thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-05_20181017.pptx

Chapter 2.5 Architecture

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

Architecture is three-dimensional design that surrounds and influences us

Connects us to our history

Suggests feelings of permanence

Produced by architect, interior designer, and landscape architect

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Buildings inevitably have an effect on people who see or enter them, whether or not they are aware of this

Thoughtful design reflects a building’s function and its intended role in the community

The architect is the master planner who creates a building’s overall design

Sometimes an interior designer is responsible for making the space inside appropriate for the building’s intended use

A landscape architect may be employed to organize the outdoor spaces around the building

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Structure, Function, and Form

Architectural engineers work to create a balance between tension and compression (push equals pull)

Each building material resists compression or tension differently

If balanced correctly, a building can stand for thousands of years

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An architect collects information about the planned location of the building, its place in the community, and its purpose

An architect also selects the appropriate building techniques and decides which materials are needed to construct it

Structural integrity dictates some of the design decisions

For example, wood-frame buildings may require waterproof external cladding to protect the timber from damp and rot

The location, or site, influences the design

Artists must consider the availability and cost of building materials

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Artwork: Süleymaniye mosque

2.5.1 Sinan, Süleymaniye

mosque, 1557, Istanbul, Turkey

Süleymaniye mosque

Designed by Turkish architect Sinan

Elaborate architectural space includes dome and half-domes

Perfectly balanced, enduring design (more than 500 years old)

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The Turkish architect Sinan (1489–1588) was chief architect to the Ottoman court under Sultan Süleyman, who commissioned him to design the magnificent Süleimaniye mosque in Istanbul.

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Artwork: Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center

2.5.2 Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center, 2006

Fumihiko Maki, Sketch of Four World Trade Center

Maki's complicated buildings begin from the simplicity of drawing

Design for the New World Trade Center in New York City

Shows how his building will fit in with other buildings by continuing a spiral design

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Fumihiko Maki (b. 1928).

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Artwork: Taos Pueblo

2.5.3 Taos Pueblo, New Mexico, pre-1500

Taos Pueblo

In successful architectural work, the structure reflects the community

Buildings made of adobe brick

Character derives from the available materials (sand and clay)

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Artwork: SoHo lofts

2.5.4 SoHo lofts, New York City

SoHo lofts

People have admired the coherent composition of the forms of New York City's skyscrapers and other types of buildings

Resembles a Cubist painting

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Ancient Construction

Ancient cultures derived their building materials from the earth

Stone, wood, and clay must be modified for use in construction

These raw materials can result in architecture that transcends time

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Basic Load-Bearing Construction

This form of construction follows the direct process of piling one stone or brick on top of another

Massive load-bearing works have been built throughout history

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Artwork: Temple I in the Great Plaza

2.5.5 Temple I in the Great Plaza, Maya, c. 300–900 CE, Tikal, Guatemala

Temple I in the Great Plaza

This is one of hundreds of pyramids found in the Guatemalan rain forest

Maya pyramids served as platforms for temples

A carefully organized stack of stones

Required sophisticated engineering and mathematical skills to construct

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Diagram of Maya pyramid

2.5.6 Basic load-bearing architecture: Maya pyramid

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Post-and-Lintel Construction

To create an interior space, an architect must create a span, or a distance between two supports

In basic post-and-lintel construction the lintel rests on top of two posts

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Diagram of Post-and-lintel construction

2.5.7 Post-and-lintel construction

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Artwork: Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re

2.5.8 Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re, Middle Kingdom, c. 950–730 BCE, Karnak, Egypt

Great Court at Temple of Amun-Re

Hypostyle hall, a room created by using a series of columns to support a flat ceiling

Used by Egyptian priests for rituals to worship the god Amun-Re

One of the largest religious structures in the world

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Ancient Egyptian architects built the Temple of Amun-Re at Karnak by placing a series of post-and-lintel spans side by side to create a spacious interior.

