thgatear3_pptlecture_ch2-04_20181017.pptx

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

Introduction

Sculptures can be made from many materials: e.g. glass, wax, ice, plastic, neon lights, animals

Sculptures exist in three dimensions and occupy physical space

We can walk around them or become immersed in an environment

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Sculptors’ methods today still include chiseling (as Michelangelo did), carving, molding, assembling, and constructing

Inventive sculptors are finding new ways to create their art, and new materials to make it with

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Approaches to Three Dimensions in Sculpture

Sculpture can be freestanding: sculpture in the round

Relief is a type of sculpture specifically designed for viewing from one side

The image in a relief either protrudes from or is sunk into a surface

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Freestanding Sculpture

An approach to sculpture that invites us to examine a work on all sides is known as freestanding, or sculpture in the round

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Artwork: Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy

2.4.1 Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy, 1971–1926 BCE. Granite, 67 × 45¾ × 18”. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts

Sculpture of the Lady Sennuwy

This freestanding sculpture is designed to be seen from the front

We can get a sense of the original block of granite

Egyptian figure sculptures often sit very straight and upright, with arms and legs close to the body

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Lady Sennuwy was the wife of a very powerful governor of an Egyptian province.

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Artwork: Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine

2.4.2a and 2.4.2b Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine, 1582. Gesso, height 13’8”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, Italy

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Giambologna, Rape of a Sabine

This work forms a spiral that draws the viewer around its changing planes

A piece of political propaganda that re-creates an ancient story about the foundation of Rome

Announces that, like Rome, Florence had risen to become a powerful force

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Giambologna (1529–1608), a Flemish artist working in Florence, Italy, designed the Rape of a Sabine at the request of Florence’s ruler, Francesco de’ Medici

The foundation of Rome happened around 753 bce

Most of the early founders of Rome were male; for the city to grow, the Romans needed wives

They solved this problem by inviting their neighbors the Sabines to a festival, during which the Romans seized the Sabine women and forced them to marry

This story symbolized the ability of a small community to become the most powerful city in Italy—as Rome was by Giambologna’s time

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Bas-Relief and High Relief

In bas-relief (bas means “low” in French) the sculptor’s marks are shallow

When a sculptor chooses to carve more deeply, he or she is working in high relief

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Artwork: Dying Lioness

2.4.3 Dying Lioness, limestone relief from the North Palace of Ashurbanipal, Nineveh, Assyrian period, c. 650 BCE. British Museum, London, England

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Dying Lioness

This relief was found in the North Palace of King Ashurbanipal in Mesopotamia

Assyrian kings ruled over a large territory and had powerful armies

Intended to reflect the great strength and bravery of the king as he hunted and killed the fearsome beast

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Found in the ancient city of Nineveh in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

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Artwork: Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold of the Belgians

2.4.4 Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold of the Belgians, 1867, in Christ Church, Esher, England

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Susan Durant, Memorial to King Leopold […]

Durant's relief commemorates the death of Belgium’s first king

The king and lion (representing power and bravery) are sculpted in high relief

They protrude more deeply than the angels, carved in low relief

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Susan Durant (1827–1873) was unusual in being a successful sculptor at a time when it was not easy for women to break into such a profession

She was in demand for her portraits, which included a bust of Harriet Beecher Stowe, the author of the anti-slavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin

Durant became a favorite sculptor to the British royal family, and her memorial to King Leopold I was originally installed in his niece Queen Victoria’s chapel at Windsor Castle in 1867 but was moved to Christ Church, Esher, in 1879

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Artwork: Maya Lintel showing Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc

2.4.5 Maya lintel showing Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc, c. 725 CE. Limestone, 43 × 30¾ × 2⅜”. British Museum, London, England

Maya Lintel: Varying Degrees of Relief for Emphasis

This lintel is carved in high relief

Emphasis of major shapes is created by carving deeper into the stone

Series of glyphs caption the work

Use of different degrees of relief contributes to the image's realism

Gateway to Art:

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Probably chiseled using stone hammers and wooden drills

Shield Jaguar and Lady Xoc reigned from 681-742 CE

Glyphs make up an elaborate written language

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Michelangelo, Prisoner

2.4.6 Michelangelo, Prisoner, known as the Awakening Slave, 1519–20. Marble, height 8’9⅛”. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence, Italy

