ai differenti samplei population,i theyi arei supportedi byi thei currenti findings,i asi arei thei resultsi
ofi ai recenti studyi ofi pharmacologyi students,i whichi foundi thati intrinsici spiritualityi andi perceivedi stressi
arei noti significantlyi correlatedi (Aftabi eti al.,i 2018).i Finally,i Werdeli eti al.i (2014)i foundi thati individualsi
withi bothi lowi levelsi ofi perceivedi stressi andi highi degreesi ofi intrinsici spiritualityi werei morei likelyi toi
experiencei growthi followingi ai highlyi stressfuli experience.i Thei Faithi Maturityi Scalei (Bensoni eti al.,i 1993)i
wasi usedi toi evaluatei intrinsici spiritualityi andi thei instrumenti usedi toi measurei stressi wasi thei samei
(Hodge,i 2003).i Thei Werdeli eti al.i (2014)i studyi doesi noti contradicti thei currenti findingsi outright,i becausei
thei relationshipi betweeni intrinsici spiritualityi andi perceivedi stressi wasi noti explicitlyi examined,i but,i
unlikei thei currenti study,i thesei findingsi doi suggesti thati intrinsici spiritualtyi doesi impacti stressi ini somei
manner.i
Stressi isi ani undeniablei parti ofi lifei andi thei wayi thati iti isi handledi cani havei immediatei andi longi
termi repercussions,i biologically,i psychologically,i andi behaviorallyi (Boycei &i Ellis,i 2005;i Lupieni eti al.,i
2009).i One’si perceptioni ofi stress,i toi somei degree,i affectsi hisi ori heri abilityi toi copei withi iti favorablyi
(Ruetteri &i Bigatti,i 2014).i Ini thei fieldi ofi mentali health,i understandingi thei variablesi thati influencei
perceivedi stressi hasi importanti implicationsi fori practitionersi seekingi toi promotei resiliencyi ini thei
populationsi withi whomi theyi work.i Giveni thati intrinsici spiritualityi isi generallyi associatedi withi positivei
outcomesi (Schwalmi eti al.,i 2021),i thei currenti studyi aimedi toi demonstratei ai relationshipi betweeni highi
levelsi ofi intrinsici spiritualityi andi lowi levelsi ofi perceivedi stress.i Becausei thei analysisi didi noti reveali ai
significanti relationship,i furtheri investigationi isi neededi toi understandi bothi thei rolei ofi intrinsici
spiritualityi ini copingi withi stressi andi thei factorsi thati contributei toi one’si perceptioni ofi stress.i
Thei currenti studyi providesi amplei implicationsi fori futurei studiesi thati couldi buildi oni thesei
results.i Includingi participantsi withi morei extremei perceivedi stressi scoresi (>40i andi <10),i asi welli asi
participantsi withi loweri intrinsici spiritualityi scoresi (<5),i bothi ofi whichi thisi studyi lacked,i couldi yieldi ai
morei informativei seti ofi data.i Furthermore,i thei additioni ofi ai validi andi reliablei assessmenti usedi toi
INTRINSICi SPIRITUALITYi &i PERCEIVEDi STRESSi i i i i i i