INTRO TO IMMUNOHEMATOLOGY

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Quiz_IntrotoBBReadingAssignmentQuestions.pdf

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Intro to BB Reading Assignment Questions Started: Feb 2 at 12:20pm

Quiz Instructions Hi class,

Answer each question after referencing the Intro to BB Reading Assignment files.

Prof. Chris

intro to blood groups.pdf

section 1.1.pdf

section 1.2.pdf

section 1.3.pdf

section 1.4.pdf

section 1.5.pdf

section 2.2.pdf

section 2.3.pdf

section 2.4.pdf

section 2.8.pdf

section 3.1.pdf

section 3.2.pdf

section 4.1.pdf

0.5 ptsQuestion 1

True

Antigens which are primarily oligosaccharides usually elicit an IgM response.

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False

0.5 ptsQuestion 2

True

False

Antigens which are primarily protein usually elicit an IgG response.

0.5 ptsQuestion 3

True

False

The greater the degree of foreignness of an antigen the poorer the immune response.

0.5 ptsQuestion 4

True

False

An immune response to a foreign red cell anigen usually requires the infusion of only a small number of red cells.

0.5 ptsQuestion 5

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True

False

Blood transfusions and transfer of red cells from the fetal to the maternal circulation during pregnancy and at delivery, are two ways red blood cells are introduced to a person.

0.5 ptsQuestion 6

True

False

A primary immune response produces IgM antibodies.

0.5 ptsQuestion 7

True

False

A seondary immune response produces IgG antibodies.

0.5 ptsQuestion 8

True

Natural antibodies are produced in response to exposure to plant or bacterial immunogens which resemble red cell antigens.

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False

0.5 ptsQuestion 9

True

False

Antibodies produced in resopnse to non-erythrocyte immunogens are usually similar to those of a secondary response.

0.5 ptsQuestion 10

True

False

Human red cell antigens are foreign to most other animals.

0.5 ptsQuestion 11

True

False

Antibodies to human red cell antigens can be producted by injection animals with red blood cells or substances.

0.5 ptsQuestion 12

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True

False

The D antigen is a strong immuogen and the Fy antigen is a weak immuogen.a

0.5 ptsQuestion 13

True

False

All blood group antigens are seen with apporoximately equal frequency in a given population.

0.5 ptsQuestion 14

True

False

Different blood group antigens vary significantly in their frequency in a given population.

0.5 ptsQuestion 15

True

False

A primary immune response is slow.

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0.5 ptsQuestion 16

True

False

A secondary immune response is rapid.

0.5 ptsQuestion 17

True

False

A greater quantity of antibody is usually produced in the secondary immune response.

0.5 ptsQuestion 18

True

False

The antigen receptors present on the surface of B cells are or closely resemble antibody molecules.

0.5 ptsQuestion 19

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True

False

The two broad categories of T cells are helper and suppressor T cells.

0.5 ptsQuestion 20

protein membrane

bilipid membrane

oligosaccharide membrane

all of the above

The surface of a red blood cell consists of a

0.6 ptsQuestion 21

spherical

biconcave

square

oblong

The normal shape of a red blood cells is

0.6 ptsQuestion 22

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phospholipids

hydrocarbons

skeletal proteins

substances

The red blood cell membrane is composed of a class of amphipathic molecules called

0.6 ptsQuestion 23

hydrophilic

hydrophobic

both hydrophilic & hydrophobic

none of the above

Amphipathic molecules are

0.6 ptsQuestion 24

“flip-flop” from the inside surface to the outside

migrate within the plane of the membrane

“flip-flop” from the outside surface to the inside

migrate outside the plane of the membrane

The normal bilipid membrane is said to be fluid because the lipid molecules continually

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0.6 ptsQuestion 25

protein molecules

lipid molecules

sugar molecules

protein, lipid & sugar molecules

Oligosaccharides are groups of

0.6 ptsQuestion 26

glycolipids

glycoproteins

hydrolipids

substances

When oligosaccharide chains are attached to lipids, the complex molecules are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 27

glycolipds

glycoproteins

hydrolipids

substances

When oligosaccharide chains are attached to proteins, the complex molecules are called

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0.6 ptsQuestion 28

antibodies

antigens

antibodies and antigens

substance

Ther terminal sugars of oligosaccharide chains on the surface of red blood cells often serve as blood group