Artwork: Michelangelo, Separation of Light and Darkness

2.4.7 Michelangelo, Separation of Light and Darkness, 1508–12,

detail of the vault, Sistine

Chapel, Vatican City, Italy

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Artwork: Michelangelo, Tomb of Julius II

2.4.8 Michelangelo, Tomb of Julius II, detail of Moses, 1513–16. Marble, height 7’8½”. San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy

Michelangelo

Michelangelo had a unique mastery of freeing the figure from the stone

He believed sculpture was the finest, most challenging of all the visual arts

Wanted to finish the Sistine Chapel quickly and return to sculptures for the tomb of Pope Julius II

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475–1564) used an unconventional technique to “release” the figure, as he saw it, from the stone

His unfinished sculpture, Awakening Slave, gives an insight into the artist’s technique

Michelangelo also excelled in architecture and painting, yet he saw these arts through the eyes of a sculptor

The tomb of Pope Julius II was never completed in the way that Michelangelo intended, but some finished sculptures survive, such as Moses

The figures in the Sistine Chapel ceiling have the appearance of mass, leading some to believe they are looking at sculptures rather than a painting

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Methods of Sculpture

Subtractive: a sculptor uses a tool to carve, drill, chisel, chip, whittle, or saw away unwanted material

Additive: processes of modeling, casting, or constructing in which sculptors add material to make the final artwork

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Videos about Sculpture

(Media/Processes)

Additive Sculpture

(Media/Processes)

Subtractive Sculpture

Video:

Video:

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Carving

The most ancient works of art that still exist were made using subtractive methods

Most were made of stone or ivory

Worked by chipping, carving, sanding, and polishing

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Artwork: Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku

2.4.9 Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku, Hawaii, 18th or 19th century. Wood, height 8’11”. British Museum, London, England

Figure of the war god Ku-ka’ili-moku

This figure of the Hawaiian war god Ku-ka’ili-moku is carved from larger pieces of wood

A second god, Lono, is symbolized in the figure's hair

Originally created for the powerful King Kamehameha I

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This figure of the Hawaiian war god Ku-ka’ili-moku is nearly nine-foot tall

War god’s name translates as “Ku, the land-grabber”

Exhibits an open mouth (a disrespectful gesture) and was probably intended to gain divine favor

The second god, Lono (god of prosperity) is symbolized by pigs’ heads in Ku’s hair

The combination of the two gods may have represented Kamehameha’s invasions and conquests of adjacent kingdoms

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Portal Artwork: Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure

4.9.15 Henry Moore, Recumbent Figure, 1938. Green Hornton stone, 35 × 52¼ × 29”. Tate, London, England

Carving is not limited to the ancient world. Twentieth-century sculptor Henry Moore also carved large stone sculptures, such as Recumbent Figure.

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Artwork: Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial

2.4.10 John G. de la Mothe Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial, 1927–41. Keystone, South Dakota

Borglum, Mount Rushmore National Memorial

Mt. Rushmore is one of largest and most famous sculpted portraits

Borglum searched for a mountain with the right kind of carving stone

Mostly carved by miners using dynamite

Image of four US Presidents

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John G. de la Mothe Borglum (1867-1941) was the son of Danish Mormon immigrants

Project was originally conceived by Doane Robinson, who was the superintendent of the South Dakota State Historical Society

Robinson envisioned images of Chief Red Cloud, Buffalo Bill Cody, Lewis and Clark

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Modeling

Modeling is an additive process; the artist builds up the work by adding material

Some materials, such as clay or wax, require a temporary skeletal structure for support, called an armature

When clay is dried and fired in a kiln, it becomes very hard and durable

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Many works from antiquity made from clay still exist.

