Research Proposal Draft




Vaccination and Immunization



Nursing Research Methods



February 3rd, 2019

Vaccination and Immunization


Immunization is a process whereby an individual, especially a child below six years, is made resistant against an infectious illness. Immunization is done through administrating some medicine commonly known as vaccines. Vaccines are administered in an individual’s body orally or though injections. Vaccines are of great importance in that they boost the body’s immunity thus preventing the individual from being infected with the disease later in life.

Immunization is one of the tools that have been proven to drastically reduce the number of deaths in the world. Approximately two million deaths have been avoided annually because parents are informed about the necessities of immunizing their children (Russell, 1998). Thus, with effective medical support from organizations such as WHO (World Health Organization), the immunization processes is able to reach majority of the population even the hard-to-access group of people in the society. With improved medical services brought about by improved infrastructure, WHO has an aim to ensure each person receives proper immunization during childhood. Proper immunization will reduce infant mortality rates due to proper health service

Statement of problem

There is some great relationship between the rate of survival in immunized children and mortality rates due to diseases caused by lack of immunization. Immunization has led to increased chances of survival in children. However, there are still some children who cannot fully access vaccines due to certain factors that affect them. The factors that limit them from accessing vaccines provide some base for research to be carried out.


The objectives of this research include:

a) To determine the reason why some people still do not want their children to undergo immunization.

b) To not only understand the political problems but also the economic and philosophical difficulties the unimmunized children undergo later in life.

c) To clearly understand the importance and benefits of parents ensuring their children are immunized.

Immunization and vaccination of a newborn are of significant impact to an individual later in life. With vaccination, there have been some positive results in the healthy life of immunized population. How important is immunization? What are the repercussions of escaping the immunization process to an individual?

Literature review

Vaccination and Immunization

The EVM (Effective Vaccine Management) initiative is an initiative whose duty is to provide materials that monitor the supply of vaccines. The process must be monitored because with time there has been a rise in the cost of vaccines. Therefore, the stock level must be kept at minimum levels as planned by the medical department without wastage of resources so that it can be enough for the population. Logistic support has to ensure that there is a supply of high-quality equipment and vaccines (Markowitz, 2007). A well-managed logistic support program will ensure that there are reduced cases of adverse side effects brought about by the vaccines. WHO should also come with methods to improve the lives of the unvaccinated since they suffer a lot from fatal diseases. The organizations should also try to change the mentality of individuals who are against immunization

Theoretical Framework

Research shows that effective vaccination and immunization of children in the whole population will lead to an improved health life of an individual. With the presence of modern statistical programs used for analysis such as STATA, there will be an efficient analysis of variables available in this research.


Research Design

Use of questionnaires as sources of information for the research, therefore, means this research would focus hugely on descriptive research design. The population used in the study shows that they are the variables of the research.

Research Context

The context of this research involves the detailed study of difficulties faced by individuals who do not access vaccination facilities. The context, therefore, elaborates how vaccination facilities can reach those who do not access them and even those who are against the use of vaccines. The context also shows the improvement of healthy life in individuals who access vaccination services while young. WHO aims of reaching every person is also a research context that is present in the study?



The participants of this research entail individuals of two types, those who have been immunized and those who have not been immunized. The presence of the two types of individuals is necessary as it clearly shows the effect of being immunized and not being immunized. There are also some biostatisticians who deeply analyze the findings in the research.


Analytical programs such as STATA and SAS will highly be required in the analysis of the findings. Questionnaires have also been included in the collection of primary data that is necessary for the research.

Methods of Data Collection

Several methods have been used in the collection of data. Such means include the use of questionnaires and the use of medical records. Use of questionnaires has taken place from ward-based records to ensure easier responding from the respondents. Use of medical records will be limited to medical practitioners since they are the ones with the primary type of information. Information received will later send through email to enhance faster transfer of information.

Methods of Data Analysis

STATA will be used in the analysis of data obtained during the research. The use of STATA makes it easy in making comparisons and determining the association between variables (Friese, 2008). One can develop some regression analysis between variables while using STATA thus making it quite useful in the analysis of data.



The most important part of the research is to understand the relationship between vaccination and immunization of young children with the improvement in a healthy life. There is a need to understand other factors surrounding the immunization and un-immunization of children below the age of six years. This implementation of the vaccination program is the reason why there is a need to use theoretical models before carrying out tests of the different hypothesis (Murphy, 1993). Empirical methods used for the study involves data from different health organizations to realize the success of various projects. The study, therefore, helps to analyze various literature before coming up with a hypothesis and going ahead to test its validity. It, therefore, gives an opportunity to study the relationship between the immunization program and the population’s health. This research clearly shows that people who have had their children immunized have reduced medical health problems whereas people who have their children not undergone any immunization program have several diseases which can result in infant mortality. For instance, there has been an increased infant population in India due to the oral administration of the monovalent vaccine against polio. There is also an improvement in the population’s health due to the administration of diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, tuberculosis, measles and polio vaccines by the national immunization program in India. Nigeria has come up with pentavalent vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, hepatitis and influenza through a single doze. Sweden also has an immunization program that ensures everyone is immunized against nine diseases which are rubella, pneumococcus, haemophilus influenza type b, mumps just to mention but a few. National immunization programs in the mentioned countries have been of great significance as they have improved the populations’ health in general and reduced rate of deaths caused by lack of vaccination.

The significance of the Proposed Research

The proposed research has been useful in finding a solution to population who has not yet undergone vaccination during its childhood. It also finds a way in which the whole population can access medical services after birth with reduced payments. The research will also be an addition to the improvement of medical services in the medical department.

Research Limitations

The research about vaccination comes along with several limitations. Some of its limitations include computation of a large amount of data, inadequate supply of funds and vaccination programs taken for granted. Nigeria is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. The high population in the less developed countries results to inadequate vaccines available in Nigeria hence some children are not vaccinated. Among the high population, there are still some people who do not access education thus they only believe in vaccine misconceptions. Large population in Nigeria results to computation of huge data from different health organizations makes difficult and tiresome to analyze the data effectively. Secondly, there has not been enough supply of funds. For instance, there is little investment of vaccination in India due to insufficient funds. India also focuses on eradication of polio thus little funds left to cater for other vaccines (Peyre, 2009). Finally, some countries like Sweden have been providing with mandatory vaccines which contain additives that are not healthy and those not meant for children leading to health issues in children.


Friese, C. R. (2008). Hospital nurse practice environments and outcomes for surgical oncology patients. Health service research, pp. 1145-1163. Markowitz, L. E. (2007). Human papillomavirus vaccination:recomendations of the Advisory Committee of Immunization Practices(ACIP). Murphy, T. V. (1993). Declining incidence of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease since introduction of vaccination. pp. 246-248. Peyre, M. S.-E. (2009). Avian influenza vaccination in Egypt: limitations of the current strategy. Journal of molecular and genetic medicine : an international journal of biomedical research., 198. Russell, D. G. (1998). Effective immunization against cutaneous leishmaniasis with defined membrane antigens reconstituted into liposomes. The Journal of Immunology., 1274-1279.