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2.5.9 Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike, c. 421–415 BCE, Acropolis, Athens, Greece

Artwork: Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike

Kallikrates, Temple of Athena Nike

This ancient Greek temple was built using post-and-lintel construction

The architects must have been aware of similar majestic structures in the Nile Valley

Ancient Greek architects adapted the systems invented by the Egyptians

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This ancient Greek temple was designed by Kallikrates

Uses thin variant of the Ionic column

The ancient Greeks made a lasting impact on Western traditions in architectural style

Adopted by the Romans

Influenced Renaissance and Baroque

Revived in the 18th century to celebrate the rise of democracy (in the US and France)

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2.5.10 Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Details of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian capitals

Ancient Greek architects standardized the basic column, an essential point of compression to support the weight of a building

Column: capital, shaft, and base

Orders: Doric, Ionic, Corinthian

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The Doric order is characterized by a simple, round “pillow” capital, a wide, heavy shaft, and the original form did not have a base

The Ionic order is capped with a scroll-like shape called a volute, and has a thin shaft and an ornate base

The Corinthian order’s showy capital is made up of two rows of acanthus leaves with four volutes that protrude out near the top; columns are thin and have an ornate base

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Portal Artwork: Diagram of the Classical architectural orders

3.1.21 Diagram of the Classical architectural orders

The use of post-and-lintel architecture by the ancient Greeks can be seen in three distinct styles: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian.

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The Acropolis and Parthenon of Athens

(History/Themes)

To explore further the buildings of the Acropolis complex, watch:

Video:

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Arches in Ancient Architecture

In early architecture, lintels could not span large spaces; stone would snap under heavy pressure

Instead, architects used the arch:

Corbeled (Babylonians, Mycenaeans)

Rounded (perfected by the Romans)

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Corbeled Arch

2.5.11 Corbeled arch

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The stepping inward of successive layers of stonework over the doorway allows for the compression created by the weight of the building to be directed outward through cantilevered (secured at only one end) stones, rather than downward

This reduces the pressure on the structure and allows the architect to design and span larger spaces

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Artwork: Treasury of Atreus

2.5.12 Entrance, Treasury of Atreus, c. 1250 bce, Mycenae, Greece

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Entrance, Treasury of Atreus

Early Greek construction using a corbeled arch

Progressive cantilevering of stones above the lintel

Allows more light to enter the chamber

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Early inhabitants of the Greek coastline experimented with ways to open up interior spaces through the use of corbeled arches

The entrance to the Treasury of Atreus (also called the Tomb of Agamemnon), built around 1250 bce, provides a glimpse into ancient construction

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Arch Construction

2.5.13 Arch construction

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The Romans perfected the rounded arch

More efficient way of distributing compressive stress over the whole of the structure by distributing the weight of the building outward along the entire span of the arc

Its efficiency helped the Romans span wider spaces than any previous architects had managed

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Artwork: Pont du Gard

2.5.14 Pont du Gard, first century CE, Nîmes, France

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Pont du Gard, Nîmes

Ancient Roman structure in southern France: an aqueduct and bridge

No mortar; stones perfectly cut to fit

Benefitted the local community and projected Roman imperial power

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The goal of the aqueduct was to create a consistent downhill path for the water: one inch down for every thirty-three inches along

After conquering an area, the Romans often built aqueducts and roads to allow their armies to move quickly around the new territory

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Vaults

A vault is an arch that has been extended like a long hallway to create an open space overhead

Common example: barrel vault

Can span larger areas of interior space

Important during the European Middle Ages

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Roman architects used three important architectural structures: the arch, vault, and dome.

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Barrel Vault

2.5.15 Barrel vault

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The most common type of vault, the barrel vault, consists of a long, semicircular arch.

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Church of Sainte-Madeleine

2.5.16 Church of Sainte-Madeleine, 12th century.

Vézelay, France

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Church of Sainte-Madeleine

Romanesque church

A stop on a Christian pilgrimage route

Barrel vaults accommodated large numbers of visitors

Required thick walls; windows must be small (dreary interior)

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The Church of Sainte-Madeleine at Vézelay in France was a stop along the Christian pilgrimage route to the holy church Santiago de Compostela in Spain

Vaulted aisles counteract the outward pressure on the walls and support both sides of the central nave

Dark and gloomy interior spaces due to the need for thick supporting walls

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Diagram of Gothic Architectural Features

2.5.17a Gothic architectural features

Diagram of Gothic architectural construction

2.5.17b Gothic architectural construction, showing flying buttresses

Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France

2.5.18 Elongated stained-glass windows and soaring rib vaults, Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, France

Abbot Suger and the Dynamics of Gothic Architecture

Abbot Suger believed worshipers:

Should be bathed in divine light

Flying buttresses allowed for large stained-glass windows

Should feel lifted up toward heaven

Pointed arches, rib vaults

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Abbot Suger (1081–1151) had the Abbey Church of Saint-Denis, near Paris, France, rebuilt from its original Romanesque style to provide a much grander place for worship

The Abbey Church of Saint-Denis was the national church of France; it housed the remains of the country’s patron saint, Saint Denis, and many French kings

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Portal Artwork: Chartres Cathedral

3.2.25 Chartres Cathedral, completed 1260, France

More about Gothic engineering and the role of flying buttresses can be seen the exterior of Chartres Cathedral, France.

