Capstone Project Change Proposal Presentation for Faculty Review and Feedback AND Professional Capstone and Practicum Reflective Journal


Benchmark - Professional Capstone and Practicum Reflective Journal

Ensuring the integrity of human dignity in the care of all patients

Human dignity is the inherent characteristics and supreme values possessed by all human beings in virtue of their humanity. It is simply the acknowledgement that human beings have a unique value intrinsic to their humanity and should be respected because they are human beings. Human dignity manifests through show of respect for self and for others (Kadivar, Mardani-Hamooleh, & Kouhnavard, 2018). It is influenced by how other people treats an individuals. Human dignity can also be influenced by other factors including attitudes, level of independence, perceived control and symptom management among nurses towards people.

Observing human dignity and respect for life is part of the nursing profession ethics that nurses should observe without focusing on the gender, race, culture, age, social status, economic status or nationality of patients (Sabeghi, Nasiri, Zarei, Tabar, & Golbaf, 2017). Nurses should always preserve and respect human dignity by treating patients with humanity, respecting all patients, treating patients with compassion and justice and involving patients in their care by giving them a chance to make decisions regarding their care. Nurses should uphold and preserve the integrity of human dignity when providing care to patients (Schmidt & Brown, 2017). They should ensure privacy and confidentiality of their records and treatment without considering factors such as age, gender, race, nationality, ethnicity and socioeconomic status.


Kadivar, M., Mardani-Hamooleh, M., & Kouhnavard, M. (2018). Concept analysis of human dignity in patient care: Rodgers' evolutionary approach. Journal of medical ethics and history of medicine, 11. Sabeghi, H., Nasiri, A., Zarei, M., Tabar, A. K., & Golbaf, D. (2017). Respecting for human dignity in elders caring in perspective of nurses and elderly patients. Medical Ethics Journal, 9(32), 45-70. Schmidt, N. A., & Brown, J. M. (2017). Evidence-based practice for nurses: Appraisal and application of research. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Interprofessional collaboration Interprofessional collaboration takes place when diverse healthcare providers from various professional background and specialties work together with the patients, their families, their caregivers as well as communities to deliver quality care. It is the collective involvement of various healthcare workers works with patients, caregivers, families and communities to share their perspectives concerning delivering highest quality of care (Reeves et. al., 2017). Interprofessional collaboration helps healthcare professionals to achieve better patient outcomes and optimal health status of patients and communities. Healthcare providers such as nurses, physicians and others should collaborate across all professions to provide highest quality care and improved patient outcomes. This involves working with all people irrespective of their expertise or professional level to improve the overall health outcomes. All healthcare professionals should keep aside all their differences and work together with a common goal for interprofessional collaboration to work well in the healthcare setting. They should also improve their communication and develop good working relationships to ensure that interprofessional collaboration works well with minimal or no setbacks (Reeves et. al., 2017). When healthcare professionals use interprofessional collaboration, they can work together to prevent medication errors, deliver better patient outcomes, improve patient experience and reduce healthcare costs. Interprofessional collaboration also enable healthcare facilities to eliminate workflow redundancies and achieve operational efficiencies. References Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Reeves, S., Pelone, F., Harrison, R., Goldman, J., & Zwarenstein, M. (2017). Interprofessional collaboration to improve professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (6).

Ethical considerations in health care

Ethical values are essential for any healthcare provider. They are universal codes of conduct and rules that provides a practical framework for identifying the types of motives, actions and intentions values in the healthcare setting. The ethical values spell out the moral principles that governs how an individual conduct themselves any time (Chadwick & Gallagher, 2016). Ethical considerations also cover the rights or wrongs, dos and don’ts and the decision-making process of determining the consequences of the actions. Every person has their set of moral and ethical principles (Blais, Hayes, Kozier, & Erb, 2016). Ethical values in the healthcare settings are essential because every healthcare provider must face ethical healthcare dilemmas and make good decisions and judgments regarding various healthcare issues while maintaining these values.

To practice effectively with competence and integrity, nurses and other healthcare professionals must have their own ethical values and follow healthcare-based ethical principles to guide them in their practice (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, 2017). Healthcare is guided by four major ethical values alongside other expected ethical principles such as honesty, integrity, empathy, compassion, confidentiality etc. These ethical values in nursing include autonomy, justice, beneficence and non-maleficence. Autonomy gives patients the right to make their decisions based on their values and beliefs. Beneficence gives healthcare professionals a duty to minimize harm, refrain from maltreatment and promote safety and good towards patients (Chadwick & Gallagher, 2016). Justice is the right for patients to be treated fairly and equally by healthcare professionals. Lastly, non-maleficence is the patients’ right to no harm during treatment. Nurses and all healthcare providers have a unique responsibility to themselves, their profession and to patients to maintain ethical values.


