Safeguarding Children


REFERENCE PROPERLY AND AVOID PLAGIARISM Part One Citations Harvard System of Referencing

This PowerPoint will help you prepare citations following the Harvard System of Referencing.

After watching the presentation, do the activities in the accompanying booklet to practice what has been presented here.

Before starting, remember that …


means taking somebody else’s work or ideas and passing them off as your own

is a serious offence in academic and profesional contexts


acknowledging that you have used somebody else’s work or ideas

making those sources traceable by leading the reader to the original source



allows you to acknowledge your sources within the text by using citations

also allows you to make those sources traceable in the Reference list/Bibliography by providing their full details

For example,

Phillips (2014, p32) explains that “referencing must be done consistently throughout your work”.

Phillips, M. (2014) How to reference, London, Pavilion Press

With this reference in the Reference list/Bibliography you are providing full details, leading the reader to the original source.

With this CITATION you are acknowledging that these are not your own words or ideas, but somebody else’s.

Now, let’s get started with citations!

The purpose of CITATIONS is to provide basic information about your sources within your text (essay, report, etc).

They are presented in brackets.

They are included in the sentence/paragraph where you present the information which is not your own.

CITATIONS normally include 3 elements:

Author’s surname

Year of publication

Page number(s) for

direct quotations

These are the basic “ingredients” of a citation.

In some cases this “recipe” might require some adjustments, but for now let’s focus on the THREE BASIC INGREDIENTS.

Have a look at these basic examples of citations.

Williams (2009) argues that while the web can be a highly valuable source of information it is crucial to evaluate the information you uncover.

It has been suggested that while the web can be an invaluable source of information, the user needs to assess its value (Williams, 2009).

If you use the author’s surname in your sentence, just include year of publication in brackets.

If you don’t use the author’s surname in the sentence, then include it in brackets as well.

Williams (2009, p17) states that a “critical approach to reading starts before you have read anything.”

It has been stated that approaching reading critically begins before we have actually read anything (Williams, 2009).

You need a citation regardless of whether you are

quoting (first example),

paraphrasing (second example)

or summarising.

Sometimes the basic “recipe” of a citation (author’s surname, year of publication, page number) will vary slightly.

For example,

It is recommended to use quotations sparingly and for a specific purpose (Wilson and Kenny, 2007).

Williams et al. (2008) have identified time management as the skill employers value the most.

Does your source have two authors? Include the surnames of ALL the authors.

Does your source have more than two authors?

Write the surname of the first author and then et al. (in italics).

Et al. means “and others”.

Are you using a source with no named person as author

(e.g. newspaper, webpage or a company document)?

Write the title of the newspaper/website/company name instead.

It has been reported that strong growth in emerging markets has boosted Vodafone’s profits (The Week, 2016).

For the second time, Apple has partnered with WWF to protect the planet generating more than $8 million (Apple, 2016).

Remember NOT to write the web address in the citation, just the website name.

The Guardian (2012) reported that the president of Hungary resigned after being accused of plagiarism.

There are over 1,200 McDonald’s restaurants in the UK (McDonald’s, nd.).

Are you using an online source with no page numbers available?

Write online instead of page numbers.

There is no date of publication available?

Use nd. instead of year of publication.

The higher education sector has recently undertaken job evaluation processes in order to develop a single pay scale (Thompson and Ryan, 2010).

Is your source one chapter of an edited book?

Use the surname of the author of the chapter you have used.

“… students will use sources inappropriately before they use them appropriately” (Pecorari, 2003 cited in Davis and Carroll, 2009).

Is your source an author cited in another author’s work?

Include the following information: cited author, year of cited source, cited in, author and year of source, page number.

Are you including in your assignment information or ideas developed in the source as a whole and therefore not mentioned on a specific page?

In this case it is not necessary to include page numbers.

Williams and Reid (2011) strongly believe that an important study skill is time management and planning for the tasks that you need to undertake.

Remember to include citations in your work

every time you use information or ideas which are not your own

and regardless of whether you quote, paraphrase or summarise.

Now it is time for you to practise what you have seen in this presentation by doing the activities in the booklet.

Use the answer key to check your answers or check them with your teacher.