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The Gothic Cathedral of Chartres

Video (History/Themes)

To explore further the features of Gothic architecture, watch:

Video:

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Domes

Structurally, a dome is like an arch rotated 360 degrees on its vertical axis

Very strong structure

Can span large areas because the weight is dispersed outward toward the walls

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Most dome constructions require the support of thick walls or some other system for distributing the weight.

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Artwork: Hagia Sophia

2.5.19 Hagia Sophia, 532–35 CE, Istanbul, Turkey

Hagia Sophia, Istanbul

Byzantine structure

Impressive, enormous dome roof

Largest interior space of any cathedral for nearly 1,000 years

Illuminated by clerestory windows

Pendentives transfer the load of the circular dome to four massive pillars

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Abbot Suger had said he wanted his church to be more impressive than the Church of Hagia Sophia (Holy Wisdom) in Constantinople (modern Istanbul, Turkey)

The Hagia Sophia is a magnificent Byzantine (late Roman, with Eastern influences) structure that had already been standing for more than 500 years by Suger’s time

Clerestory windows: a row of windows high up in a church to admit light into the nave

Pendentive: a curving triangular surface that links a dome to a square space below

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Portal Artwork: The Pantheon

3.1.35 Pantheon, interior view, c. 118–125 CE, Rome, Italy

The Pantheon is an iconic Roman domed building that influenced similar structures that came after it.

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Pendentives

2.5.20 Pendentives

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Portal Artwork: Hagia Sophia

3.2.6 Hagia Sophia (exterior), 532–35 CE, Istanbul, Turkey

The Hagia Sophia is an architectural marvel that has pendentives to transition from a round dome to a square support.

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Post-and-Beam (Wooden) Architecture

The post-and-beam construction technique has been used to build some of the world’s finest wooden architecture

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Post-and-beam architecture

2.5.21 Post-and-beam architecture

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Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple)

2.5.22 Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple), Kondo and pagoda, c. 7th century, Nara, Japan

Horyu-ji (Horyu Temple), Kondo and pagoda

First temple in the complex built in 607

Example of the durability of well-constructed wooden buildings

Cross-beams and counter-beams create a series of layers supporting the roof

Enabled impressive height

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The construction of the Horyu-ji complex was the idea of the Japanese emperor Yomei, who hoped to gain spiritual favor so he could recover from illness, but died before work started

In 607 Empress Suiko and Crown Prince Shotoku fulfilled the emperor’s dying wish and built the first temple in the complex

The main building of the complex, the Kondo, is almost 61 feet long by 50 feet wide

The Goju-no-To (Five-story Pagoda) is 122 feet tall

The pagoda’s height was designed to impress rather than serve any practical purpose, since it is not possible to enter the top four floors

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View of the Taj Mahal

2.5.23 View of the Taj Mahal from the Yamuna River, Agra, India

Taj Mahal Support Structure

2.5.24 Diagram illustrating the support structure of the Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal Engineering Eternity

Created as a symbol of love

Masterpiece of Islamic symmetry

Built next to the Yamuna River

River levels are dropping, jeopardizing the wooden support structure

Gateway to Art:

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In 1631, the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan’s third wife, Mumtaz Mahal, died in childbirth

Jahan’s grief was so profound he dedicated all of his vast resources to the creation of a mausoleum complex in her honor that would endure throughout eternity

The central dome is 58 feet in diameter and 213 feet tall

Four domed chambers emanate from this central dome, balanced on an octagon-shaped platform

Four towers called minarets, each 162 feet high, frame the corners of the large structure

Because the building was so close to the river, which would rise and fall with the seasons, a clever combination of stone filler material and wooden supports was constructed to hold the foundation in place

Many fear that this building, which has so far transcended time, may not be able to survive the realities of the mortal world for ever; the marble is suffering discoloration from polluted air, and cracks are appearing on the surface

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“The Abode of Paradise”: The Taj Mahal

Video:

