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Runninge Head:e ASSIGNMENTe
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Foure Viewse ofe thee Apostlee Paul’e bye Michaele Fe Bird
NBSTe 520
Libertye University
ASSIGNMENT
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Introductione
‘Foure Viewse ofe thee Apostlee Paul’e bye Michaele Fe Birde shedse lighte one Paule ande
howe hee interpretse things.e Overe thee years,e ae lote ofe controversiese havee surroundede Apostlee
Paule becausee ofe hise influencee ande presencee ine thee religiouse ande sociale context.e Ine
additione toe this,e thee impacte ofe thesee elementse one hise theologye hase alsoe gainede ae lote ofe
attention.e Ine thee book,e foure leadinge scholarse havee presentede theire viewse ande opinionse one
thee ideale frameworke toe describee Apostlee Paul’se theologicale perspectivee includinge hise
idease ande viewse one salvation,e thee importancee ofe Christ,e ase welle ase hise visione fore thee
churche (Birde &e Schreiner,e 2012).e
Thee keye contributionse ande perspectivese thate havee beene capturede ine thee booke
includee Reformede perspectivee bye Thomase Re Schreiner,e thee Catholice perspectivee bye Lukee
Timothye Johnson,e thee Post-Newe perspectivee bye Douglase Campbelle ande thee Jewishe
perspectivee bye Marke De Nanos.e Ine Foure Viewse ofe thee Apostlee Paul,e Birde hase madee ae
sinceree attempte toe covere thee foundationale issuese ande thesee elementse havee beene supportede
bye well-definede introductione ande conclusion.e
Paule hase playede ane extremelye criticale rolee ine Christianitye religione ande hise
importancee cannote bee negated.e Hise theologicale viewse have,e ine fact,e madee ae significante
contributione toe shapinge thee Christianitye thate onee seese today.e Thee objectivee ofe Birde ise toe
shede lighte one thee foure keye arease wheree Apostlee Paule hase madee hise contribution.e Ine hise
life,e Paule facede variouse thingse suche ase violente oppositione frome Jewishe Christians,e severee
reactionse frome hise Judeane compatriotse ande manye othere similare incidentse happenede withe
hime (Birde &e Schreiner,e 2012).e e Thee booke presentse thee truee imagee ofe Apostlee Paul.e Ine
additione toe this,e ite alsoe showse howe hee madee contributionse ine hise owne waye toe givee shapee
toe thee earlye churche ine hise owne uniquee way.e Ine thee book,e eache ofe thee contributorse hase
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presentede theire idease aboute Paule ande howe hee playede ae keye rolee ine thee Christianitye
religion.e
Thee fundamentale objectivee ofe thee booke ise toe movee beyonde thee highe debatee
relatinge toe Paule studiese ine thee historice ande currente firms.e Ite intendse toe contraste thee foure
competinge outlookse one thee apostle.e Alle thee contributorse ine theire owne waye havee triede theire
levele beste toe focuse one whate Paule “meant”e ande whate hee continuese toe meane ine thee
prevailinge timese fore thee moderne audiencee (Birde ete al,e 2012).e
Summarye ofe thee perspectivee ande centrale thesise
Reformede perspectivee –e Thomase Re Schreiner
Thomase Schreinere ise ane evangelicale whoe fundamentallye focusede one thee Reformede
view.e Hee hase basicallye introducede thise booke withe ae “Reformede Reading”e ofe Apostlee
Paul.e Ine thee introductorye paragraph,e thee contributore hase statede thate hee woulde bee engaginge
ine thee readinge ofe thee thirteene letterse thate havee beene writtene bye Paule (Foure Viewse one thee