0.6 ptsQuestion 29

genetic control

environmental control

both a & b

neither a & b

The production of red blood cell antigens is under

0.6 ptsQuestion 30

spleen

Antigen synthesis and insertion into the red blood cell membrane occur during red cell maturation usually in the

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bone marrow

circulation

none of the above

0.6 ptsQuestion 31

A

B

D (Rh )

A, B & D (Rh )

What are the the most important red cell antigens?

o

o

0.6 ptsQuestion 32

lectins

substances

fragments

none of the above

Soluble glycoproteins which are identical to red cell antigenic determinants are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 33

Oligosaccharide chains resembling some red blood cell antigens can be found in the following animal and plant life

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animal tissues

parasitic worms

bacteria

all of the above

0.6 ptsQuestion 34

oligosaccharides found in human secretions

oligosaccharides found in human secretions & other forms of animal and plant life which resemble red blood cell antibodies

oligosaccharides found in human secretions & other forms of animal and plant life which resemble red blood cell antigens

oligosaccharides found in human secretions & other forms of animal and plant life which resemble red blood cell antigens and when combined with their corresponding antibodies, the antibodies are neutralized.

Neutralizing substances are

0.6 ptsQuestion 35

antigens

antibodies

antigen and antibodies

none of the above

Neutralizing substances are used in the laboratory to identify blood group

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0.6 ptsQuestion 36

primary response

degreee of foreignness

immunogenicity

antibody production

The ability of an antigen to stimulate the production of its corresponding antibody is called

0.6 ptsQuestion 37

substances

lectins

monoclones

immunogen

Antiobdy like materials found in nature which have a high degree of specificity for some human red cell antigens are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 38

polyclonal antibodies

monoclonal antibodies

When a specific antibody-producing cell is fused with a myeloma cell, the result is a hybridoma which continues to divide and produce large quatnities of

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0.6 ptsQuestion 39

observing their shape under a microscope

interaction with antibody

electrophoretic patterns

Blood group antigens can only be recognized by

0.6 ptsQuestion 40

studying the immunogen used

observing agglutination of red cells

Blood group antibodies are usually detected by

0.6 ptsQuestion 41

lipids

proteins

oligosaccharides

Blood group antibodies are plasma

0.6 ptsQuestion 42

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2 to 6 days

2 to 6 weeks

2 to 6 months

Following a patient’s first exposure to a foreign red cell antigen, approximately how much time is required before antibodies are detected in the patient’s serum/plasma?

0.6 ptsQuestion 43

a few hours

a few days

a few weeks

all of the above

In a secondary immune response, antibodies are detectable in the serum/plasma within

0.6 ptsQuestion 44

macrophages, B Cells, T Cells

blast cells

B cells only

none of the above

Which of the following cells are involved in the immune response

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0.6 ptsQuestion 45

macrophages, B Cells, T cells

blast cells

B cells only

none of the above

Which of the cells can develop into antibody-secreting cells?

0.6 ptsQuestion 46

macrophages, B Cells, T cells

blast cells

B cells

none of the above

Antibody producing cells are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 47

one precise specificity

multiple specificities

Each plasma cell produces antibodies with

0.6 ptsQuestion 48

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only capturing antigens

only destroying antigens

capturing and processing antigens

capturing and destroying antigens

Macrophages are important in

0.6 ptsQuestion 49

B cells only

T cells only

B cells and T cells

none of the above

In the immune response, antigen-bearing macrophages can interact with

0.6 ptsQuestion 50

spleen

thymus gland

bone marrow

Precursor thymocytes mature into functional T cells in which organ?

0.6 ptsQuestion 51

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even if the patient has not had a previous blood transfusion

only if the patient has had a previous blood transfusion

Antibodies of the ABO system are expeted to be present in a patient

0.6 ptsQuestion 52

fibrinogen

albumin

globulins

Which is important in the maintenance of water balance and the viscosity of plasma?

0.6 ptsQuestion 53

fibrinogen

albumin

globulins

Which includes blood group antibodies

0.6 ptsQuestion 54

fibrinogen

Which is an important component of the coagulation system

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albumin

globulins

0.6 ptsQuestion 55

IgG and IgM

IgG and IgA

IgG and IgE

Most blood group antibodies fall into which two immunoglobulins

0.6 ptsQuestion 56

proteins

lipids

carbohydrates

Antibodies are pirmarly

0.6 ptsQuestion 57

2 heavy chains and 2 light chains

2 heavy chains and 1 light chain

1 heavy chain and 2 light chains

An IgG antibody is composed of how many heavy chains and how many light chains?

