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Cannabis Use Among Teenagers

Olivia Timmons

St. John’s River State College

App Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing

Professor Graham

June 19th, 2021

Introduction

Adolescents use cannabis for reasons including relieving boredom, satisfying curiosity, experimenting, feeling nice or feeling healthier and fit (Dow & Kelly, 2013). Teens around other people using drugs have a higher risk of using their own drugs (Marschall-Lévesque, et al 2014). Gender disparities are also important. It is believed that, generally, men are more prone to take drugs for the benefit or sensation, whereas women take drugs to avoid or deal with a bad sensation or to treat themselves (Bobzean, et al, 2014). Risk factors for cannabis use in young people includes genes; familial drug use; early drug introduction; another disease of psychological health, such as depressive symptoms (NIDA, 2018).

Literature review

Children must be educated from the late primary school on the negative consequences of cannabis (AACAP, 2018). The findings of a meta-analysis on control of substances show that age-specific training techniques should be employed when children are taught about prevention of drug use (Onrust et al., 2016). In primary schools, teaching interpersonal skills, conscience, problem solving abilities and good behaviour may contribute to reducing drug usage (Onrust et al., 2016). Feedback on classmates' real and anticipated use of substances, usage of mentors, engagement of parents and judgment abilities may decrease the use and usage of substances for early young people (Onrust et al., 2016). Psychotherapy and training pupils to deal with fear and depression decreases the use of substances in middle young people (Onrust et al., 2016).

For late teenagers, social support, education in rejection qualifications and information on drug use interference with personal objectives have been shown to decrease drug abuse (Onrust et al., 2016). A good evidence-based method in institutions is life skills education (LST) that includes programs for primary, middle and secondary school students. LST includes the ability to resist drugs, sense of self skills and social abilities in general (Botvin Life Skills Training, n.d.). Also, the teaching on the dangers of the drug use, the session, by helping students avoid the recreational use of substances, build more self-esteem and courage, deal with stress and increase cognitive and behavioural skills, provides healthy options to hazardous behaviour (Botvin Life Skills Training, n.d.). LST reduces drug usage by up to 41% effectively and is affordable, with an estimate of $15 per learner (Crowley et al 2014; Spoth et al., 2017). As research develops in the detection and management of SUD, it is necessary for young people, instructors and guardians to continue, up-to-date and evidence-based teaching. Teenagers working with SUDs in rehabilitation and medical practitioners are the perfect advocates for students, instructors and guardians at schools. In addition, adolescents, teachers and parents should have accessibility for any adolescent needing therapy to community services

Caregivers should take efforts to maintain track of the newest developments in the detection and management of SUDs by continued training, going to conferences and carrying out literature studies. The International Nursing Society (IntNSA; n.d.), that further publishes the Journal of Addictions Nursing, is a nursing institution focusing on SUDs. Patients who expertise in drug therapy may be good tools for medical practitioners, instructors, parents and young people. As the use of cannabis rises, nurses may have a responsibility in testing as well as treatment (Durkin, 2014). Testing short intervention and referral to treatment (SBIRT) is a strategy that is evidence-based which can be used with adolescents and involves uniform testing with standardized tools. It also involves short procedure utilizing inspirational interview techniques (Levy & Williams, 2016). For all adolescents, American Academy of Paediatrics (2016) supports universal SBIRT.

A fast testing aid for drug abuse in adolescents is the CRAFFT, an abbreviation for screening for a vehicle when using to relax, use alone, make one forget or speak out to family or friends and use problem creating (Knight et al., 2002). A quick remedy utilizing inspirational interviews includes a brief organized discussion that takes a non-judgmental strategy to increase patients' own effectiveness instead of convincing them to improve (Levy & Williams, 2016). An approach for teenagers who take marijuana is to take efforts to identify the advantages and limitations of the young people in areas linked with higher rates of recovery from SUDswith life quality, self-efficacy and religion included (Worley, 2017). This forteen-point health-associated life quality assessment of the Centre for Disease Control (2016) evaluates views of overall health, health hazards and diseases, functionality, support systems and socio-economic position. The Self-Efficacy Scale of Drug Avoidance (DASE), a 16-point questionnaire that assesses self-efficacy or self esteeme in how likely a person is to prevent or avoid a need to take drugs.