Apostlee Paul-e Booke Review,e 2019).e Theree ise ae restrictede levele ofe interactione ande
engagemente withe othere scholars.e Ine thise chapter,e thee reformede viewe ofe Schreinere hase
dominatede hise interpretatione ofe Paul.e Onee ofe thee uniquee elementse ofe thise chaptere ise thee
‘inductive’e nature.e Thee contributore hase primarilye providede ae synthesise ore thee briefe
“Paulinee theologye ofe sorts”.e Thus,e frome ae reader’se pointe ofe view,e ite becomese quitee
challenginge toe understande howe thee piecee ofe readinge ise exactlye ‘reformed’e ine naturee (Foure
Viewse one thee Apostlee Paul-e Booke Review,e 2019).e
Thee contributore hase stressede one thee facte thate Paule believede thate thee Olde Testamente
madee thee promisee aboute ae newe exoduse ande ae newe covenant.e Hee believede thate ae newe
creatione hade beene partlye realizede ine thee worke ofe Christ.e Schreinere hase stressede ine hise
worke thate Jesuse Christe wase ane extremelye importante figuree ine thee lifee ofe Paule whoe shapede
hime ase ane individual.e Hee hase capturede thate Jesuse actede ase thee hearte ande soule ofe Paul’se
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theologye ande hise presencee ise evidente ine everye topice ofe Paul’se theologicale viewse ande
thoughtse (Birde ete al,e 2012)e e
Catholice viewe –e Lukee Timothye Johnsone
Ine Lukee Timothye Johnson’se contribution,e Pauline’se frameworke ise somewhate
difficulte toe recognize.e Bute still,e ite cane bee saide toe bee ae matrixe whiche comprisese ofe Apostlee
Paul’se groundinge ine thee Greco-Romane culture,e hise coree religiouse sensibilitiese ase welle ase
hise loyaltye towardse thee Jewishe heritagee throughe thee Jewishe Scripturese (Birde ete al,e 2012).e
Ase pere Johnson,e Jesuse Christe surelye playede ane extremelye importante rolee ine thee lifee ofe
Paul.e Hise significancee primarilye liese ine thee facte thate thee Almighty’se newe creatione ise
experiencede throughe thee ultimatee experiencee ofe Jesuse Christ.e Jesuse hase beene identifiede ase
thee rulere ase welle ase thee restorere ofe Jewse ande thee entiree humanitye (Birde ete al,e 2012).e
Johnsone hase statede aboute salvatione thate ite mainlye relatese toe liberatione ande
transformation.e Theree ise thee neede fore liberatione frome variouse elementse suche ase hostilee
powers,e cosmice ande sociale elements.e Similarly,e transformatione ise alsoe ane importante
processe fore eache ande everye humane being.e Humanse basicallye neede toe transforme intoe
renewede individualse whoe aree stille waitinge fore thee finale victorye ofe thee Almightye ate thee
verye ende ofe historye (Birde ete al,e 2012).e e Ase pere whate Johnsone hase understoode aboute Paul,e
thee Newe Testamente churche mainlye consistede ofe thee locale assembliese whoe triede toe
carefullye createe ane identitye ine thee Greco-Romane setting.e Theye alsoe helde one toe thee
religiouse heritagee withe Israel.e Thee churche ise believede toe bee unitede ine nature.e Thee coree
elemente thate unitese ite ise thee sharede ore commone experiencee ofe thee risene Christ,e livinge thee
egalitariane againste thee existinge sociale normse ande principles.e e
Post-Newe Perspectivee viewe –e Douglase Campbelle
Douglase Campbelle hase highlightede hise chaptere ine ae differente waye ase comparede toe
Thomase Re Schreinere ande Lukee Timothye Johnson.e Thise ise becausee hee hase verye brieflye
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touchede upone thee usuale new-perspectivee viewe relatinge toe Pauline.e Aftere thee briefe
