Philosophical Differences Between Qualitative and Quantitative Paradigms and Approaches


Problems in Designing an Experimental Research Study Null and Research Hypotheses

Research Hypothesis Motivated students do actively participate in discussions than unmotivated students. Null Hypothesis There is no statistically significant correlation between the instructors and the course they teach.

The Most Appropriate Experimental Research Design to Test my Hypothesis In this experiment, the most suitable research design to test the hypothesis according to

the provided case scenario is Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design. This research design involves the random assignment of participants to either control or experimental groups (Skidmore, 2008). In the provided case, the assignment of students into particular sections using randomization rather than being directed by the instructor's choices. This is the first factor that makes Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design suitable for this experiment. Additionally, Pretest- Posttest Control-Group Design is characterized by the presence of control and an experiment group, an element that has been utilized in the provided scenario. Besides that, Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design entails an intervention administered in the experimental group and no intervention given to the control group. The control group shall not receive any intervention in the provided case, while the experimental group shall receive an intervention. Hence, a combination of the above elements makes Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design the most appropriate research design for this experiment.

Internal Threats to Validity and How to Mitigate Them Addressing validity threats is a crucial task towards realizing a conclusive research

experiment. Internal validity threats hinder the researchers' ability to achieve accurate inferences in the particular experiment (Skidmore, 2008). The provided case study is exposed to various internal validity threats, among them experimental attrition. In this internal validity threat, researchers are concerned about a differential loss of experiment participants due to the impacts of administered interventions. In the provided scenario, many students might leave the experimental group due to the effects of various interventions such as changing instructions to grant a guided response if they feel that the instructions make the discussions challenging. In this case, the experiment results will be under question as the comparison will be less effective as most of the participants will be from the control group. Researchers can mitigate attrition in their experiments by offering incentives to participants. Besides that, Pretest-Posttest Control-Group Design entails pretesting, which exposes the experiment to testing internal validity threats. In this regard, the familiarity with the prior testing of the various interventions might create a significant difference in pretest and post-test results, creating a concern that testing can influence the experiment's results. If there is a significant difference between results before and after testing, the results might be inconclusive, adversely impacting the experiment's quality. Researchers can mitigate testing validity threats by altering the research to employ experimental designs that do not use pretesting.

Ethical Principles in the Proposed Research Ethics is a valuable tool that guides quality research. In this proposed research, various

ethical principles should be implemented to fulfill the research's moral obligations. These ethical principles include informed consent, justice, and integrity. Informed consent is a core principle of

research, ensuring that participants can voluntarily enter into the experiments and be granted adequate information on what the study means to them. Additionally, informed consent provides that researchers seek the participants' consent before entering into the research.

On the other hand, justice is a vital principle that ensures that researchers exhibit fairness and equity to all the participants and that the needs and interests of research participants have a higher priority than the study's objectives. Whenever human beings are treated unfairly, their human dignity is violated (Damtew, 2018) Moreover, integrity is an ethical research principle that ensures that a study is conducted with transparency, honesty, and open communication. Integrity enables other people to have trust in research methods and findings. Lastly, the selected population in the samples should depict diversity, requiring each sample in the scenarios to have people from different cultures since people from diverse backgrounds might react differently to various interventions, improving the quality of the research.


Damtew, B., 2018. Justice in Research: History, Principle and Application (A Literature Review). In: Ethics in Conducting Health Systems Research.

Skidmore, S. (2008). Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer. Online Submission.