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Educational Technology in Context 17

framework focuses on skills that teachers require to bring about three different levels of human capacity development: technology literacy (ability to use technology for efficient learning), knowledge deepening (ability to use technology to problem solve real-world issues), and knowledge creation (ability to create new knowledge for society). Information and communication technology (ICT) is a term often used in place of the terms instructional technology and educational technology, especially outside the United States. The framework shows how teachers should engage with six aspects of their work—ICT in education, curriculum and assessment, pedagogy, ICT, organization and administration, and professional learning—to plan and design lessons to achieve the three levels in the framework. UNESCO has Teacher Competency Standards Modules for each of these levels. Each module consists of curricular goals, teacher competencies, ability objectives, and example methods.

The Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework

Teaching is a complex combination of what teachers know about the content they teach, how they decide to teach that content, and the tools they use to carry out their plans. Historically, teacher education has centered on content knowledge and pedagogy as separate concerns. But Shulman (1986) was first to stress the importance of how these "knowledge components" work together rather than separately. Hughes (2000) extended Shulman's concept by adding and emphasizing technology as another component of knowledge needed by teachers. The result is a combination of technological, pedagogical, and content knowledge. Figure 1.4 illustrates how these areas converge and overlap. Teachers who develop technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK or TPACK) (shown at the center of Figure 1.4) strategically and simultaneously consider

Figure 1.4 TPCK/TPACK Framework

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Technological Content Knowledge (TCK)

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)

Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) Contexts

Content

Knowledge

CK

Pedagogical

Knowledge

PK

Technological

Knowledge

TK

Technological knowledge (TK) is knowledge and use of technology hardware, software, and resources. Example: Using social media (e.g. Blog, Wiki, Facebook) Pedagogical knowledge (PK) is knowledge about the processes and practices or methods of teaching and learning. Example: Using scaffolding to help students' meaning making and knowledge construction.

Technological pedagogical knowledge (TPK) is knowledge of how technology can support general teaching and learning activities. Example: Using an online quiz for assessment at the end of the lecture.

Content knowledge (CK) is knowledge of subject matter concepts or principles. Example: Knowing properties of geometric shapes.

Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) is knowledge of how to teach and represent subject matter to students; generating content-specific learning goals; identifying and addressing student subject-specific misconceptions or mistakes; and content-specific assessment strategies. Example: Using analogical skills to teach math concepts.

Technological content knowledge (TCK) is knowledge of content-specific technologies (hardware and software) or content representations (animations or simulations). Example: Using virtual math manipulatives for mathematics curriculum topics. Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK/ TPACK) is knowledge, decision-making, and design of teaching subject matter to students with content-based technology tools or representations and/or using content-specific, technology-based assessment strategies in ways that meet content-specific learning goals and address student subjectspecific misconceptions or mistakes. Example: Using a lab for students to study velocity and speed by building a ramp, selecting a moveable object, and collecting velocity and speed data from motion detectors as the object rolls down the ramp; then graphing the resulting data and interpreting the relationship between velocity and speed.