Health Exam Multiple Choices (100 Questions)

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Chapter 12 Lecture

Exercise: The Environment and Special
Populations

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Learning Objectives

  • Describe how to prevent heat loss during exercise
  • List several important guidelines for exercising in a hot environment
  • Describe the appropriate clothing for exercising in the heat
  • Differentiate among the various types of heat injury
  • Discuss how heat acclimatization reduces the risk of heat injury
  • Describe the appropriate clothing for exercising in a cold environment
  • List two major forms of air pollution that affect exercise performance
  • Describe exercise strategies for coping with air pollution

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Learning Objectives (cont.)

  • Discuss the importance of the following factors in achieving lifetime physical fitness: goal setting, selection of physical activities, planning exercise sessions, monitoring fitness programs, and social support
  • Outline several common misconceptions about physical fitness
  • List age-related changes in fitness and wellness and describe actions that you can take to maintain fitness and wellness throughout the life span

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Environmental Effects on Human Performance

  • Humans are homeotherms: Body temperature is regulated to stay close to a set point (98.6°F or 37°C)
  • Changes can result in serious bodily injury
  • Altitude and air pollution reduce the amount of oxygen that gets into the blood, meaning the body works harder

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Temperature Ranges for Human Survival

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Exercising in the Heat

Exercise muscle contraction = increase in body heat

Hot/humid conditions = excess body heat

Heat injury occurs if body temp exceeds 105 degrees

Heat illness = dizziness, nausea, lack of sweat, and dry, hot, or clammy skin

Short-term exposure (30–60 min) can cause heat injury

There are two primary means of heat loss/cooling during exercise

Convection: movement of air or water around the body

The faster the air or water flow, the greater the heat loss

Evaporation: heat release as sweat converts to gas

If air temperature and humidity are high, evaporation is limited

Determining factor: air temperature and humidity

Evaporation = most important means of body heat loss

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Body Temperature Responses

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Heat Index

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Clothing for Hot Weather

  • Minimize the amount you wear
  • Maximize exposed surface area for evaporation
  • Clothes should be lightweight, light colored, absorb moisture, and allow air to move freely
  • Wet/sweaty clothing is better for evaporation (heat exchange)
  • Avoid heavyweight, rubber/plastic materials

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Heat Acclimitization

Acclimitization = Physiological adaptations to environment

Within 10–12 days of regular exercise during heat exposure

Sweating begins earlier

More sweat is produced (aiding evaporation)

Blood volume increases

Exercise heart rate decreases

Body temperature decreases

Heat injury = heat load exceeds body's ability to regulate body temperature, resulting in

Heat cramps

Heat exhaustion

Heat stroke

To determine body's heat load, monitor heart rate

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Temperature Changes on Heart Rate

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Exercising in Hot/Humid Conditions

  • Begin exercising slowly, keep sessions short (15–20 minutes max)
  • Monitor heart rate often, keep intensity low
  • Wear appropriate clothing
  • Stay hydrated! Drink fluids before, during, after exercise sessions
  • Exercise in the morning or evening, when temperatures are cooler
  • If you must exercise mid-day, stay in the shade

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Exercising in the Cold

Air temperature below 60°F requires warm clothing to prevent excessive loss of body heat

Long periods of exposure overwhelm body's ability to maintain temperature level

Losing body heat = hypothermia, disorientation, and may be life threatening

Avoiding Hypothermia

Limit duration of exercise

Don't get wet

Dress in layers with appropriate amounts and types of clothing

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Clothing for Cold Weather

Proper Clothing, Worn in Layers

Should trap enough heat to maintain body temperature, without overheating

Layering especially important for upper body

Base Layer

Removes moisture from skin, moves it to next layer (wicking)

Avoid cotton, tends to stay wet

Middle Layer

Further insulates the body, wicks moisture outward

Often heavier than base layer

Outer Layer

Protects you from wind/water

Windproof, waterproof, ventilated, lightweight jacket

Hats, scarves, gloves protect extremities from frostbite

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Layering Clothing in Cold Environments

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Wind Chill Index

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Exercising at High Altitudes

A lower barometric pressure = less oxygen transported in blood, decreasing VO2max, and exercise tolerance

Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS)