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Classical Architectural Styles

Greek and Roman architectural styles

Endured the ravages of time

Inspired Western civilization

Renaissance architects

Revived again in the mid-18th century (Neoclassicism)

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Artwork: Tempietto of San Pietro

2.5.25 Donato Bramante,

Tempietto of San Pietro,

c. 1502. Rome, Italy

Donato Bramante, Tempietto of San Pietro

High Renaissance architect

Built a memorial where St. Peter was believed to have been crucified

Centrally planned church in Rome

Reflects influences from ancient Roman domed structures

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One of the great architects of the High Renaissance who drew inspiration from the ancients was Donato Bramante (1444–1514)

The Tempietto (Italian for “small temple”)

Bramante, like many Renaissance architects, particularly sought to design works that used geometric shapes and forms, such as circles, spheres, and cylinders

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Chiswick House

2.5.26 Lord Burlington, Chiswick House, 1729, Chiswick, London, England

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Lord Burlington, Chiswick House

Neoclassicism (mid-18th century)

Reaction against opulent Baroque and Rococo styles

Gives orderly attention to simple geometric shapes and forms

Inspired by Classical styles, but also integrates contemporary elements

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One of the first expressions of Neoclassical architecture was designed by an English aristocrat named Richard Boyle, better known as Lord Burlington

His design for Chiswick House reflects an interest in the historical beginnings of Western architecture combined with the practical concerns of the 18th century (which are in evidence in the chimneys that straddle the domed central roof)

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The Emergence of the Methods and Materials of the Modern World

In the 19th century, iron, steel, and concrete became commonly used

Architects found new ways to control tension and compression

New materials; new types of buildings

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Stick Style house

2.5.27 Stick Style house using balloon framing, Brockville, Ontario, Canada

Stick Style house

Balloon framing, invented in 1832, commonly used in the US today

Lightweight wooden frames support the structure

Fabricated using power saws

The Stick Style: decorative design, asymmetry with steep roofs

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Cast-Iron Architecture

Cast iron has been available since ancient times

Molten iron can be cast in a mold to almost any shape

It was not until the 18th century that it could be smelted in large quantities for building

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Artwork: Crystal Palace

2.5.28 Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, 1851, London. 19th-century engraving

Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace

Designed for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London

Skeletal cast-iron structure supports glass walls and roof

Inspired other architects to work with iron, including Gustave Eiffel

Destroyed by fire in 1936

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An important example of the use of cast iron during the Industrial Revolution was the Crystal Palace, designed by Sir Joseph Paxton (1803–1865)

The building was more than a third of a mile long; it was completed in only 8 months by 2,000 men; and it used 4,500 tons of cast iron and 990,000 square feet of glass

It was eventually dismantled and reassembled in south London, where it became an exhibition center and concert hall

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Steel-Frame Construction

Steel is a material made from iron and a small quantity of carbon

Stronger than pure iron and had even greater potential

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Wainwright Building

2.5.29 Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building, 1890–91, St. Louis, Missouri

Louis Sullivan, Wainwright Building

Sullivan, the “father of Modernism”, pioneered the use of steel and the creation of skyscrapers

“Form follows function,” versatile interior space

Exterior of the building reflects the elements of a column

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Louis Sullivan (1856–1924) participated in the rebuilding of Chicago after the Great Fire of 1871

Chicago provided fertile ground for creative young architects, and Sullivan pushed the use of steel frame to new heights

Because the steel frame supports the building, and because it is mostly located at its outer edges, the space of the interior can easily be reconfigured to meet the specific needs of the user

The middle and tallest area shows strong vertical emphasis, with its projecting rectangular-section shafts and high, narrow windows.

The lower section (base) shows little ornamentation and reflects ideas of the time about the frivolous nature of ornament.

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Neue Nationalgalerie

2.5.30 Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie, 1968, Berlin, Germany

Mies van der Rohe, Neue Nationalgalerie

Mies van der Rohe: “Less is more”

Because steel frames carry the load of the building, many Modernist architects realized there was no need to use a facing material (stone, brick)

The entire side of the building could be sheathed in glass

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Adrian Smith and Bill Baker, Burj Khalifa

2.5.31 Adrian Smith and

Bill Baker (Skidmore,

Owings & Merrill),

Burj Khalifa, 2010. Dubai,

United Arab Emirates

Burj Khalifa, Dubai

Became the tallest man-made structure when it opened in 2010

Design was derived from the spiraling minarets of Islamic architecture

Structural framing is tubular steel, making the support lighter

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Designed and built by the architecture and engineering firm Skidmore, Owings & Merrill under the supervision of American architect Adrian Smith (b. 1944) and engineer Bill Baker (b. 1953).