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1 heavy and 1 light chain

0.6 ptsQuestion 58

Fab piece

Fc piece

Which binds to the antigens?

0.6 ptsQuestion 59

Fab piece

Fc piece

Which is the site of complement fixation, placental transport, and reaction with anti- human serum?

0.6 ptsQuestion 60

open region

bend region

hinge region

The region of the IgG antibody where the antibody can open of bend is called the

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0.6 ptsQuestion 61

three

five

ten

The structure of the IgM molecule consits of how many subunits?

0.6 ptsQuestion 62

conformational fit

the number of unlike charge pairs

both a & b

The specificity of an antibody for its corresponding antigen depends on

0.6 ptsQuestion 63

reversible event

irreversible event

The binding of an antigen and antibody is a(n)

0.6 ptsQuestion 64

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can

cannot

The temperature and ionic concentration of the reaction medium__________ alter the time it takes for an antigen-antibody reaction to reach equilibrium.

0.6 ptsQuestion 65

30°C

37°C

Warm antibodies react at

0.6 ptsQuestion 66

30°C

37°C

Cold antibodies usually react only below

0.6 ptsQuestion 67

rapidly

slowly

Antigen-antibody reactions proceed rapidly or slowly in low ionic strength solutions than in normal saline

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0.6 ptsQuestion 68

protein antigens

oligosaccharides

The direct products of gene action are?

0.6 ptsQuestion 69

protein antigens

oligosaccharides

Which of the following require an intermediate step?

0.6 ptsQuestion 70

transferases

receptor molecules

Enzymes which assemble sugars into oligosaccharide chains are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 71

Transferases are enzymes (which are proteins) and they ___________ the transfer of particular sugar molecule from its source to a specific receptor molecule

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catalyze substrate

substrate catalyze

called__________.

0.6 ptsQuestion 72

allelomorphs

allellic genes

alleles

all of the above

When one of several gens can occupy a given chromosomal locus the genes are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 73

two or occasionally three

always three or more

usually four or more

Blood group systems most commonly have how many major alleles?

0.6 ptsQuestion 74

When a blood group system has two or more alleles, the system is called

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monomorphic

polymorphic

0.6 ptsQuestion 75

singly

in pairs

Like chromosomes, blood group genes are inherited

0.6 ptsQuestion 76

heterozygous

homozygous

When identical genes are present at paired chromosomal loci, the person is said to be

0.6 ptsQuestion 77

heterozygous

homozygous

When two different genes are present, one at each of the pair of chromosomal loci, the person is said to be

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0.6 ptsQuestion 78

heterozygous

homozygous

Antigens produced in a single dose are considered

0.6 ptsQuestion 79

heterozygous

homozygous

Antigens produced in a double dose are

0.6 ptsQuestion 80

gene themselves

gene expression (genetic traits)

The terms “dominant” and “recessive” refer to

0.6 ptsQuestion 81

dominant

When the alllelic gens of paired loci differ and both are expressed, the gene expression is said to be

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codominant

0.6 ptsQuestion 82

dominant

recessive

codominant

The expression of most blood group genes is

0.6 ptsQuestion 83

allele imbalance

dosage effect

When the difference between heterozygous and homozogous gene expression is observable in routine laboratory tests, this difference is referred to as

0.6 ptsQuestion 84

silent gene

amorphic gene

a & b

none of the above

When currently available techniques are unable to detect the product of a gene, the gene is called

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0.6 ptsQuestion 85

structural gene

regulator gene

Which gene may direct the synthesis of a molecule which regulates the rate of synthesis of another gene product?

0.6 ptsQuestion 86

structural gene

regulator gene

Which gene directs the synthesis of proteins?

