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PSYC 510
HOMEWORK: INTRODUCTORY CONCEPTS ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTIONS
Answer the following short-answer questions using complete sentences. (10 pts)
1. Identify and briefly describe the three criteria that help to define science. (3 pts)
ANSWER: Science refers to the general way of comprehending the world. The three criteria that help to
define science are methodical or systematic empiricism, empirical questions which can be empirically solved,
and public knowledge that can be verified (Paul & Price, 2017).
2. State the five main sections of a journal article. Identify one section and describe why you would go
to that section when skimming an article (e.g., what would you expect to find in that section?) (3 pts)
ANSWER: The five main sections of a journal article are abstract, introduction, methodology, outcome, and
discussion. I would go to the abstract section of a journal auricle because it can give me a comprehensive
insight into the topic that has been explored. The abstract section captures important points regarding the
paper in a summarized way (BSCI 1510L literature and STATS GUIDE: 3.2 components of a scientific paper.
Research Guides, 2021).
Test the hypothesis presented in the follow problem: Each of the cards below has a number on one side
and a letter on the other side. Two of the cards have their letter side showing and two have their number side
showing. Here is a rule: “If a card has a vowel on one side, then it has an even number on the other side”.
Answer the problem and explain how it relates to hypothesis testing, proof, and disproof as discussed in the
text.
3. In order to check that the rule is true or false,
which card or cards below would you turn over? Turn
over only the card or cards that you need to check to
be sure. (2 pts)
ANSWER: I will turn over card with the letter ‘A’
because as per the rule a card with a vowel has an
even number on the other side. By choosing the
specific card I can be sure whether the rule if true or
false.
4. Explain how it relates to hypothesis testing, proof,
and disproof as discussed in the text. (2 pts)
ANSWER: The testing of the hypothesis that the
probability of the card with number 4 has a vowel on
the other side would imply that the card gives rise to
the probability of falsifying the guess that it has a
vowel on the other side.
The objective of testing a hypothesis is to disconfirm
it. So, by turning over card 4, it will be opposed to
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PSYC 510
what is behind the card A.
Answer the following questions related to its associated scenario. (Helpful hint: the “Interact:
Introductory Concepts – Practice Worksheet” for this module covers these topics!). 2 pts each = 20 pts
Scenario 1: In a study of the effects of nicotine on concentration, participants who smoke are compared to
those who do not on a measure of concentration. Identify the independent variable and dependent variable in
this study. Is the independent variable a manipulated variable or a participant variable?
5. What is the independent variable in this study? ANSWER: Nicotine is the independent
variable in this study
6. What is the dependent variable in this study? ANSWER: Concentration is the dependent
variable in this study
7. Is the independent variable manipulated or is it a
participant / subject variable?
ANSWER: The independent variable is
manipulated.
8. What type of research method (descriptive,
predictive, quasi-experimental, or experimental)? is
used in this study?
ANSWER: Quasi-experimental research
method is used in this study
9. What is a potential confounding variable in this
scenario? You must justify your answer to earn
points on this question.
ANSWER: There are a few non-smokers who
find it difficult to concentrate because of
environmental or health-related reasons.
Participants smoking nicotine may react
differently and may have different
concentration levels.
Nicotine may be affecting frequent smokers.
There may be a non-smoker who was possible
a smoker.
Scenario 2: In a study comparing learning condition on knowledge acquisition, participants are randomly
assigned to one of the two learning conditions - collaborative group learning or traditional lecture/discussion
method.
10. What is the independent variable in this study? ANSWER: Learning condition is the
independent variable in this study
11. What is the dependent variable in this study? ANSWER: Knowledge acquisition is the
dependent variable in this study
12. Is the independent variable manipulated or is it a
participant / subject variable?
ANSWER: It is a participant/subject variable.
13. What type of research method (descriptive,
predictive, quasi-experimental, or experimental)? is
used in this study?
ANSWER: Quasi-experimental research
method is used in this study
14. What is a potential confounding variable in this
scenario? You must justify your answer to earn
ANSWER: The learning condition and
familiar environment can influence an
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PSYC 510
points on this question. individual’s knowledge acquisition
The participants who have been chosen
randomly have a specific way of learning and
understanding in a collaborative or individual
setting. So, they may learn optimally at home
digitally.
In case there are learners with some
disabilities, they could increase diversity in
learning conditions.
Ethics is the foundation to research integrity. There are a lot of ethical dilemmas faced in our
profession, some specific to research. One example is if participation requires a person to recall a
traumatic experience. The recall of the event may result in distress, but participation may be healing.
Also, the research can provide valuable insights to better current treatments and therapies. (8 pts )
15. Determine the two principles most at odds in the
example provided. Describe how each relates to the
scenario. (3 pts per justification = 6 pts total)
ANSWER: In the example, the two principles
that are most at odds are the principle relating
to beneficence and integrity. The principle of
beneficence and nonmaleficence allows a
psychologist to lay emphasis on the safety and
fundamental rights of others. They also try to
safeguard the person from any harm. In the
example, the recollection of a traumatic event
may be stressful. However, it may also help in
their healing process.
The other principle relating to integrity is
opposed to it. Integrity focuses on validity of a
research study. In the research, while sharing
their traumatic experience, there may be
interference in their rights. Similarly, the
honesty component in the study must be
considered. By placing high emphasis on the
rights of people over the integrity of a study,
there is a possibility of rise in conflicting
cofounding variables. Thus both the ethical
principles take a different stand in the specific
research setting.
16. An Animal Care and Use Committee provides
oversight for animal research whereas what
provides oversight for human research at the
institutional level? (2 pts)
ANSWER: The Institutional Review Board is
responsible for providing oversight for human
research at the institutional level. It is also
responsible for examining how the subjects are
treated in a research context.
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PSYC 510
17. The last 16 points of this assignment are awarded for successful completion of the CITI Social &
Behavioral Researchers Basic Course (note a minimum of 80% is required to pass the course and receive the
certificate). Directions on how to enroll in this course is provided in the CITI Guided Notes document in this
module’s Reading & Study folder. You must paste your certificate (or an image of your certificate) in the
space below to earn full credit. A link is NOT sufficient and will not earn full points.
References
BSCI 1510L literature and STATS GUIDE: 3.2 components of a scientific paper. Research Guides. (2021).
Retrieved January 11, 2022, from https://researchguides.library.vanderbilt.edu/c.php?
g=69346&p=831743
Paul C. Price, R. S. J. (2017, August 21). Research methods in psychology. Retrieved January 11, 2022, from
https://opentext.wsu.edu/carriecuttler/chapter/understanding-science/
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