Unit VII Assignment OT&B


BBA 3451, Organizational Theory and Behavior 1

Course Learning Outcomes for Unit VII Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:

3. Explain applied performance practices.

4. Examine effective teamwork.

5. Assess techniques to promote effective communication.

6. Evaluate techniques used to manage conflict.

7. Evaluate the role of leadership in achieving performance goals.

8. Recommend strategies to overcome resistance to change.

Course/Unit Learning Outcomes

Learning Activity


Unit Lesson Chapter 12: Leadership in Organizational Settings Unit VII Assignment

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Unit Lesson Chapter 12: Leadership in Organizational Settings Unit VII Assignment

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Reading Assignment Chapter 12: Leadership in Organizational Settings

Unit Lesson Importance of Leadership in Achieving Performance Goals Let’s think about what leaders do. They establish a vision, a mission statement, goals and objectives, and support, and they take on the big battles and produce the charisma for followers. Deshpande and Hill (2015) explain that studying leadership is important because it has such a huge impact on how employees perform and their commitment to their jobs. Because of this important role, leaders must know effective strategies for management and building morale. As you reflect upon the aforementioned, you may be thinking one of two things; you may instantly agree that leaders play an important role due to your own experiences with leadership. Maybe you had a leader who was extremely strong or weak, and it affected your commitment and performance. You may also be a bit overwhelmed by this implication. Leadership is not to be taken lightly as leaders in all industries have similar power. For example, consider automotive sales, firefighters, police officers, retail clerks, and telecommunication employees; do they not have performance standards that are measured by leadership? Do they not have to work as a team to meet goals and objectives in some format? Are they not influenced to work together, have a good attitude, and comply with corporate culture? Regardless if it is a hospital or an


Leadership in the Organizational Setting

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American corporation, leadership is important for achieving performance goals. So, leaders have a responsibility. They have a responsibility first to shareholders (if it is a publicly traded company on Wall Street). Second, they have a responsibility to their employees; they need to comprehend their roles in the organization and the value that the employees create for the organization. A part of the employee equation is to ensure employees have the correct training and resources to do their jobs. These factors contribute to employee satisfaction, morale, meeting performance objectives, and displaying commitment to the vision and mission (Deshpande & Hill, 2015). Finally, leaders have a responsibility to their customers through quality governance and ethical behavior. Leadership Behaviors McShane and Von Glinow (2018) list four leadership behaviors: directive, supportive, participative, and achievement-oriented. These behaviors are shown through the situational leadership model explained below. The behaviors can certainly stand on their own because they are styles. Directive: This style is task-oriented. Here is the task, and here is the requirement. The expectation is to complete the task in a timely manner. The expectations and completion translate into goal accomplishment (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). There is an authoritarian style of behavior that clearly outlines rewards for accomplishment and disciplinary actions for failure to meet expectations. An example is a Marine Corps drill sergeant barking an order of climbing a pole in 15 seconds. If not accomplished, the punishment is pushups. Supportive: This style is the touchy-feely leadership behavior as it deals with the needs, status, and welfare of employees. It is more people-oriented and provides emotional support for employees (McShane & Von Glinow, 2015). Note: Having a heavy favor in this area can cause shortfalls in chaos and crisis management situations as the “soft touch” has difficulty switching to an authoritarian style behavior. Participative: This behavior engages employees in the decision-making process. It is a powerful behavior style as it allows individuals to become stakeholders and feel self-worth with the organization. Achievement-oriented: This behavior encourages employees to meet their full performance potential through goal setting (McShane & Von Glinow, 2018). For example, Tesla’s CEO, Elon Musk, failed to meet over 20 of his stretch goals for Tesla in a year (Sitkin, Miller, & See, 2017). However, one might challenge Sitkin, Miller and See (2017) on their comparison after reading the book Elon Musk: Tesla, Space X and the Quest for Fantastic Future by Ashlee Vance (2015) due to Musk’s personality. He is a risk-taker. He pushes the extreme on taking risks for bigger rewards. As an investor in Tesla stock, one may have experienced the delay, but the returns he has achieved with stretch goals have developed, and the stock has skyrocketed, so he is now a Wall Street darling. Leadership Styles and Consequences in Contributing to Performance Objectives So, leadership does matter. Leadership is like the fashion industry. It has many different looks and styles that appeal to different people. There are many types of leadership styles, but for this unit lesson, the situational leadership model developed by Paul Hersey and Ken Blanchard will be discussed (Straker, 2016). As a leader, no two situations are alike. There will always be some factor that is different. Since we are looking at the impact of leadership on performance factors, the biggest factor here is employee behavior and maturity. Whether or not we realize it, we follow this model daily through our interactions with others. Consider parents with multiple children, for example. Parents sometimes state that disciplinary actions that work with one child may not work with another. The children have different personalities and maturity levels and, therefore, need individualized reward systems. These parents are following the situational leadership model. This model can assist you in determining the correct leadership style to implement in order to achieve quality end results with your followers. The model addresses three major components: follower maturity, follower motivation, and the correct leadership style to use to get the desired behavior (Straker, 2016). Looking at the diagram below, the model is divided into four quadrants (S1–S4). Along the x axis is behavior, and along the y axis is supportive behavior from high to low. Flowing through the quadrants are the leadership styles to be used, which are delegate, participate/support, sell/coach, and direct/tell. As you can see, each action relates to follower maturity and motivation level on the bottom in the horizontal box (R1–R4) with corresponding maturity level (readiness level).