0.6 ptsQuestion 87

phenotype

genotype

An observed trait or test result is a

0.6 ptsQuestion 88

A genetic makeup is called the

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phenotype

genotype

0.6 ptsQuestion 89

one

three

four

eight

The ABO blood group system has how many major alleles

0.6 ptsQuestion 90

one

six

nine

The ABO locus is on chromosome

0.6 ptsQuestion 91

modifier gene

Since the O gene does not produce any demonstrable red cell antigen, it is considered a(n)

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amorph

0.6 ptsQuestion 92

AA only

AO only

AA or AO

Group A phenotype can be which genotype

0.6 ptsQuestion 93

BB only

BO only

BB or BO

Group B phenotype can be which genotype

0.6 ptsQuestion 94

AO

BO

OO

Group O phenotype can be which genotype

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0.6 ptsQuestion 95

AO

BO

AB

Group AB phenotype can be which genotype

0.6 ptsQuestion 96

the terminal sugar of the oligosaccharide chain

terminal sugar of the oligosaccharide chain & the few adjacent sugars

The antigenic determinant of an A, B, or H antigen is

0.6 ptsQuestion 97

L-fucose

D-galactose

What is the antigenic determinant for the H antigen?

0.6 ptsQuestion 98

What is the antigenic determinant for the B antigen?

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L-fucose

D-galactose

0.6 ptsQuestion 99

their terminal sugars

the carbon-to-carbon linkage between their terminal and subterminal sugars

Type I and Type II precursor chains differ in

0.6 ptsQuestion 100

in body fluids

as an integral part of the red cell membrane

Type I precursor chain is found

0.6 ptsQuestion 101

in body fluids

as an integral part of the red cell membrane

Type II precursor chain is found

0.6 ptsQuestion 102

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Group A

Group B

Group AB

Group O

Which ABO blood group reacts most strongly with Anti-H?

0.6 ptsQuestion 103

A, B, O

H only

Which genes are allelic?

0.6 ptsQuestion 104

A, B, O

H only

Which genes are independent of each other?

0.6 ptsQuestion 105

L-fucosyl transferase

there is no transferase

What is the name of the transferase for the H gene?

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0.6 ptsQuestion 106

L-fucosyl transferase

no gene product detectable

What is the name of the transferase for the h gene

0.6 ptsQuestion 107

H/H

H/h

h/h

No H chains are synthesized when a person is

0.6 ptsQuestion 108

are

are not

In the rare h/h inidvidual the A and B antigens __________________ synthesized.

0.6 ptsQuestion 109

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A

B

O

Homozygous h/h individuals appear to be group

0.6 ptsQuestion 110

Bombay

O

ABH null

all of the above

Phenotypic name(s) for h/h individuals are

h

0.6 ptsQuestion 111

the efficiency with which their transferases convert H chains to A chains

the carbon-to-carbon linkage between the termianl and subterminal sugs in the oligosaccharide chaint

both a and b

A and A differ in1 2

0.6 ptsQuestion 112

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True

False

Disease may alter blood group antigens

0.6 ptsQuestion 113

antigens

substances

antibodies

The Se and se genes control the secretion of the A, B and H _____________in body fluids such as saliva.

0.6 ptsQuestion 114

linked to the ABO locus

not linked to the ABO locus

The locus for the secretor genes is

0.6 ptsQuestion 115

A only

H only

The substance(s) found in the saliva of secretors for blood group A is

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A & H

0.6 ptsQuestion 116

B only

H only

B & H

The substance(s) found in the saliva of secretors for the blood group B is

0.6 ptsQuestion 117

O only

H only

O & H

The substance(s) found in the saliva of secretors for the blood group O is

0.6 ptsQuestion 118

A & B only

O only

A, B, H

A, B, O

The substance(s) found in the saliva of secretors for the blood group AB is

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0.6 ptsQuestion 119

Se/Se only

Se/se only

se/se only

Se/Se and Se/se

Which of the following genotypes would produce phenotypic secretors?

0.6 ptsQuestion 120

50

80

90

20

Approximately what percentage of Caucasians are secretors?

0.6 ptsQuestion 121

ABO

Rh

Which blood group is most important in blood transfusions?

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0.6 ptsQuestion 122

Anti A and/or Anti B are present in the serum of almost every person

ABO antibodies fix complement

ABO antibodies can cause intravascular hemolyis

all of the above

The ABO grouping of an individual is most important because

0.6 ptsQuestion 123

can

cannot

An error in ABO grouping determination _________ be fatal in a transfusion setting.