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Artwork: Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

2.4.11 Sarcophagus from Cerveteri, c. 520 BCE. Painted terra-cotta, 3’9½” × 6’7”. Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome, Italy

Sarcophagus from Cerveteri

Four separate terra-cotta pieces make up this sarcophagus, which contains the ashes of the deceased

The couple are relaxed, enjoying themselves at an Etruscan banquet

Tells us that women actively participated in social occasions

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Terra-cotta is baked clay

The expressions are stylized and not a likeness of the deceased

Since this sculpture is part of a tomb, it suggests that celebrations took place upon the death of loved ones, although the figures’ joyful expressions may simply indicate the deceased in an eternal state of happiness

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Casting

This process involves adding a liquid or pliable material to a mold

First, a model of the final sculpture is made; this is used to make a mold into which a casting liquid is poured

When it hardens, the result is a detailed replica of the original model

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Artwork: Riace Warrior A

2.4.12 Riace Warrior A, c. 460 BCE. Bronze with copper, silver, and ivory, height 6'6”. Museo Nazionale della Magna Grecia, Reggio di Calabria, Italy

Riace Warrior A

This sculpture is a fine example of the lost-wax method of casting in bronze (copper and tin)

Discovered in 1972 by scuba divers off the coast at Riace, Italy

Made when the Greeks emphasized the perfection of the human body

Posed in relaxed contrapposto

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Bronze is an alloy, or mixture, of copper and tin; it melts at a relatively low temperature (an average of 1,750ºF)

Once formed and cooled it is light (compared to stone) and durable

Contrapposto (Italian for “opposite”) is a pose that uses the natural curvature of the body to enliven the design

By shifting the weight to the right leg, the hips are set at a slight angle, which is countered by small shifts in the shoulders, with the head fractionally tilted

May have been cast to celebrate the victory of the Athenians over the invading Persians

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Lost-wax Casting Process

2.4.13 Seven steps in the lost-wax casting process

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Lost-wax casting process

The artist begins by building an armature (1)

Then the artist adds clay to it to create the form (2)

A thick layer of wax is added to the armature, and any detail the sculptor wishes to see in the final work is carved into the wax (3)

Clay, sand, and ground-up pieces of old molds are used to cover the surface of the wax form, preserving all the detail. This hard coating, which needs to be strong enough to bear the heat and weight of the metal until it cools, will be the mold (4)

Small holes are drilled in the bottom of the mold, which is then placed in a kiln. In the oven, the wax melts out through the holes in the bottom of the mold, leaving a hollow space inside the mold (5)

Immediately after the mold has been removed from the kiln, very hot molten metal—in this case, bronze—is poured into it (6)

When the metal has cooled, the mold is removed (usually by breaking it with a hammer) to reveal the work—which is still not finished (7)

The artist cuts off any extra metal, then sands and polishes

Over time, exposure to the elements can add surface color, called a patina, to bronze sculpture

Lost-wax casting is called a substitution process because the molten metal takes the place of the wax

Other materials, such as foam or wood, are occasionally used as substitution materials instead of wax, because they can be burnt out of the mold

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Principal Materials of Sculpture

Marble (Metamorphic Stone)

Hardwood (Wood)

Plaster (Sulfate of lime)

Ceramic (Clay)

Beeswax (Wax)

Bronze (Metal)

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Marble (Metamorphic Stone)

The sculptor can subtract material from the block until it has been reduced to the intended final shape

Finishing can be done by sanding and polishing

Tools: Chisels, files, sandpaper, polishing cloths

Hardwood (Wood)

The sculptor can subtract through carving and sawing or construct by gluing or nailing

Finishing can be done by sanding, polishing, oiling, and then varnishing

Tools: Chisels, wood rasps, sandpaper, penetrating oils, varnish

Plaster (Sulfate of lime)

The sculptor can cast the form or carve a cast block

Finishing is done by sanding

Plaster is sometimes used as a preliminary form if casting clay

Tools: Chisels, files, sandpaper

Ceramic (Clay)

The sculptor can model this pliable material into any shape, or cast it in a mold

Finishing can be done by drying, heating in a kiln, then adding a clay and chemical compound before re-firing to achieve a glaze

Tools: Wire, smoothing tools (like a thin rounded piece of flexible metal called a rib), kiln

Beeswax (Wax)

The sculptor can model this pliable material or make a cast using the material in liquid form

Finishing is achieved by heating the surface and polishing

Wax is sometimes used as the preliminary form for bronze casting

Tools: Carving tools, heated surface (like a griddle), heat gun

Bronze (Metal)

The sculptor can cast molten bronze, weld pieces together using a torch, or hammer, usually with some heat, until it reaches the desired form

Finishing is done by adding a chemical compound to the surface to stabilize oxidation

