Health Exam Multiple Choices (100 Questions)

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Chapter 11 Lecture

Stress Management

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the terms stress, stressors, eustress, and distress
  • Describe the relationship between stress and disease
  • Discuss physical responses to stress
  • List common sources of stress
  • Outline the steps involved in stress management
  • Discuss the general adaptation to stress syndrome
  • Discuss the ideas of allostasis and allostatic load
  • Describe four healthy methods to manage stress
  • List three relaxation techniques that help lower stress

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Stress

Stress: A state of mental and physical tension

Homeostasis (balance) is disrupted

Eustress is "positive" stress (can improve performance)

Distress is "negative" stress (disrupts health & functioning)

Stressor: A factor that produces stress

physical or mental

acute, cumulative, or chronic

Stress Response: Body's reactions to stress

Physiological/behavioral changes to stressor

Complete Lab 11.1: Stress Index Questionnaire

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Physiological Stress Response

Two main systems undergo changes under stress

Nervous System: Controls voluntary/involuntary movement

Autonomic nervous system (involuntary actions):

Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches

sympathetic triggers endocrine system, increasing energy

parasympathetic functions during rest, relaxation

Endocrine System: Glands/tissues that secrete hormones

Under stress, endocrine system releases hormones activating stress response

epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol

Responses = heightened senses and raised heart rate

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Physiological Stress Response (cont.)

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Fight-or-Flight Response

  • Combined stress responses of autonomic nervous system/endocrine system
  • Automatic/primitive survival response: Individual faces (fight) or runs from (flight) perceived threats
  • Responses activate body for action
  • Increased awareness, quickened impulses, body temperature fluctuations, diminished pain perception
  • Blood diverted from digestion to muscles
  • After stressor dealt with, body returns to homeostasis (balance)
  • Even though not "life and death," everyday life stressors evokes "fight-or-flight response

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Factors Affecting Stress

Personality Behavior Patterns: Four Common Types

Type A

Motivated, competitive, impatient, prone to anger and hostility

Heightened response to and risk from stress

Type B

Easygoing, non-aggressive, patient

Lower response to and risk from stress

Type C

Confident, motivated, competitive, not hostile

Lower response to and risk from stress

Type D

Worried, inhibited, prone to anxiety, more isolated

Heightened response to and risk from stress

Complete Lab 11.4: Assessing Your Personality Behavior Pattern

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Factors Affecting Stress (cont.)

Past Experiences

Perception/reaction to stressors influenced by prior experiences

Learning from past responses leads to changing responses

Gender

No gender-specific physiological responses to stress

Gender may affect stress perceptions

Common/Everyday Causes

Life is often stressful: schoolwork, relationships, finances, traffic

Complete Lab 11.2: Keeping a Stress Diary

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Stress and Health

  • Chronic stress = serious health problems in the United States
  • elevated BP, heart disease, hormonal imbalances, reduced immune system, emotional disorders including depression
  • Acute stress problems
  • Headaches, body aches and tension, irritability, decreased concentration
  • 75–90% of all doctor visits for stress-related complaints/ailments
  • Billions of dollars lost by businesses/government
  • Absenteeism and health-care costs due to stress-related problems

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Negative Effects of Chronic Stress

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General Adaptation Syndrome

Three-Stage Adaptation to Stress

Alarm Stage: Initial exposure to stress

Fight-or-flight response activates

Body is more injury-prone and susceptible to disease

Resistance Stage: Continued exposure to stress

Stress resistance is higher than normal

Body improves capacity to deal with stress

Exhaustion Stage: Persistent exposure to stress

Physical resources for responding depleted

Body vulnerable to disease

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Allostasis - Allostatic Load

Allostasis

Body's ability to change/adapt to stress

Body seeks homeostasis, does not adapt well under long-term stress

Allostatic Load

Body's limit for stress

Constant or repeated activation of stress responses

Stress response is inefficient and health is compromised

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.

Managing Stress

  • Identify and manage your personal stressors
  • Get adequate rest and sleep
  • Exercise
  • Use relaxation techniques
  • Progressive relaxation
  • Breathing exercises
  • Meditation
  • Visualization
  • Develop spiritual wellness habits
  • Develop and use a support network
  • Avoid counterproductive behaviors
  • Tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs
  • Disordered eating patterns

Complete Lab 11.3: Managing Time and Establishing Priorities

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Relaxation Techniques Stress Reduction

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Sample Stress Management Program:

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ABC News: The Multi tasking Myth

Discussion Questions

Why isn't multitasking as good an option as one might think? Do you agree that it can become a problem?

How do you multitask in your own life? Does it have an effect on the quality of the work you are doing simultaneously?

Translate the three steps outlined to be more productive to your own daily life. Could you follow them?

Play

Video

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ABC News: Stress at Work and Home

Discussion Questions

For those in class who work full- or part-time, share an extremely stressful work event and how it was resolved. How did you feel at that time?

In potentially stressful situations at home, how do you prevent issues from escalating to an uncontrollable level?

Name a few ways in which to reduce stress at school. Have you had success in any of these? What support systems need to be in place?

Play

Video

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Summary

  • Stress is a state of physical and mental tension in response to a situation that is perceived as a threat or challenge
  • A stressor is any factor that produces stress
  • Poorly managed stress can lead to significant health problems
  • The endocrine and autonomic nervous systems are the primary responders to stress, and combine in the fight-or-flight response
  • Personality behavior patterns, past experiences, and gender can affect the way we respond to stressors
  • Two steps in stress management include reducing stressors in your life and improving your ability to relax
  • Common relaxation techniques include progressive relaxation, breathing exercises, rest and sleep, exercise, meditation, and visualization

© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.