The Spiritual Evaluation Tool Faith and Belief, Importance and Address for Care (FICA) is an 11-point questionnaire that covers five areas of items: faith, belief, significance, significance and impact (Puchalski & Romer, 2000). In addition, it may be preventive to keep teens working in schools, jobs, games, clubs and various events involving healthy partners and mentors (Worley, 2017). Because adolescents may use drugs to make the high sensation pleasant, it may be helpful to encourage actions that contribute to genuine pleasures or awards, such as bowlers, skiing and comedies, etc. Because the use of self-medicating or drugs to prevent unpleasant feelings is a cause to use drugs, the fundamental diseases of mental wellbeing should be checked and addressed for all young people.

Conclusion

Cannabis usage is widespread in adolescents and especially hazardous owing to the adverse impact on fast cognitive advancement at that period. Adolescents are becoming unaware of the risks of cannabis use. Training and other preventive and management measures should be implemented for young people to decrease the use of cannabis and other drugs. This content may be given by persons with a knowledge of current science in schools or other community places, including nurses and people who have SUDs in their life. Ways of preventing and identifying cannabis use in adolescents should include universal screening and other development-oriented methods. It is also essential to diagnose and manage fundamental psychological problems in adolescents and to provide them with natural stimulus possibilities for the brain pleasure system Teenagers' goals include a normal brain growth and a good feeling of identification and control over the abilities required to achieve imminent autonomy.

References

American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. (2018). Marijuana and teens. Retrieved from https://www.aacap.org/aacap/families_and_youth/facts_for_families/fffguide/Marijuana-and-Teens-106.aspx

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2016). Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment. Retrieved from https://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/138/1/e20161210

Bobzean, S.A., DeNobrega, A.K., & Perrotti, L.I. (2014). Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction. Experimental Neurology, 259, 64-74. https://doi.org/10.1016/jexpneurol.2014.01.022

Botvin Life Skills Training. (n.d.). LST overview. Retrieved from https://www.lifeskillstraining.com/lst-overview

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). CDC HRQOL-14 “Healthy days measure.” Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/hrqol/hrqol14_measure.htm

Crowley, D.M., Jones, D.E., Coffman, D.L., & Greenberg, M.T. (2014). Can we build an efficient response to the prescription drug abuse epidemic? Assessing the cost effectiveness of universal prevention in the PROSPER trial. Preventive Medicine, 62, 71-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.01.029

Dow, S.J., & Kelly, J.F. (2013). Listening to youth: Adolescents’ reasons for substance use as a unique predictor of treatment response and outcome. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 27, 1122-1131. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031065

Durkin, A. (2014). Legalization of marijuana for non-medical use: Health, policy, socioeconomic, and nursing implications. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 52(9), 22-26. https://doi.org/10.3928/02793695-20140721-03

International Nurses Society on Addictions. (n.d.). Welcome to IntNSA. Retrieved from https://www.intnsa.org

Knight, J.R., Sherritt, L., Shrier, L.A., Harris, S.K., & Chang, G. (2002). Validity of the CRAFFT substance abuse screening test among adolescent clinic patients. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 156, 607-614.

Levy, S.J., & Williams, J.F. (2016). Substance use screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment. Pediatrics, 138, e20161211. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2016-1211

Marschall-Lévesque, S., Castellanos-Ryan, N., Vitaro, F., & Séguin, J.R. (2014). Moderators of the association between peer and target adolescent substance use. Addictive Behaviors, 39, 48-70. https://doi.org/10.1016/jaddbeh.2013.09.025

Martin, G.W., Wilkinson, D.A., & Poulos, C.X. (1995). The drug avoidance self efficacy scale. Journal of Substance Abuse, 7, 151-163.

National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2017). NIDA launches two brief online validated adolescent substance use screening tools. Retrieved from https://www.drugabuse.gov/nidamed-medical-health-professionals/screening-tools-for-adolescent-substanceuse

Onrust, S.A., Otten, R., Lammers, J., & Smit, F. (2016). School-based programmes to reduce and prevent substance use in different age groups: What works for whom? Systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 44, 45-59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2015.11.002

Puchalski, C., & Romer, A.L. (2000). Taking a spiritual history allows clinicians to understand patients more fully. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 3, 129-137.

Spoth, R., Redmond, C., Shin, C., Greenberg, M.T., Feinberg, M.E., & Trudeau, L. (2017). PROSPER delivery of universal preventive interventions with young adolescents: Long-term effects on emerging adult substance misuse and associated risk behaviors. Psychological Medicine, 47, 2246-2259. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291717000691

Worley, J. (2017). Recovery in substance use disorders: What to know to inform practice. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 38, 80-91. https://doi.org/10.1080/01612840.2016.1245375