Tools: Hammers, furnace, welding torches, grinders, sandpaper

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Pushing beyond Traditional Methods

Artists have found other ways to enliven sculpture that go beyond conventional additive and subtractive techniques

Earthworks, construction, assemblage, readymades, kinetic and light sculptures, and installation

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Earthworks

This type of art uses the surface of the Earth as material

Because of their enormous size, earthworks need the collaboration of many artists and workers

Many believe earthworks should represent a sense of harmony between nature and humanity

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Today, earthwork projects are obliged to have permits and community approval, and to involve large groups of workers and heavy equipment

Artists do not earn money from their artworks, but create them as a service to the community

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Land Art

(History/Themes)

Video:

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Artwork: Great Serpent Mound

2.4.15 Great Serpent Mound, c. 800 BCE–100 CE, 1330 × 3’, Locust Grove, Adams County, Ohio

Great Serpent Mound

Prehistoric artists heaped piles of earth to “sculpt” this work onto the Ohio landscape

Resembles a snake with its mouth open, ingesting an egg

Position and alignment suggest that it was used in making solar observations

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The identity of the people who created it is still debated

The head of the serpent and the egg are aligned to the position of the setting sun on the summer solstice (the longest day of the year)

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Artwork: Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

2.4.16 Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty, 1969–70. Black rock, salt crystals, and earth, diameter 160’, coil length 1500 × 15’.

Great Salt Lake, Utah

Robert Smithson, Spiral Jetty

In the 1960s, artists again became interested in earthworks

The spiral is a shape naturally found in shells, crystals, and even galaxies

The artwork is not static – it constantly evolves as it interacts with nature

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The best-known modern earthwork is Robert Smithson’s (1938–1973) Spiral Jetty in the Great Salt Lake in Utah

The coiled artwork was made using 6,550 tons of rock and dirt, sourced from dump trucks, to pave a spiraling roadbed out into the salt lake

The artwork drowns and then rises with a new encrustation of salt crystals

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Construction

Uses a variety of methods to create and put together components

Idea is relatively new; proliferated with the growth of engineered materials, such as plastic and sheet metal

Soviet Constructivists created an entire movement based on these techniques

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Constructivists considered art to be a scientific investigation of the social needs of the time

Their sculptural construction techniques were associated more with a factory than with an art studio

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Artwork: Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2

2.4.17 Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2, 1916. Cor-ten steel, 69 × 52¾ × 48¼”. Tate, London, England

Naum Gabo, Constructed Head No. 2

The Constructivist artist Gabo investigates the sense of space and form implied by flat planes

More interested in showing interior construction than the exterior surface

Welded the intersecting planes of metal together

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Soviet Constructivist Naum Gabo (b. Naum Neemia Pevsner, 1890–1977), had studied physics, mathematics, and engineering.

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Artwork: Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

2.4.18 Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living, 1991. Glass, painted steel, silicone, monofilament, shark, and formaldehyde solution, 7’1½” × 17’9⅜” × 5’10⅞”

Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living

A large tank of formaldehyde holds a suspended dead shark

Hirst is known for creating unusual sculptural objects that contrast life and death

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Contemporary artists have adopted modern-day industrial techniques and unconventional materials to create their sculptures, challenging traditional notions of what sculptures can be

British artist Damien Hirst (b. 1965) did not construct the shark; he had it caught by fishermen

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Assemblage

The practice of gathering objects and fabricating them into a work of art is called assemblage

The gathered objects (called found objects) are repurposed so that they support the visual ideas of the artist

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Artwork: Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima

2.4.19 Betye Saar, The

Liberation of Aunt Jemima,

1972. Mixed media assemblage, 11 ¾ × 8 × 2¾”. Collection University of California, Berkeley Art Museum, California

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Betye Saar, The Liberation of Aunt Jemima

Saar collected a variety of found objects, such as cotton, syrup labels, and a stereotypical “Mammy” doll

Explores themes of identity: her art examines the survival of African traditions in black culture

Challenges stereotypes

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Contemporary African-American artist Betye Saar (b. 1926)

The objects symbolize the relics and memorabilia of both personal and societal history as it relates to issues of gender and race

These pieces represent influences that were important to traditional African groups

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Readymades

This artistic approach was pioneered by Marcel Duchamp as a way of challenging traditional ideas