Blais, K., Hayes, J. S., Kozier, B., & Erb, G. L. (2016). Professional nursing practice: Concepts and perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Chadwick, R., & Gallagher, A. (2016). Ethics and nursing practice. Macmillan International Higher Education. LoBiondo-Wood, G., & Haber, J. (2017). Nursing research: methods and critical appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.

Health care delivery and clinical systems

A healthcare delivery system involves people, institutions and resources aimed at delivering quality healthcare services to meet the health needs of a given population. A healthcare delivery system enables patients and population to receive healthcare services. It also aims at delivering cost-effective and safe health services that meet the quality standards (Kuziemsky, Abbas, & Carroll, 2018). The adoption of healthcare delivery systems based on patient-centered care is crucial in the clinical settings. It brings respect for nurses and healthcare providers. Healthcare delivery system is classified into individual patient, health team, patients’ family members and health institutions including nursing homes, clinics, and hospitals (Grove & Gray, 2018). Clinical systems refer to information systems put in place for use in healthcare settings.

Nurses are essential components in the healthcare delivery systems. They provide the best and high-quality health services to patients during nursing practice. Nurses are including in all health plan levels. They are also in all operating units to promote development, foster direction and guide the implementation of patient-centered programs (Grove & Gray, 2018). Nurses use clinical systems to manage patient care in the best way possible in critical care settings. The clinical systems enable nurses and other providers to connect to other departments such as radiology, lab, and pathology and so on for easier access to patient records and for accurate and complete patient care.


Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Kuziemsky, C., Abbas, R. M., & Carroll, N. (2018). Toward a Connected Health Delivery Framework. 2018 IEEE/ACM International Workshop on Software Engineering in Healthcare Systems (SEHS), 46-49.

Practices of culturally sensitive care

Culturally sensitive care is care that reflects the ability to respond appropriately to feelings, attitudes and situations of groups of individuals sharing a distinctive and common national, racial, linguistic, cultural and religious heritage. A culturally competent care is capable of improving the quality of care and overall health outcomes. It can also lead to elimination of racial, cultural and ethnic health disparities (Ring, Nyquist, & Mitchell, 2018). The world is ethnically and racially diverse. This calls for the need of culturally competent care. The racial and ethnic minority groups and communities usually face sociocultural obstacles to quality care such as lack of access to health insurance, language barriers, racial/ethnic discrimination, and low literacy to understand the need for quality care and low income to afford health services.

Nurses and other healthcare providers can develop and adopt various strategies and practices to enable them provide culturally competent care (Ring, Nyquist, & Mitchell, 2018). These practices includes providing training and education to increase cultural awareness and knowledge, provide interpret services, work with minority staff, use community health workers services, include community and family members in healthcare decision-making, improve language and communication barriers, engage directly in cross-cultural interactions with patients and conduct cultural competence self-assessment among all healthcare providers (Jolley, 2020). Healthcare providers should focus on providing culturally competent healthcare to all patients.


Jolley, J. (2020). Introducing research and evidence-based practice for nursing and healthcare professionals. Routledge. Ring, J., Nyquist, J., & Mitchell, S. (2018). Curriculum for culturally responsive health care: The step-by-step guide for cultural competence training. CRC Press.

New practice approaches

Registered nurses delivers care services to patients by applying validated interventions. Nurses should have the ability to analyze the current data and research, translate research into practice, integrate knowledge into practice and develop new practice approaches. Including evidence-based practice (EBP) in nursing provide nurse practitioners with scientific research that helps them to make well-founded and informed decisions (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). It also enable nurses to stay updated about new practice approaches and medical protocols for patient. Nurse practitioners must accept and conform to the ongoing changes in nursing practice so as to remain pertinent to their responsibility to provide effective care to patients.

The core competency involving new practice approaches was met through researching the current data and research to develop definitive diagnoses as well as evidence-based treatment plans based on case scenarios presented every week, the weekly quizzes that requires integration and knowledge obtained from readings, researching various studies, expertise gained from practice and using current research and treatment approaches (Grove & Gray, 2018). This is helpful in improving practice processes and health outcomes.

Population health concerns

Population health presents significant health concerns and address ways in which resources can be allocated to overcome problems that drives poor health conditions in the population. According to CDC, population health is an interdisciplinary and customizable approach which enables health departments to connect nursing practice to policy for change to occur locally (Portney, 2020). This approach uses modern partnerships among various sectors of the community such as healthcare, academia, industry, public health, local government entities and so on to attain positive health outcomes.