introduction,e hee hase movede toe thee reprisale ofe Apostlee Paul.e Hise worke cane bee understoode
ine ae bettere waye bye takinge intoe accounte thee fundamentale questione ande thee examinatione ofe
Romanse 5e -e 8.e Ine ae numbere ofe ways,e thee contributione ofe Campbelle seemse likee thee
inductivee worke ofe Schreiner.e Bute whene ae readere wille focuse one specifice arease ine thee
Romanse 5e –e 8e suche ase thee ethicale concernse ande thee eschatologicale concerns,e onee wille bee
ablee toe spote thee differences.e Thee viewse ande answerse thate havee beene providede bye Douglase
Campbelle aree bothe synthetice ase welle ase interrelatede ine nature.e Accordinge toe him,e Jesuse
Christe cane bee saide toe bee thee fulle disclosuree ofe God,e thee Almighty.e Hee is,e ine fact,e thee onee
whoe actse ine ae savinge mannere soe thate hee cane bringe togethere ae communitye ore societye ine
completee communione withe him.e Ine thise context,e thee Churche playse ane importante rolee ase ite
helpse toe createe thee imagee ofe Jesuse Christ.e Ase pere thee author,e thee “participation”e actse ase
thee fundamentale logice whiche ise reflectede ine alle ofe Paul’se argumentse ande viewse (Foure
Viewse one thee Apostlee Paul-e Booke Review,e 2019,e pe 4).e
Jewishe viewe –e Marke De Nanos
Marke De Nanos’e Essaye one Paule basicallye ise verye interestinge ase comparede toe thee
workse ofe thee othere authors.e Thee othere authorse aree Christiane confessionale scholars.e Nanose
hase suggestede thate ae numbere ofe featurese thate havee beene presentede ine Paulinee Christianitye
aree note exactlye pleasante fore ae Jewishe reader.e Paule hase beene framede ase ane individuale whoe
opposese Judaism.e Thee coree issuee ise thate Paule ise usuallye understoode ase ane individuale whoe
existse outsidee Judaism.e Thus,e hise viewse ande theologye ise somethinge whiche cane bee saide toe
bee ae completelye Christian-orientede conceptualization.e Ine thise sectione ofe thee book,e Marke
De Nanose hase identifiede ae polarizede dialoguee betweene thee Jewishe scholarse ande thee
Christiane scholars.e
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Thee maine differencee thate hase beene identifiede heree ise primarilye thee resulte ofe thee
incorrecte understandinge ofe Apostlee Paul’se viewse relatinge toe Judaism.e Fore thee author,e thee
beste waye ofe gettinge ae detailede nighte intoe Paule ande hise viewse ise bye takinge ae stande ofe ae
“Torah-observante Jew”.e Thee maine nuancee thate hase beene presentede bye Nanose ise thate Paule
doese note opposee thee Torahe observation.e Hee basicallye viewse ae hybride communitye settinge
wheree peoplee frome varyinge settingse livee together.e Somee ofe thee keye traitse ofe thee hybride
communitye includee thee existencee ofe differente behaviorale expectationse ande thee unitye
amonge thee communitye memberse throughe thee faithe ine thee messiah.e Oute ofe alle thee thoughtse
ore perspectivese thate havee beene presentede ine thee book,e thee viewse ofe Marke De Nanos’e aree
thee moste provocativee onese (Foure Viewse one thee Apostlee Paul-e Booke Review,e 2019,e pe 5).e
Perspectivee withe moste agreement
Thee perspectivee thate hase beene presentede bye Douglase Campbelle ise thee onee thate onee
cane moste agreee to.e Accordinge toe thee author,e thee rolee ofe Jesuse Christe ore thee Holye Spirite ise
extremelye important.e Hee hase primarilye focusede one thee concepte ofe divinee freedom.e Hee hase