He argued that when chosen and presented by an artist, any found object can become a work of art

Appropriation: the object is altered in a way that changes its original meaning or purpose

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For French artist Marcel Duchamp (1887–1968) the act of discovery (or of conceiving the artwork) was the most important part of the artist’s process

Appropriation: the deliberate incorporation in an artwork of material originally created by other artists

Creates endless possibilities for artists to redefine art and helps us see things differently

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Artwork: Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head

2.4.20 Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head, 1942. Assemblage of bicycle seat and handlebars,

13¼ × 17⅛ × 7½”. Musée Picasso, Paris, France

Pablo Picasso, Bull’s Head

This readymade work by Picasso combined the handlebars and the seat of a bicycle

They resemble a bull’s head, yet they are also recognizable as bicycle parts

His intent was both a serious and a humorous attempt to redefine art

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Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) was following in the footsteps of the French artist Marcel Duchamp.

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Kinetic and Light Sculpture

Sculpture that moves is called kinetic sculpture

These moving and lighted works rely on mechanical engineering as well as the creative input of the artist

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Sculptors who work with movement and light express their ideas in ways that would not have been possible just a century or two ago.

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Artwork: George Rickey, Breaking Column

2.4.21 George Rickey, Breaking Column, 1986 (completed by the artist’s estate, 2009). Stainless steel, 9’11⅜” × 5½”. Contemporary Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii

George Rickey, Breaking Column

Carefully balanced so that it can pivot in a variety of directions

Provides an infinite number of constantly changing views

Moved by the slightest current of air; also has a motor, and moves even when there is no wind

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American artist George Rickey (1907–2002).

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Artwork: László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage

2.4.22 László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage, 1929–30. Exhibition replica, constructed 2006, through the courtesy of Hattula Moholy-Nagy. Metal, plastics, glass, paint, and wood, with electric motor, 59½ × 27⅝ × 27⅝”. Harvard Art Museums, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts

László Moholy-Nagy, Light Prop for an Electric Stage

Initially created as a stage lighting device, it became the main character in a film by the artist

A motor moves a series of perforated discs that cross in front of a light

These changes in lighting influence the surrounding environment

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Hungarian László Moholy-Nagy (1895–1946) was one of the first artists to merge movement, lighting, and performance into a single work

He was interested in the work of the Constructivists and wanted to incorporate technology into his art

Through the use of light an artist can change how a viewer perceives a three-dimensional space

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Installations

Involve the construction of a space or the assembly of objects to create an environment

The audience is encouraged to experience the work physically using all of the senses, and perhaps by entering the work itself

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Artwork: Athena Tacha, Star Fountain

2.4.23 Athena Tacha in collaboration with EDAW of Alexandria, Virginia, Star Fountain (night view), 2009. Sandstone, cast stone, granite, brick, glass, animated RGB-LEDs. Muhammad Ali Plaza, Louisville, Kentucky

Athena Tacha, Star Fountain

Tacha's vertical glass columns are organized into a spiraling shape

Colors change over a four-minute time span

Movement in the work recalls the action of dance, as the rhythms of the installation flow in graceful patterns

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MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

An installation work by the Greek-born artist Athena Tacha (b. 1936) deals with action

The reflecting water and the adjacent work, Dancing Steps (also by Tacha) enliven the surrounding plaza

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Artwork: Antony Gormley, Asian Field

2.4.24a Antony Gormley, Asian Field, work in progress, 2003. Clay from Guangdong Province, China.

Hand-sized clay elements made in collaboration with people from Xiangshan village. Xiangshan, China

Installation view of Asian Field

2.4.24b Antony Gormley, Asian Field, 2003.

210,000 hand-sized clay elements, installation view, warehouse of former Shanghai No. 10 Steelworks, China

Antony Gormley, Asian Field

Gormley handed out balls of clay and instructed participants to form an image of their own bodies

“They are simply lived moments made into matter”

“My work is at its best when inserted into the stream of everyday life”

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Perspectives on Art:

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Antony Gormley (b. 1950) is a British sculptor whose work is concerned with the human form. He developed the vast installation, Asian Field (1991–2003), as an art project beginning in 1983.

“The figures in my work are not portraits, they are corpographs: a three-dimensional equivalent of a photograph but which is left as a negative, as a void.”