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Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye

2.5.32 Le Corbusier, Villa Savoye, 1928–31, Poissy, France

Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater

2.5.33 Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1939, Bear Run, Pennsylvania

Contrasting Ideas in Modern Architecture: Villa Savoye and Fallingwater

Le Corbusier (International Style)

Buildings are a “machine for living”

Inexpensive industrial materials

Strong geometry, unadorned

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Le Corbusier’s (1887–1965) Villa Savoye

The Villa Savoye in Poissy, France was completed in 1931 as a weekend residence for a family that lived in Paris during the week

Le Corbusier was a Swiss–French architect

The International Style was promoted as a universal aesthetic form that could be built in any geographical or cultural environment relatively inexpensively

Le Corbusier wanted nature to be viewed from a comfortable vantage point, and believed that buildings should be designed around the lifestyle of the occupants

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Contrasting Ideas in Modern Architecture: Villa Savoye and Fallingwater (contd.)

Frank Lloyd Wright believed in the organic relationship between site and building

Location, materials, design

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Frank Lloyd Wright’s Fallingwater

American architect Frank Lloyd Wright (1867–1959) was commissioned to build Fallingwater in Bear Run, Pennsylvania, as a weekend getaway for the Kaufmann family

Wright placed the house right on top of a waterfall

Many of the materials collected from the surrounding countryside

The design mimics the layers in the rocks around the site, and the reinforced concrete is colored to fit in as well

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Frank Lloyd Wright and the Guggenheim Museum

(History/Themes)

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Reinforced Concrete

Concrete is a mixture of cement and ground stone

It is reinforced through the use of a fibrous material or steel rods called rebars; to prevent cracking

Widespread use since the nineteenth century

Poured into a “form”

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Architects began to use reinforced concrete as a way of avoiding the hard, right-angled edges of buildings made from blocks or bricks

In architecture, steel rebar is shaped to the architect’s design specifications; builders make a large wooden mold, and then pour the concrete into the “form”

Reinforced concrete gave rise to shell architecture, which is the use of a solid shell that also provides support for the structure

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Artwork: Sydney Opera House

2.5.34 Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House, 1973, Sydney, Australia

Jørn Utzon, Sydney Opera House

Testament to the expressive character of reinforced concrete

The rooflines resemble billowing sails

The “sails” were created over precast ribs and then set into place

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When Danish architect Jørn Utzon (1918–2008) designed the Sydney Opera House, overlooking the harbor of Sydney, Australia, he broke away from Modernist rectangular designs

Owing to a succession of technical problems with this innovative building, the project cost fourteen times its intended budget

As controversy surrounding the project escalated, Utzon resigned nine years before its completion

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The Postmodern Reaction to Modernism

Postmodernism was a new approach to architecture that began in the 1980s

Postmodernism combined the hard rectangles of Modernism with unusual materials and features of styles from the past

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Artwork: Humana Building

2.5.35 Michael Graves, Humana Building, 1985, Louisville, Kentucky

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Michael Graves, Humana Building

Mix of historical styles and references:

Greek: implied columns, portico, cornice and triangular glass structure (pediment)

Baroque: curved portion of the upper building

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The Humana Building in downtown Louisville, Kentucky was designed by American Michael Graves (1934–2015)

Color and texture is varied, unlike the simplicity and purity of Modernism

A piece of Modernist architecture would not include influences from Greek or Baroque architecture because the Modernist idea was to create a new style that was not based on the past

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Artwork: Quadracci Pavilion

2.5.36 Santiago Calatrava, Quadracci Pavilion, Milwaukee Art Museum, Wisconsin, 2001

Santiago Calatrava, Quadracci Pavilion

Exhibition space for contemporary art at the Milwaukee Art Museum

Expresses the character of the site (shores of Lake Michigan)

Reminiscent of ships passing by

Kinetic: a moveable sunscreen slowly rises and lowers, like a flapping bird

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In Postmodernist architecture, form no longer follows function

Sometimes the building seems like a huge toy, a playful exploration of what we expect a building to be

Designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava (b. 1951)