primarilye rejectede federale theology.e Instead,e hee hase carefullye madee usee ofe thee
theosophicale readingse ofe Romanse 5e –e 8e toe gete ae detailede insighte intoe thee thoughtse ande
ideologye ofe Apostlee Paul.e Ase pere Campbell,e Paule viewede salvatione ase ae missionarye
activitye ase welle ase ae Trinitariane activitye whiche coulde bee mediatede throughe Jesuse Christe
ande thee Holye Spirit.e Thus,e salvatione ise ae goode thinge whiche cane takee ane individuale closee
toe thee Almighty.e Hence,e God’se gifte ine salvatione ise nothinge bute ae gifte thate Gode bestowse
upone hise humane subjectse soe thate theye cane gete closere toe theire creator.e e Thee individualse
whoe intende toe entere thee divinere lifee cane takee thee helpe ofe salvatione ine ordere toe establishe ae
strongere ande deepere connectione withe thee Lord.e
Paule wase ande ise stille ane extremelye importante figuree ine thee Christianitye religion.e
Douglase Campbell,e ine hise work,e hase correctlye identifiede Apostlee Paule ase thee individuale
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whoe ise depictinge Jesuse Christe ase thee self-disclosuree ofe thee Almighty.e Jesuse Christe
successfullye revealede thee verye naturee ofe thee divinee identitye ase welle ase thee qualitye relatinge
toe divinee actione ine love.e Paule himselfe ise nothinge bute ae divinee beinge whoe ise fulle ofe divinee
actions.e Thee keye frameworke thate thee authore hase usede fore thee purposee ofe understandinge
Paule ise thee “pneumatologicallye participatorye martyrologicale eschatology”e model.e Ine
simplee words,e ite cane bee saide thate thee Spirite placese hise believerse ine bothe thee
martyrologicale ase welle ase thee eschatologicale narrativese ofe Jesuse Christe wheree theye aree
ablee toe gaine thee experiencee relatinge toe faithfulnesse ine thee presencee ofe sufferingse (Birde &e
Schreiner,e 2012).e Theye aree alsoe ablee toe gete ae detailede insighte intoe thee coree benefitse thate
cane arisee duee toe newe creation.e Thee Post-Newe perspectivee viewe thate hase beene presentede
bye Douglase Campbelle givese ae detailede insighte intoe Apostlee Paul’se viewe ofe apostleship,e
mission,e worship,e sexuale ande sociale ethics,e ande eschatologicale assurance.e
Thee authore hase rightlye presentede ine hise chaptere thee importancee ofe thee churche ine
thee lifee ofe Paul.e Paule viewede thee Churche toe bee thee eschatologicale brotherhoode whiche wase
unitede ase thee imagee bearerse ofe thee Son.e Ite basicallye revolvede arounde lovee whiche ise ane
extremelye importante elemente (Birde ete al,e 2012).e
Ine hise response,e Campbelle hase statede thate religionse suche ase Christianitye ande
Judaisme aree particularistice ine naturee ine ae similare manner.e Thus,e ase pere him,e thee viewse
thate havee beene presentede bye Apostlee Paul’e aree universale ine naturee ande cane applye toe
differente religions.e e Campbelle ine hise worke hase evene highlightede thate Paul’se visione ofe Gode
ise unique.e Ase pere him,e Gode ise constantlye givinge ande embracinge (Birde &e Schreiner,e
2012).e Ine fact,e hee wille note hesitatee toe stoope downe ande embracee hise enemy.e Campbell’se
perspectivee ise uniquee ine ae positivee waye ase hee shedse lighte one thee importancee ofe Christe ine
thee lifee ofe Paul.e Ine additione toe this,e hee alsoe givese hise uniquee perspectivee whiche cane helpe
readerse toe gete ae bettere insighte intoe Apostlee Paul.