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Sculpture Videos

For more great sculpture made with a range of processes and for a variety of locations and functions, watch:

(History/Themes)

Ancient Rome: Capital of an Empire

(History/Themes)

Gianlorenzo Bernini:

The Ecstasy of St. Teresa

Video:

Video:

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Sculpture Videos (contd.)

(History/Themes)

The Master Sculptors of Benin and Ife

(History/Themes)

Memorial and Controversy: Maya Lin’s Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Video:

Video:

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

MoMA Videos

To learn more about sculpture, watch these videos of MoMA lecturers talking about sculptures in the

MoMA collection:

Constantin Brancusi

Umberto Boccioni,

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space

Dynamism of a Soccer Player

MoMA Video

MoMA Video

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

MoMA Videos (contd.)

Donald Judd,

Untitled (Stack)

Marcel Duchamp,

Bicycle Wheel

MoMA Video

MoMA Video

PART 2

MEDIA AND PROCESSES

Chapter 2.4 Sculpture

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts, Third Edition, Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Chapter 2.4 Copyright Information

This concludes the PowerPoint slide set for Chapter 2.4

Gateways to Art: Understanding the Visual Arts

Third Edition

By Debra J. DeWitte, Ralph M. Larmann, and M. Kathryn Shields

Copyright © 2015 Thames & Hudson

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.4

2.4.1 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Massachusetts/Harvard University – Museum of Fine Arts Expedition/Bridgeman Art Library

2.4.2a Ex S.S.P.S.A.E e per il Polo Museale della città di Firenze - Gabinetto Fotografico

2.4.2b Ex S.S.P.S.A.E e per il Polo Museale della città di Firenze - Gabinetto Fotografico

2.4.3 British Museum, London

2.4.4 Photograph Jacqueline Banerjee, Associate Editor of the Victorian Web www.victorianweb.org

2.4.5 Photo Trustees of the British Museum, London

2.4.6 Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali

2.4.7 Photo 1998/Mondadori Portfolio/akg-images

2.4.8 Photo Scala, Florence, courtesy Ministero Beni e Att. Culturali

2.4.9 Photo Trustees of the British Museum, London

2.4.10 Photo © Lynn Bystrom/123RF.com

2.4.11 Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome

2.4.12 Nimatallah/akg-images

2.4.13 Ralph Larmann

2.4.14 top to bottom: © nagelestock.com/Alamy; Photo courtesy Andrew Early; The New York Historical Society, New York City; Museo del Templo Mayor, Mexico City, CONACULTA- INAH, 10-220302; Undercroft Museum, Westminster Abbey, London; © The Estate of Alberto Giacometti (Fondation Annette et Alberto Giacometti, Paris and ADAGP, Paris), licensed in the UK by ACS and DACS, London 2018

2.4.15 © Richard A. Cooke/Corbis

2.4.16 Photo Tom Smart

2.4.17 Photo Tate, London 2012. The works of Naum Gabo © Nina Williams

2.4.18 Photographed by Prudence Cuming Associates. © Damien Hirst and Science Ltd. All rights reserved, DACS 2018

2.4.19 Collection University of California, Berkeley Art Museum; purchased with the aid of funds from
the National Endowment for the Arts (selected by The Committee for the Acquisition of Afro-American Art). Photograph Joshua Nefsky. Courtesy Michael Rosenfeld Gallery LLC, New York

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Picture Credits for Chapter 2.4 (contd.)

2.4.20 © Succession Picasso/DACS, London 2018

2.4.21 Photo Mark Pollock/Estate of George Rickey. © Estate of George Rickey/DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2018

2.4.22 Harvard Art Museums, Busch-Reisinger Museum, Hildegard von Gontard Bequest Fund, 2007.105. Photo Junius Beebe, President & Fellows of Harvard College

2.4.23 Commissioned by Parking Authority of River City, Louisville; glass fabrication by AGA of Louisville; fountain consulting by Waterline Fountains of Austin, TX; RGB animation by Color Kinetics of Boston. Photo Richard E. Spear. © Athena Tacha

2.4.24a Photograph by Zhang Haier

2.4.24b Photo Dai Wei, Shanghai © the artist

 

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Chapter 2.4 Sculpture