0.6 ptsQuestion 124

red cell grouping (front type)

serum/plasma grouping (back type)

a & b

none of the above

What tests are required to detemine an individual’s ABO group

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0.6 ptsQuestion 125

Group A only

Group B only

Group AB only

Group A, Group B & Group AB

What group of ABO cells will be agglutinated by blood grouping antisera Anti A,B?

0.6 ptsQuestion 126

will agglutinate

will not have any visible interaction

Red blood cells that do not possess the antigen against which an antisera is directed

0.6 ptsQuestion 127

will agglutinate

will not have any visible interaction

Red blood cells that possess the antigen against which an antisera is directed

0.6 ptsQuestion 128

Group A individuals are expected to have in their serum/plasma

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Anti B

Anti A

no ABO antibodies

Anti A and Anti B

0.6 ptsQuestion 129

Anti B

Anti A

no ABO antibodies

Anti A and Anti B

Group B individuals are expected to have in their serum/plasma

0.6 ptsQuestion 130

Anti B

Anti A

no ABO antibodies

Anti A and Anti B

Group AB individuals are expected to have in their serum/plasma

0.6 ptsQuestion 131

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Anti B

Anti A

no ABO antibodies

Anti A and Anti B

Group O individuals are expected to have in their serum/plasma

0.6 ptsQuestion 132

detects Anti A and/or Anti B in the patient’s serum/plasma using reagent red cells

detects red cell antigens using antisera containing Anti A and Anti B

The front type (forward grouping) test

0.6 ptsQuestion 133

detects Anti A and/or Anti B in the patient’s serum/plasma using reagent red cells

detects red cell antigens using antisera containing Anti A and Anti B

The back type (reverse grouping) test

0.6 ptsQuestion 134

The origin of ABO antibodies present in a one-month-old infant is the __________immune system

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infants’s

mother’s

0.6 ptsQuestion 135

IgG antibodies

IgM antibodies

Blood Grouping antisera, Anti A and Anti B, used in ABO grouping testing contains

0.6 ptsQuestion 136

small

large

The A and B antigens are present in _______________ numbers on the red cells.

0.6 ptsQuestion 137

slow requiring an incubation period of one hour

fast, requring no incubation

In ABO grouping testing the reaction is

0.6 ptsQuestion 138

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the patient’s red cell group rather then the reverse group is used to match the patient with the appropriate donor

the patients reverse group rather than the red cell group is used to match the patient with the appropriate donor

additional testing must be performed to clarify the discrepancy

When a discrepancy arises between a patient’s red cell group and the reverse group

0.6 ptsQuestion 139

True

False

In the ABO grouping test, reagent controls can be part of the test system or may be set up separately.

0.6 ptsQuestion 140

systematic controls

procedural controls

Controls on the method and conditions used in a test system are called

0.6 ptsQuestion 141

one pair of genes

The Fisher Race theory has

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three pairs of closely linked genes

0.6 ptsQuestion 142

one pair of genes

three pairs of closely linked genes

The Wiener theory has

0.6 ptsQuestion 143

D, d

C, c, C

E, e

all of the above

For the D locus as proposed in the Fisher-Race theory select the possible alleles

w

0.6 ptsQuestion 144

D, d

C, c, C

E, e

all of the above

For the C locus as proposed in the Fisher-Race theory select the possible alleles

w

2/2/2021 Quiz: Intro to BB Reading Assignment Questions

https://bridgeport.instructure.com/courses/1785775/quizzes/3382574/take 46/53

0.6 ptsQuestion 145

D, d

C, c, C

E, e

all of the above

For the E locus as proposed in the Fisher-Race theory select the possible alleles

w

0.6 ptsQuestion 146

d

c

e

all of the above

In the Fisher-Race theory which allele is thought to be a silent gene(s)?

0.6 ptsQuestion 147

D, C, E, e

D, d, C, E, e

According to the Fisher-Race theory, which antigens could be determined in the laboratory in a person whose genotype was DCe/dCE?

2/2/2021 Quiz: Intro to BB Reading Assignment Questions

https://bridgeport.instructure.com/courses/1785775/quizzes/3382574/take 47/53

D, d, C, c, E, e

0.6 ptsQuestion 148

5

7

8

9

In the Wiener theory how many major alleles are postulated as possible occupants of the Rh locus?

0.6 ptsQuestion 149

agglutinogen, …