Occurs at altitudes above 8000 ft

Affects approx. 20% of individuals exercising at or above this altitude

Affects some (up to 80%) who fly into high-elevation areas

Symptoms: severe headaches, nausea, weakness, and dizziness

Avoiding AMS

Ascend slowly

Sleep at lowest elevation possible

If hiking or driving up, don't go farther if you feel AMS effects

Drink plenty of water

Avoid tobacco, alcohol, depressants

Eat a high-carbohydrate diet

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Effects of Altitude on Exercise Capacity

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Effects of Elevation on Heart Rate and Ventilation

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Exercise and Air Pollution

Major Forms of Air Pollution

  • Ozone (gas produced from sunlight and car exhaust)
  • Extremely irritating to lungs and airways
  • Causes chest tightness, coughing, headaches, nausea, throat and eye irritation, and bronchoconstriction
  • May trigger asthma attacks
  • Carbon monoxide (gas from fossil fuels and cigarette smoke)
  • Reduces blood's capacity to carry oxygen to body and muscles
  • High-traffic environments = serious health threat
  • Coping with air pollution
  • Avoid exercise when/where
  • levels of pollutants are highest
  • automobile traffic is heavy

Complete Lab 12.1: Exercising in Harsh Environments

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Avoiding High-Pollution Exercise Times

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Lifelong Exercise Considerations

  • Maintaining healthy level of fitness/wellness
  • Lifelong process
  • Your actions now significantly impact future health
  • Fitness cannot be stored
  • Principle of reversibility

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Exercise Programming During All Life Stages

  • Most adults' physical activity declines with age and major lifestyle changes
  • Maintain regular exercise as you age
  • Properly plan exercise sessions, adjust schedule as your lifestyle changes
  • Join a health club
  • Get support or hire help if needed
  • Change your physical activity needs as you age

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Fitness During Pregnancy

  • Benefits: less weight gain, less discomfort, shorter labor, prevention of gestational diabetes
  • Recommended Exercise Prescription
  • Begin: 15 minutes minimum, low intensity, three times per week
  • Gradually increase: 30–40 minutes of aerobic moderate-intensity exercise most days of week
  • Maintain regular schedule
  • Avoid activities with risks of injury or falling, or that put undue stress on joints
  • Avoid exercising in heat
  • Complete Lab 12.2: Exercise Training during Pregnancy

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Physical and Mental Changes of Aging

  • Cardiorespiratory function declines
  • Bone density and mass decreases
  • Skeletal muscle mass and function decreases
  • Skin pigmentation changes
  • Changes in taste and smell can lead to diminished appetite
  • Brain and central nervous system (CNS) changes may lead to memory loss
  • Hair thins and hair follicles change
  • Vision often changes after age 40

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Exercise Prescription for Older Adults

  • Consult your health care provider before beginning an exercise program
  • Recommendations for Men After Age 45 and Women After Age 55
  • Take a graded exercise stress test prior to engaging in vigorous exercise
  • Focus on non-weight-bearing exercises
  • Exercise intensity at the lower end of THR range
  • Limit frequency to 3–4 days per week
  • Modify duration to meet individual needs/abilities

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Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults

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Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.)

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Sample Exercise Program for Limited Older Adults (cont.)

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Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults

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Sample Exercise Program for Healthy Older Adults (cont.)

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Summary

  • Evaporation is the most important means of heat loss during exercise in a hot environment. Maximize the body surface area exposed to the air to ensure adequate release of body heat through evaporation
  • Heat acclimatization occurs after several days of exposure to a hot environment. During exercise in hot environments, drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration
  • Avoid hypothermia when exercising in a cold environment by dressing in layers, and in appropriate amounts and types of clothing
  • Exercise at high altitude reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood, which reduces oxygen transport to the working muscles and lowers both VO2max and exercise tolerance
  • Minimize the effects of air pollution during exercise by avoiding exercise when ozone or carbon monoxide levels are highest

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Summary (cont.)

  • Exercise must be performed regularly throughout life to achieve the benefits of physical fitness, wellness, and disease prevention
  • Appropriate exercise is safe and beneficial for healthy pregnant women
  • Older adults can safely participate in regular exercise to gain and maintain fitness and reduce risk of disease
  • Numerous changes take place in the body and mind during the aging process

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