Environmental factors have a significant role in determination of the health of a community. Nurses who are the advocates for population health are best-suited providers to effect a positive change on how these factors affect population health. Environmental factors such as unemployment, homelessness, food insecurity and neighborhood violence have great effects on population health (Nilsen, Neher, Ellström, & Gardner,, 2017). The social determinants of health greatly affect population health. Factors such as racial discrimination, educational opportunities, income levels, gender inequality and so on affects population health. Nurses should play the role of advocacy for population health to effect change through policy to change the effects of the factors on population health.

The role of technology in improving health care outcomes

Patient safety is the top most priority in healthcare. It refers to absence of preventable harm to patients during healthcare provision and reduction of unnecessary harm related to healthcare to an acceptable minimum level. New technology in nursing have been developed with an aim of reducing medical errors and encourage the use of technology to transform the healthcare environment to achieve better patient care (Grove & Gray, 2018). The use of information in healthcare is known as health information technology (HIT).

Nurses have adopted the use of HIT in their practice to automate various tasks such as record keeping and achieve efficiency in practice. The use of HIT helps healthcare providers to reduce human errors, facilitate care coordination, improve clinical outcomes, improve practice efficiencies and track data over time (Alotaibi & Federico, 2017). HIT improves patient safety by reducing medication errors, improving compliance to nursing practice guidelines and reducing negative drug reactions. Nurses should continue embracing the use of technology in nursing practice to improve patient safety and quality of care.

Health policy

Health policy is plans, actions and decisions put in place to achieve particular healthcare goals within a society. Health policy is principles and goals put in place to drive how care is accessed and delivered. Health policy can be at organizational, local, state or national level. Health policy can be categorized into public health policy, global health policy, insurance health policy, mental health policy and so on (Dang & Dearholt, 2017). There are other health policies such as policies requiring healthy food consumption in events, policies prohibiting alcohol and tobacco use in the workplace and policies that allow for flextime to attend health and exercise programs.

Nurse practitioners are the advocates for population health. Their influence in health policies ensures improvement in quality of care, patient safety, cost-effective and affordable care and easier access to care (Portney, 2020). Nurse practitioners can influence health policies by participating in nursing leadership, participating health legislation and holding political offices.

Leadership and economic models

The aspects that drives healthcare change includes unsustainable healthcare costs, healthcare access problems, fragmentation and suboptimal patient outcomes. The quality and cost concerns and transforming social demographics and infection-type called for the highest and urgent need for healthcare change. Caring and paying for medical treatments of chronic health conditions is also a major concern (Finkelman, 2017). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) contains programs such as Centers for Medicaid and Medicare services that tries to enhance quality and cost control in the healthcare sector. This coordination can help reduce healthcare spending, improve quality of care and patient outcomes.

Nurses have a significant role towards reforms in healthcare such as achieving quality, affordable, safe, accessible and patient-centered healthcare system. Nurses should ensure that their practice is unique to deliver quality care by proactively and passionately engaging in healthcare change process (Grove & Gray, 2018). Since they are the main care providers, nurses can help drive the necessary change in nursing practice.

Health disparities

Health disparities refers to differences existing among particular populations in the U.S. in the achievement of full health potential which can be measured by variations in prevalence, incidence, burden of illness, mortality and other negative health conditions (Portney, 2020). Health disparities negatively affect communities and individuals who have systematically experienced significant obstacles to health depending on their race, ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, age, nationality, religion, disability and so on.

It is the responsibility of nurses to ensure that healthcare is accessible to all patient populations. Nurses have faced challenges when advocating for health equity agenda. Nurses can use selection to evaluate and investigate health inequalities. Selection involves a tendency of people to group themselves in terms of social gatherings, residential places and other clustering forms (Marcin, Shaikh, & Steinhorn, 2016). Nurses can reduce health access inequalities through policy making. To improve population health, health access equity should be made a priority. The involved stakeholders should integrate measures to reduce health disparities into health programs and services.


Alotaibi, Y. K., & Federico, F. (2017). The impact of health information technology on patient safety. Saudi medical journal, 38(12). Dang, D., & Dearholt, S. L. (2017). Johns Hopkins nursing evidence-based practice: Model and guidelines. Sigma Theta Tau. Finkelman, A. (2017). Professional Nursing Concepts: Competencies for Quality Leadership: Competencies for Quality Leadership. Jones & Bartlett Learning. Grove, S. K., & Gray, J. R. (2018). Understanding Nursing Research: Building an Evidence-Based Practice. Elsevier Health Sciences. Marcin, J. P., Shaikh, U., & Steinhorn, R. H. (2016). Addressing health disparities in rural communities using telehealth. Pediatric Research, 79(1), 169-176. Nilsen, P., Neher, M., Ellström, P. E., & Gardner,, B. (2017). Implementation of evidence‐based practice from a learning perspective. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing, 14(3), 192-199. Portney, L. G. (2020). Foundations of clinical research: applications to evidence-based practice. FA Davis.