Scenario Question
Impaler_2019Supplement 4
Reliability
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1
Learning Objectives
You should be able to:
4S.1 Define reliability
4S.2 Perform simple reliability computations
4S.3 Explain the term availability and perform simple calculations
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Learning Objective 4S.1
Reliability
Reliability
The ability of a product, part, or system to perform its intended function under a prescribed set of conditions
Reliability is expressed as a probability:
The probability that the product or system will function when activated
The probability that the product or system will function for a given length of time
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability – When Activated (1 of 5)
Finding the probability under the assumption that the system consists of a number of independent components
Requires the use of probabilities for independent events
Independent event
Events whose occurrence or nonoccurrence do not influence one another
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability – When Activated (2 of 5)
Rule 1
If two or more events are independent and success is defined as the probability that all of the events occur, then the probability of success is equal to the product of the probabilities of the events
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability – When Activated (3 of 5)
Though individual system components may have high reliabilities, the system’s reliability may be considerably lower because all components that are in series must function
One way to enhance reliability is to utilize redundancy
Redundancy
The use of backup components to increase reliability
4S‹#›
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6
Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability  When Activated (4 of 5)
Rule 2
If two events are independent and success is defined as the probability that at least one of the events will occur, the probability of success is equal to the probability of either one plus 1.00 minus that probability multiplied by the other probability
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability – When Activated (5 of 5)
Rule 3
If two or more events are involved and success is defined as the probability that at least one of them occurs, the probability of success is 1  P(all fail)
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Rule 1
A machine has two buttons. In order for the machine to function, both buttons must work. One button has a probability of working of .95, and the second button has a probability of working of .88.
→Button 1 (.95)→Button 2 (.88)
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Rule 2 (1 of 2)
A restaurant located in area that has frequent power outages has a generator to run its refrigeration equipment in case of a power failure. The local power company has a reliability of .97, and the generator has a reliability of .90. The probability that the restaurant will have power is
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Rule 2 (2 of 2)
Generator (.90)→Power Co. (.97)→
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Rule 3 (1 of 2)
A student takes three calculators (with reliabilities of .85, .80, and .75) to her exam. Only one of them needs to function for her to be able to finish the exam. What is the probability that she will have a functioning calculator to use when taking her exam?
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Rule 3 (2 of 2)
Calc. 3 (.75)
Calc. 2 (.80)
Calc. 1 (.85)
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
What Is This System’s Reliability?
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Reliability – Over Time
In this case, reliabilities are determined relative to a specified length of time
This is a common approach to viewing reliability when establishing warranty periods
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
The Bathtub Curve
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Distribution and Length of Phase
To properly identify the distribution and length of each phase requires collecting and analyzing historical data
The mean time between failures (MTBF) in the infant mortality phase can often be modeled using the negative exponential distribution
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Exponential Distribution
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Exponential Distribution  Formulae
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Exponential Distribution (1 of 2)
A light bulb manufacturer has determined that its 150 watt bulbs have an exponentially distributed mean time between failures of 2,000 hours. What is the probability that one of these bulbs will fail before 2,000 hours have passed?
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.2
Example – Exponential Distribution (2 of 2)
So, the probability one of these bulbs will fail before 2,000 hours is 1  .3679 = .6321
4S‹#›
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21
Learning Objective 4S.2
Normal Distribution
Sometimes, failures due to wearout can be modeled using the normal distribution
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.3
Availability
Availability
The fraction of time a piece of equipment is expected to be available for operation
4S‹#›
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Learning Objective 4S.3
Example – Availability
John Q. Student uses a laptop at school. His laptop operates 30 weeks on average between failures. It takes 1.5 weeks, on average, to put his laptop back into service. What is the laptop’s availability?
4S‹#›
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End of Presentation
© McGrawHill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGrawHill Education.
4S‹#›
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