Health Exam Multiple Choices (100 Questions)

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Chapter 13 Lecture

Preventing
Exercise-Related
and Unintentional
Injuries

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the role of overtraining in increasing the risk of exercise-related injury
  • List the signs and symptoms of overtraining
  • Discuss possible causes of muscle strains and ways in which they can be avoided
  • Define tendonitis and discuss how it should be treated

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Learning Objectives (cont.)

  • Discuss ligament sprains and how to avoid them
  • Describe the most common injuries to the lower extremities
  • Outline a general plan for reducing the incidence of exercise-related injuries
  • Discuss the general guidelines for the treatment of injuries
  • Define cryokinetics, and discuss its use in the rehabilitation process

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Injury Risk/Causes from Physical Activity

Main Causes of Exercise Injury

Improper training techniques

Overtraining syndrome: a major cause of injury

Inappropriate recovery period

Inadequate shoes

Runners especially benefit from proper footwear

Use shoes specifically designed for your activities

Alignment abnormalities in legs and feet

Improper exercise techniques

Excessive distance or duration

Drastic changes in exercise routine

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Intrinsic/Extrinsic Risk Factors in Exercise

Intrinsic Factors

Age

Body size and composition

Physical fitness level

Bone density and structure

Gender (hormones)

Muscle flexibility and strength

Extrinsic Factors

Environmental conditions (terrain, surface, weather)

Equipment (footwear, clothing)

Type of activity (competitive vs. leisure)

Intensity and amount of activity

Warm-up

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Common Conditions and Injuries

Back Pain

Cause: Muscle weakness in abdomen and lower back

Prevention: Increase flexibility and strength, reduce body fat, and improve muscle imbalances

Complete Lab 13.2: Assessing Flexibility and Back Pain Risk

Acute Muscle Soreness

Cause: Excessive duration or intensity

Prevention: Begin/end exercise sessions gradually, not suddenly

Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

Cause: Excessive duration/intensity

Prevention: Refrain from strenuous or prolonged exercise

Muscle Strains

Cause: Overstretched muscle or muscles forced to shorten against a heavy load

Prevention: Limit stress on muscles, always warm up

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Common Conditions and Injuries (cont.)

Tendonitis

Cause: Swelling in the tendon

Prevention: Proper exercise technique, avoiding joint overuse

Ligament Sprains

Cause: Excessive force applied to a joint

Prevention: Use a brace/refrain from high-stress activities

Torn Cartilage

Cause: High force or unusual movements

Prevention: Limit high-stress activities on joint/avoid movements outside normal range of motion

Complete Lab 13.1: Preventing Injuries During Exercise

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Muscle Strain

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Common Lower Extremities Injuries

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS)

Cause: Patella "off track," causing wear and pain

Prevention: Use proper exercise technique, avoid stress on the knee, strengthen quadriceps, use proper footwear

Shin Splints

Cause: Muscle/tendon irritation, or inflammation of the connective tissue, overuse

Prevention: Run on soft surfaces, wear well-padded, shock-absorbing shoes, advance exercise slowly

Stress Fractures

Cause: Excessive force applied to the leg or foot, overuse

Prevention: Avoid overtraining - increase load gradually, maintain flexibility in legs/hips

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Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

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Shin Splints

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Stress Fractures

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Managing Injuries

Treating Less-Severe Injuries

Initial Treatment of Exercise-Related Injuries

Objectives: Decrease pain, limit swelling, prevent further injury

R.I.C.E: Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation

Rehabilitation (increasing use as pain lessens)

Minor injury rehab occurs naturally

Drawbacks: Progress slow, may get re-injured, lack of more aggressive treatment may prevent return of full functioning

Cryokinetics: New rehab technique

Regimen of alternating ice with light exercise

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The Cryokinetic Process

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Preventing Unintentional Injuries

Unintentional injuries are #1 killer of people ages 15–34 in the United States

Risk Factors for Unintentional Injury

Having an unsafe attitude

Being overly confident

Craving excitement/thrill-seeking

Using alcohol or drugs

Stress

Environmental factors (storing unsafe or combustible chemicals, using equipment incorrectly)

Check your likelihood of an unintentional injury—see Steps for Behavior Change box within the chapter

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Treating Unintentional Injuries

Best Method: Take a First-Aid or CPR Course

Choking

Abdominal thrusts (Heimlich maneuver)

Poisoning

Check the label for key information/contact the Poison Control Center and/or 911

Bleeding

Lie the person down, remove dirt/debris from wound, apply pressure until bleeding stops, don't remove bandages, get to emergency room ASAP

Stopped Breathing or heartbeat

Call 911 immediately; if trained, perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

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Reduce Risk of Unintentional Injury

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The Heimlich Maneuver

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Summary

  • The main factors associated with exercise-related injuries are improper training techniques, inadequate shoes, and alignment problems in the legs and feet
  • Exercises to increase flexibility and strength, reduce body fat, and improve muscle balance between the stomach and back can decrease your risk of developing back problems
  • Tendonitis, or inflammation of a tendon, is one of the most common of all overuse problems associated with physical activity
  • Common injuries to the lower extremities include patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), shin splints, and stress fractures

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Summary (cont.)

  • When treating injuries, remember the R.I.C.E. (rest, ice, compression, elevation) protocol and cryokinetics treatment
  • Risk factors for accidents and injuries include unsafe attitudes, stress, drug use, and an unsafe environment
  • Basic first aid involves knowing the Heimlich maneuver and how to treat bleeding and poisonings
  • Do not perform CPR unless you have been certified through the American Red Cross or other credible program

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.