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Perspectivee withe moste disagreemente
Thee perspectivee withe whiche theree ise thee leaste levele ofe agreemente ise thee Reformede
perspectivee bye Thomase Re Schreiner.e Ine thee worke ofe Schreiner,e hee hase givene littlee insighte
intoe hise owne takee one Paul’se viese one salvation.e Ine thee essay,e thee authore hase simplye
presentede ae sketchede ofe Paul’se thoughtse one howe hee perceivede Jesuse Christe ande hise
overalle viewse relatinge toe thee Church.e Evene thoughe thee arease thate havee beene coverede bye
Schreinere aree extremelye importante ase theye havee givene distincte shapee ande structuree toe thee
theologye ofe Apostlee Paul,e theree ise ae negligiblee contributione bye thee author.e Hee hase
inductivelye stressede upone thee thirteene letterse thate hade beene writtene bye Paule ande theree ise
limitede synthesise presentede one whate hee thinkse aboute Paul’e idease ande viewse (Birde ete al,e
2012).e
Schreiner,e thee professore ofe Newe Testamente ate Southerne Seminarye hase laide
emphasise one Jesuse Christ’se substitutionarye deathe fore thee individualse whoe commite sins.e Hee
hase givene highe emphasise toe sinse thate aree donee bye peoplee whiche separatese theme frome thee
Almighty.e Thee chaptere thate hase beene presentede bye thee authore directlye divese intoe thee topice
ofe discussione withoute anye referencee ore backstory.e Ase pere Schreiner,e thee objectivee ofe hise
chaptere ise note toe reproducee thee thinkinge ofe Apostlee Paule bute toe unearthe hise views.e Evene
though,e hise intentione ise sinceree toe capturee thee exacte elementse thate showcasee thee theologye
ofe Paul,e thee approache ise quitee confusinge ine naturee (Birde &e Schreiner,e 2012).e
Theree ise disagreemente ine thee perspectivee ofe Thomase Re Schreinere ase theree ise ae
minimume levele ofe interactione withe othere scholarse whoe havee presentede theire worke one
Paul.e Somee ofe thee maine questionse thate mighte arisee ine thee minde ofe ae readere relatee toe
whethere thee chaptere ise ane inductivee readinge ofe Paule ore ise ite ae Reformede readinge ofe Paul,e
ande whethere thee readingse thate havee beene presentede ine thee chaptere aree samee ore differente
ine nature.e Thee chaptere thate hase beene presentede bye thee authore doese note seeme toe bee opene
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whiche mighte bee verye puzzlinge fore thee readers.e e Thus,e onee ofe thee maine reasonse fore thee
disagreemente withe thee Reformede perspectivee bye Schreinere ise thee inductivee naturee ofe thee
chaptere (Birde &e Schreiner,e 2012).e Thee othere authorse whosee worke hase beene includede ine
thee booke namelye Johnson,e Campbelle ande Nanose havee activelye ande sensiblye triede toe
engagee ande discusse thee relevante issuese thate existe ine Paulinee studies.e One thee othere hand,e
Schreinere hase merelye givene ae summarye ore ae briefe synthesise ofe thee thirteene letterse thate
havee beene writtene bye Paule himself.e Duee toe suche ane approache thate hase beene usede bye thee
contributor,e ite becomese extremelye difficulte toe ascertaine withoute previouse knowledgee ofe
thee coree elementse thate makee thee chaptere reformede ine nature.e Ine fact,e theree aree ae numbere
ofe pointse presentede bye Schreinere whiche cane easilye bee disputed.e Fore instance,e hee hase
statede thate Jesuse Christ’se sovereigntye overe thee churche hase beene identifiede ase ae functione ife
hise headship.e Suche ae viewe ise truee onlye whene thee “head”e referse toe thee authoritye ine thee
givene passage.e e Actually,e thise elemente ise somethinge thate ise highlye disputede amonge
Paulinee scholarse soe thee stancee thate hase beene takene bye Schreinere ise somewhate misleadinge
fore thee readers.e
Understandinge ofe Paul’se perspectivee one thee foure keye arease
Theree ise thee neede toe gaine ae detailede insighte intoe thee coree perspectivee ofe Apostlee
Paule one thee foure keye arease relatinge toe salvation,e thee significancee ofe thee Christ,e Paul’se
basice theologicale frameworke ande hise visione fore thee church.e Onlye bye gettinge ae thoroughe
knowledgee ofe thee viewse ande outlooke ofe Paul,e onee wille bee ablee toe comprehende howe hee
impactede Christianitye ande thee Church.e
Salvatione
Throughoute thee letterse thate havee beene writtene bye Apostlee Paule toe thee churchese toe
thee fellowe people,e hee hase givene highe emphasise toe salvation.e Ite is,e ine fact,e onee ofe thee
closeste thingse toe hise theology.e e Hee hase basicallye showne thate salvatione ise somethinge thate