A cable-suspended bridge over a beautiful expanse of water also connects the museum to downtown Milwaukee

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Model of Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati

2.5.37a Zaha Hadid, Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati, Ohio. Study model by the architects, experimenting with different structural ideas

Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati

2.5.37b Zaha Hadid,

Contemporary Arts Center,

2003, Cincinnati, Ohio

Zaha Hadid: A Building for Exciting Events

Designed the gallery spaces as a three-dimensional “jigsaw puzzle”; offers organizational flexibility

Visitors are drawn in by the dynamic public space

Seen from the street, the building appears weightless and sculptural

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Perspectives on Art:

Zaha Hadid (b. 1950) was born in Iraq and trained as an architect in London

She describes how an architect thinks about a new building for art exhibitions, performances, and installations in downtown Cincinnati, Ohio

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Currents in Architecture

Concerns over limited resources, energy conservation, and sustainability have become important issues that will shape the future of architecture

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Artwork: Michelle Kaufmann, Glide House

2.5.38 Michelle Kaufmann, Glidehouse, 2004. Marin County, California

Michelle Kaufmann, Glide House

Inexpensive alternative to costly California homes

Based on a prefab module made of sustainable wood

Double pane windows, roof solar cells, recyclable materials

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American architect Michelle Kaufmann (b. 1962)

Was Artist-in-Residence at Google where she worked on new company buildings and developed innovative ideas through research and development

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Portal Artwork: Contemporary Architecture

3.9.32 Michael Graves, Portland Public Services Bulding, 1980–82, Portland, Oregon

For more information about the roots of contemporary architecture see: 3.9.16, p.543.

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Architecture

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Ancient Rome: Capital of an Empire

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Architecture Videos

To explore the construction of some more of the greatest buildings in the world, watch:

St. Peter’s Basilica and the Sistine Chapel

Teotihuacan:

Ancient Mexico’s “Place of the Gods”

Video:

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Chapter 2.5 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.5

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.5

2.5.1 © Jon Arnold Images Ltd/Alamy

2.5.2 Maki and Associates. Courtesy Silverstein Properties

2.5.3 iStockphoto.com

2.5.4 iStockphoto.com

2.5.5 DeAgostini Picture Library/Scala, Florence

2.5.6 Ralph Larmann

2.5.7 Ralph Larmann

2.5.8 Bridgeman Art Library

2.5.9 Index/Bridgeman Art Library

2.5.10 top to bottom: A. Vergani/DeAgostini Picture Library/Diomedia.com; Marco Simoni/imagebroker RM/Diomedia; Photo © Spyros Arsenis/123RF.com

2.5.11 Ralph Larmann

2.5.12 © Natalia Pavlova/Dreamstime.com

2.5.13 Ralph Larmann

2.5.14 © Christophe Boisvieux/Corbis

2.5.15 Ralph Larmann

2.5.16 Photo Scala, Florence

2.5.17a Ralph Larmann

2.5.17b Ralph Larmann

2.5.18 © John Kellerman/Alamy Stock Photo

2.5.19 © Robert Harding Picture Library Ltd/Alamy

2.5.20 Ralph Larmann

2.5.21 Ralph Larmann

2.5.22 © Photo Japan/Alamy

2.5.23 © Martindata/Dreamstime.com

2.5.24 Ralph Larmann

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.5 (contd.)

2.5.25 SuperStock

2.5.26 © Anthony Shaw/Dreamstime.com

2.5.27 Photo Shannon Kyles, ontarioarchitecture.com

2.5.29 Photo Sandak Inc, Stamford, CT

2.5.30 © Interfoto/Alamy

2.5.31 © Jose Fuste Raga/Corbis

2.5.32 © Bildarchiv Monheim GmbH/Alamy

2.5.33 © Richard A. Cooke/Corbis

2.5.34 © Free Agents Limited/Corbis

2.5.35 Photo courtesy Michael Graves & Associates

2.5.36 © Chuck Eckert/Alamy

2.5.37a Courtesy Zaha Hadid Architects

2.5.37b © Roland Halbe/artur

2.5.38 Photo © John Swain

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Chapter 2.5 Architecture

Doric Order Ionic Order Corinthian Order

acroterion

metope triglyph

architrave

abacus echinus

necking

stylobate

stereobate

pediment

gable raking

cornice cornice

frieze

entablature

capital

shaft

base

molding

dentil

volute

acanthus leaf

volute