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Application example: You are a supervisor of a publicly stock traded athletic shoe store. You notice that one of your employees is not handling customers well, makes tasteless jokes, and has little motivation to complete his or her work. How do you handle this individual? Someone who is not very mature and not highly motivated would require you to engage in a more directive/tell type of leadership style. You will engage in direct actions and then follow up to ensure they are completed correctly. For example, you may provide detailed instructions for answering the phone, such as a scripted greeting, and then observe the employee as he or she answers a call. As a leader, you know this is very time-consuming, but you have responsibility to your shareholders, employees, and customers. This example cuts across all three categories. It is a rather basic example, and in the real world, there are more complex issues with people and performance. This model provides the best starting point on how to adjust your personal style (based also on your personality type) to deliver results and change behavior.

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Where Leadership Fails and Why We have all seen this in a Hollywood movie, on a professional team, or at a place of work. Leadership can fail. What do you think are the major causes or areas of failure? There are probably too many to list here, but from experience and professional readings, leadership fails employees and the organization within the areas listed below.

 Unethical behavior: For example, the Tyco International CEO fraudulently spent the company’s funds.

 Failure to establish a vision or vision for change: The Swiss Watch Company ignored the rising popularity of the quartz watch. In addition, Detroit automotive companies in the 1970s failed to adjust to high gas prices with better miles-per-gallon automobiles, losing market share to Toyota and Honda.

 Incorrect skill sets: This is an inability to deal with people, cultures, and viewpoints.

 Failure to listen: An example would be a leader who is arrogant, thinks that or he or she has all of the answers, and has an unwillingness to listen to his or her staff and employees.

 Inability to motivate: An example would be a leader who cannot inspire others.

 Selfishness: A leader who puts his or her own needs above those of the employees would fall into

this category. Leadership in the organizational setting: Would you agree that leadership is powerful in the organizational setting? Could you imagine showing up for work every day not knowing what you are supposed to be doing, how your job impacts company viability, or who your customers are? What if you had questions regarding where your company is going and how leadership supports you in meeting both individual job needs and company goals? The companies that fail today suffer from many of these circumstances. Look at the wagon wheel below. How is it structured? Where is the failure of the wheel? Look at the wheel as an organization’s components of people, performance, leadership, vision, and other attributes. This provides a great schematic of what this lesson is about—leadership as the core cog to effective organizational performance. The leadership cog affects every spoke and provides support so the wheel can roll and move forward on the axel. If the center hub breaks, what happens? The spokes cannot provide support for the organization, and the wheel would break down. Note: One or two spokes can fail, and the mission of the wheel can still operate but must be repaired for longer, more effective durations.

Leadership wagon wheel (Momentmal, 2017)

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References Deshpande, A., & Hill, C. (2015). Leadership styles: A case of two hospitals in the US. Proceedings for the

Northeast Region Decision Sciences Institute (NEDSI), 1–23. Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=116281784&site=ehost-live&scope=site

McShane, S. L., & Von Glinow, M. A. (2018). Organizational behavior: Emerging knowledge, global reality

(8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Momentmal. (2017). Wagon wheel [Image]. Retrieved from https://pixabay.com/en/wooden-wheel-wheel-

wagon-wheel-2490210/ Sitkin, S. B., Miller, C. C., & See, K. E. (2017). The stretch goal paradox. Harvard Business Review, 95(3), 18.

Retrieved from https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direc t=true&db=bth&AN=122653431&site=ehost-live&scope=site

Straker, D. (2016). Hersey and Blanchard's approach. Retrieved from